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Chapter-20 Immunology

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_21
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
25
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Immunology, immune system, cytokine, complement system, immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity reaction, autoimmunity, transplantation immunology, immunomodulator

Abstract

Written in the question and answer format, this chapter talks about the immunology. Immune system is defined as the body’s defense system that protects against pathogenic microorganisms and noninfectious foreign substances. Immune system is the third line of defense against infection. This chapter covers the cytokines, complement system, immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmunity, transplantation immunology, immunomodulators, and adult immunization. The immune responses involve multiple interactions among many cells. These include lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, other inflammatory cells (e.g. neutrophils), and endothelial cells. Some of these interactions are cell-to-cell contact. However, many interactions and effector functions of leukocytes are mediated by short-acting soluble proteins called cytokines. These cytokines mediate communications between leukocytes are called interleukins. ESR estimation is a measure of rate of fall of red blood cells through plasma, and mainly determined by the aggregation of red blood cells.

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