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Chapter-13 Childhood Tuberculosis

BOOK TITLE: Concise Handbook of Infectious Diseases

Author
1. Sahadulla MI
ISBN
9789386261939
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14120_14
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
1
Author Affiliations
1. Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) Healthcare Group, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Tuberculosis, TB, childhood tuberculosis, mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampin, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG, BCG immunization

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) in children is often missed or overlooked due to nonspecific symptoms and difficulties in diagnosis. This has made it difficult to assess the actual magnitude of the childhood TB epidemic at the global level, which may be higher than currently appraised. Household contact tracing of children newly diagnosed with TB, has identified adult TB diseases and suspects living in their homes. The Xpert mycobacterium tuberculosis rifampin (MTB/RIF) assay can confirm, but not rule out the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in children, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization is most effective for preventing disseminated TB and meningitis in children, but it has variable efficacy in preventing adult disease, and BCG can interfere with tuberculin skin test (TST) results in those with latent disease.

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