Prevalence and Etiology of Pediatric Maxillofacial Injuries: A Unicenter-based Retrospective Study

JOURNAL TITLE: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

1. Debraj Howlader
2. Jagdish Gamit
3. Dichen P Bhutia
4. Hari Ram
5. Shadab Mohammed
6. Geeta Singh
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@2e43284b ,
2. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@53ef5654 ,
3. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@5eb1b7c1 ,
4. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@73c3b6c9 ,
5. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@44f5d98a ,
6. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@6d816ab6
Article keywords
Concomitant injuries, Craniofacial injuries, Pediatric trauma, Treatment modalities


Background: Children are uniquely susceptible to craniofacial trauma because of their greater cranial mass-to-body ratio. The craniofacial injuries comprise approximately 11.3% of an overall pediatric emergency, and its etiology affects the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment modalities, which are influenced by sociodemographic, economic, and cultural factor of the population being studied. Materials and methods: A retrospective review to analyze the epidemiology of facial injuries in pediatric population (age range-0–16 years), divided into three age groups, i.e., group I (0–5 years), group II (6–11 years) and group III (12–16 years), was carried out over a 3-year span, in order to determine the facial injury pattern, mechanism and concomitant injury by age. Results: A total of 1,221 patients with facial injuries, reporting to our trauma center and outpatient department were identified. Majority of these injuries were encountered among boys (64%). Motor vehicle collision (46.5%) was the most common cause of facial fracture and dentoalveolar injuries in group II and group III, while fall was the most common cause among the group I (30.2%). Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone (34.7%) followed by nasal (33.3%), maxilla (17.5%), and zygoma (14.3%). More than 50% sustained concomitant injuries. Conclusion: The importance of epidemiological analysis lies in the identification of trauma burden, which could help motivate and develop more efficient ways to plan resources allocation and deliver adequate care and preventive steps. Improvisation upon National Prevention Programs could lower incidences of such injuries.

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