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Chapter-15 Endocrinology

BOOK TITLE: Partha’s 101 Clinical Pearls in Pediatrics

Author
1. Khadilkar Vaman V
2. Prasad Hemchand K
ISBN
9789386322746
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14123_16
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
24
Author Affiliations
1. Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute (HCJMRI), Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India; Bombay Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Jehangir Hospital, Pune and Bombay Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra; Bharati Vidyapeeth Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, Jehangir Hospital and Bharati Vidyapeeth Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2. Dr Mehta’s Children’s Hospital Chennai, Tamil Nadu, Mehta Children’s Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Dr Mehta’s Children’s Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, Dr Mehta's Children's Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Chapter keywords
Endocrinology, short stature, SS, diabetes mellitus, DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus, T1DM, thyroid gland, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hypothyroidism

Abstract

This chapter describes endocrinology. This chapter is divided into four sections that cover the short stature, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and disorders of sex development. Short stature (SS) is one of the most common causes for referral to the endocrine clinic. It is important to delineate endocrine and nonendocrine causes of SS so that children who do not need evaluation and therapy are recognized, and, those needing intervention are picked up early. Goiter or the enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common referral to a pediatric endocrine clinic. The most important cause of goiter in children and adolescents is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents more than 90% of childhood diabetes. Disorder of sex development (DSD) includes bilateral undescended testes, unilateral undescended testes and hypospadias, severe hypospadias, and discrepancy between prenatal and postnatal karyotype.

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