Exploring the Extraordinary: Unusual Hematopoietic Malignancies of Thyroid Gland

JOURNAL TITLE: Indian Journal of Endocrine Surgery and Research

1. Pooja Ramakant
2. M Shreyamsa
3. Anand Kumar Mishra
4. Chanchal Rana
5. Rohit Singh
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
    1. Department of Pathology, King George\'s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
    1. Department of Endocrine Surgery, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
    1. Department of Surgery, CSM Medical University (Earlier King George's Medical College), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Article keywords
    Case report, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Plasmacytoma, T-cell lymphoma, Thyroid diseases, Thyroid neoplasms


    Thyroid disorders encompass a broad spectrum of pathological conditions, the majority of which are benign and also include autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, some thyroid pathologies are unusual and pose diagnostic and management challenges. This study discusses the presentation, diagnostic challenges, and management of these rare presentations and tumors, as seen in our institution. First patient with primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid, an exceedingly rare malignancy accounting for a minute fraction of thyroid neoplasms. Second patient highlights an uncommon case of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid, constituting less than 1% of all extramedullary plasmacytomas. Third patient portrays Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the thyroid, an unusual entity often presenting diagnostic complexities due to its rarity and association with other thyroid pathologies. These cases emphasize the rarity of these thyroid pathologies and the need for a comprehensive approach to diagnosis and management. Tailored treatment strategies are necessary, taking into account the clinical presentation and extent of the disease. Due to the limited data available for these rare pathologies, further research and comprehensive reporting are crucial for refining our understanding and optimizing treatment strategies. In conclusion, these cases exemplify the diagnostic and management challenges posed by unusual thyroid pathologies and underscore the importance of accurate diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to manage these rare conditions effectively.

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