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Chapter-13 Kidney

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_14
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
44
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Kidney, acute kidney injury, renal tubular acidosis, RTA, chronic kidney disease, CKD, renal replacement therapy, RRT, obstructive uropathy, glomerular filtration rate, GFR

Abstract

This chapter is written in the question and answer format, which gives the description on kidney. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. It consists of the glomerulus and its tubule, and the common collecting system. Each kidney consists of about 1 million nephrons. Functional anatomy of kidney, approach to renal diseases, acute kidney injury (acute renal failure), glomerular diseases, glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial diseases, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cystic diseases of kidney, obstructive uropathy, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections, acute pyelonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, tuberculosis of the urinary tract, renal replacement therapies (RRT), and renal biopsy are covered in this chapter. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is an uncommon disorder. The term RTA is used for systemic acidosis (accumulation of acid in the body) caused by impairment of the ability of the renal tubules to excrete acids leading to. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) previously termed chronic renal failure or insufficiency. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) refers to a spectrum of longstanding (more than 3 months), usually progressive processes associated with irreversible worsening of renal function and decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD spectrum ranges from abnormalities detectable only by laboratory testing to uremia.

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