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Chapter-16 Toxicology

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_17
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
24
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Toxicology, insecticide poisoning, organochlorine poisoning, snakebite, scorpion bite, sedative drug poisoning, analgesic poisoning, cyanide poisoning, opioid agonists, heatstroke

Abstract

This chapter is written in the question and answer format, which gives the description on toxicology. Toxicology is the scientific study of adverse effects that occur in living organisms due to chemicals. It involves observing and reporting symptoms, mechanisms, detection and treatments of toxic substances, in particular relation to the poisoning of humans. This chapter covers the insecticide poisoning, organochlorine poisoning, snakebite, scorpion bite, sedative drug poisoning, analgesic poisoning, cyanide poisoning, opioid agonists, heatstroke, drowning (submersion injuries). Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used as pesticides in developing countries and are a common cause of poisoning. Toxicity is due to formation of an intermediate reactive metabolite which binds covalently to cellular proteins, leading to cell death. This causes hepatic and occasionally renal failure. In therapeutic doses, the toxic intermediate metabolite is detoxified in reactions requiring glutathione.

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