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Chapter-14 Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_15
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
19
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Fluid, electrolyte disturbance, intracellular fluid compartment, IFC, extracellular fluid compartment, ECF, hypovolemia, hyperkalemia

Abstract

This chapter is written in the question and answer format, which gives the description on the fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Water is the most abundant constituent of the body (50% of body weight in women and 60% of the body weight in men is water). Total body water is distributed in two major compartments such as intracellular fluid compartment (IFC) and extracellular fluid compartment (ECF). This chapter covers the disorders of sodium and water balance, volume depletion (hypovolemia), disorders of sodium balance, disorders of potassium balance, acid-base balance, and edema. Volume depletion or hypovolemia generally refers to combined salt and water loss leading to contraction of the extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). Hyperkalemia is defined as plasma potassium less than 5.0 mmol/L occurs as a result of either potassium release from cells or decreased renal loss. Iatrogenic hyperkalemia may result from overzealous parenteral potassium replacement or in patients with renal insufficiency.

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