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Chapter-11 The Child: A Fluid and Electrolyte Alteration

BOOK TITLE: Pediatric Nursing

Author
1. Sarkar Subrata
ISBN
9789386150875
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14185_12
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
15
Author Affiliations
1. Swami Prakashananda Ayurveda Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, National Institute of Orthopedically Handicapped, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Charnock College of Nursing, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Chapter keywords
Fluid, electrolyte alteration, dyselectrolytemia, total body weight, TBW, intracellular fluid, ICF, extracellular fluid, ECF, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis

Abstract

This chapter describes fluid and electrolyte alteration. This chapter covers the review of fluid and electrolytes in children, overview of dyselectrolytemias, disturbances in acid-base status, fluid imbalance, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, and nursing responsibilities. Total body weight (TBW) constitutes approximately 75% of the body weight at birth and declines to about 60% from the age of 2 years onwards. TBW is compartmentalized into intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF). When body fluids contain too much acid, this is known as acidosis. Acidosis occurs when kidneys and lungs cannot keep body’s pH in balance. There are two types of acidosis such as metabolic and respiratory. Metabolic acidosis occurs when kidneys cannot get rid of acid buildup or when body gets rid of too much base. Bases neutralize acids, and vice versa. Respiratory acidosis occurs when lungs do not properly eliminate the carbon dioxide (CO2). When CO2 builds up in blood, it becomes more acidic.

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