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Chapter-02 Endocrinology

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_3
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
45
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Pituitary hormone, hypopituitarism, growth hormone therapy, pituitary apoplexy, diabetes insipidus, thyroid disorder, thyrotoxicosis, myxedema coma, parathyroid disorder, vitamin D, adrenal gland disorder

Abstract

This chapter is written in question and answer format, which covers a discussion on disorders of pituitary and hypothalamus, thyroid disorders, parathyroid disorders, vitamin D, adrenal gland disorders, and gonadal disorders. Hypopituitarism is defined as combined deficiency (partial or complete) of any of the anterior pituitary hormones. The presentation is highly variable and depends on the underlying cause/lesion. Symptoms and signs depend on the degree of hypothalamic and/or pituitary deficiencies. Sheehan’s syndrome is a potentially life-threatening complication due to infarction of pituitary gland following postpartum hemorrhage. Pituitary apoplexy is a rare life-threatening endocrine emergency resulting from rapid enlargement of pituitary gland due to acute hemorrhage or infarction. Pituitary tumors are the most common cause of pituitary disease, and most of them are benign pituitary adenomas. Growth hormone (GH) stimulates skeletal and soft tissue growth and is required for proper growth and development. It directly affects fat metabolism and indirectly effects bone growth. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon disorder resulting from deficiency of vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or its action. Crisp and to the point answers of questions have been given in this chapter.

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