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Chapter-17 Oncology

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_18
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
13
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Oncology, paraneoplastic syndrome, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biologic therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy

Abstract

Written in the question and answer format, this chapter talks about the oncology. The term oncology literally means a branch of science that deals with tumours and cancers. Hallmarks of cancer, cancer treatment, oncologic emergencies, investigations in oncology, and paraneoplastic syndromes are covered in this chapter. Cancer is a genetic disease and arises through a series of somatic alterations in DNA that result in uncontrolled proliferation of these cells with altered DNA. Cancers are caused by activation and inactivation of certain genes that are normally present in the cells. Cancer treatments are divided into four main types such as surgery, chemotherapy (includes hormone therapy and molecular targeted therapy), radiation therapy (includes photodynamic therapy), and biologic therapy (includes immunotherapy and gene therapy). The primary goal of cancer treatment is to cure the cancer. In situations where cure cannot be achieved, the goal shifts towards palliation, the amelioration of symptoms, and preservation of quality of life.

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