For several decades, India and China will remain the two countries with the highest numbers of people with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes/juvenile diabetes) occurs mainly in individuals aged 10–15 years (~10%) of all cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 2–4 fold increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and death due to myocardial infarction (MI) particularly in those with a positive family history of MI. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death among adults with diabetes mellitus. This chapter covers the diabetic research new horizons, treatment of type 2 diabetes, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus angiotensin receptor blockers, diabetics develop sitosterolemia, advice for diabetics to reduce sitosterol blood levels, and ezetimibe. Ezetimibe reduces blood sitosterol. Ezetimibe is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated sitosterol levels in patients with homozygous familial sitosterolemia.