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Chapter-15 Neurology

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_16
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
96
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Neurology, upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron, nerve cell, apraxia, agnosia, dysarthria, demyelinating diseases, Parkinson’s disease, chorea, tremor, Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract

This chapter describes the neurology in question and answer format. Upper motor neurons consist of corticospinal interneurons that arise from the motor cortex and descend to the spinal cord where they activate the lower motor neurons through synapses. The term ‘motor neuron’ is usually restricted to the efferent neurons that actually innervate muscles (the lower motor neurons). A motor neuron consists of nerve cell (neuron) which is located in the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord and its fibers (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands. Motor neuron axons are efferent nerve fibers and carry signals from the spinal cord to the effectors to produce effects. Weakness and paralysis, vertigo, abnormal speech and language, apraxia, agnosia, dysarthria, demyelinating diseases, Parkinson’s disease, chorea, tremor, Alzheimer’s disease, brain death, neurophysiological testing, rabies, and tetanus are covered in this chapter.

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