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Chapter-05 HIV Infection and AIDS

BOOK TITLE: Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine

Author
1. Nayak Ramadas
2. Boloor Archith
ISBN
9789386056610
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14224_6
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
23
Author Affiliations
1. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Constituent of Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with "A" grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University (Accredited by NAAC with “A” grade), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Human immunodeficiency, HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, HIV genome, sexual transmission, parenteral transmission, early acute phase, middle chronic phase, atypical mycobacterial infection, gastrointestinal disease

Abstract

This chapter discusses on human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in question and answer format. More than 36.9 million individuals are worldwide sero-positive for HIV. AIDS is caused by the HIV which is a single stranded RNA human retrovirus and possesses the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. HIV genome contains two main groups of genes and their products act as antigens i.e. standard genes and six regulatory/accessory genes. Transmission of HIV occurs when there is an exchange of blood or body fluids containing the virus or virus-infected cells. Virus usually enters the body through mucosal epithelia and clinical course can be divided into three main phases i.e. early acute phase, middle chronic phase, and final crisis phase. Natural history of HIV infection, important infections and presenting problems in AIDS, diagnosis of HIV infection or AIDS, and management of a patient with HIV infection are the import topics which are covered throughout this chapter.

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