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Chapter-06 Hemorrhagic Febrile Viral Illnesses

BOOK TITLE: Concise Handbook of Infectious Diseases

Author
1. Sahadulla MI
ISBN
9789386261939
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14120_7
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
4
Author Affiliations
1. Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) Healthcare Group, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Viral hemorrhagic fever, VHF, Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, CCHF, hantavirus, filovirus, Ebola virus

Abstract

This chapter presents a glimpse on hemorrhagic febrile viral illnesses. Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of febrile illnesses caused by RNA viruses from several viral families. Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae are the four viral families known to cause VHF disease in humans. Because of their extreme pathogenicity and potential for transmission by fine particle aerosol, VHF viruses are considered potential biological warfare agents. The Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae that causes Rift valley and Hanta fever. Transmission, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and prevention of CCHF are covered in this chapter. Hantaviruses in humans cause two distinct syndromes: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Supportive management of pulmonary edema, severe hypoxemia and hypotension during the first 24–48 hours is critical for recovery. Marburg and Ebola (filoviruses) are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. Filovirus diseases can be diagnosed by testing blood by RT-PCR assay, ELISA for viral antigens or immunoglobulin (Ig) M and cell culture, with the latter being attempted only under biosafety level-4 conditions.

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