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Chapter-21 Geriatrics

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_22
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
11
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Geriatric assessment, GA, aging, dementia, Alzheimer pathology, mini-mental state examination, MMSE, frontotemporal dementia

Abstract

This chapter is written in the question and answer format, which gives the description on geriatrics. This chapter covers the biology of aging, common clinical problems of aging, comprehensive geriatric assessment (GA). Aging can be defined as gradual, insidious, and progressive decline in structure and function which begins to unfold after the achievement of sexual maturity. Dementia is a term used to describe a group of symptoms namely forgetfulness (progressive), memory impairment, difficulty doing familiar tasks, confusion, poor judgment, and decline in intellectual functioning. Dementia is typically progressive and non-reversible. It affects 5–10% of those above 65 years and 20–25% over 85 years. Frontotemporal dementia is characterized by focal atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes in the absence of Alzheimer pathology. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) is used as a screening device for cognitive impairment or a diagnostic adjunct in which a low score indicates the need for further evaluation.

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