Background: Congenital anomalies form the major cause of adverse neonatal outcome as stillbirths and neonatal mortality. The distribution and prevalence of congenital anomalies may be different with time or with geographical location.
Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of congenital anomalies in obstetrics and gynecology department of a rural tertiary medical college and hospital during the period of May 2013 to December 2015. All the babies delivered in this tertiary hospital during this period were included. The newborns were examined by obstetricians and pediatricians for the presence of congenital anomalies and mothers were interviewed using a case record form for sociodemographic variables.
Results: During the study period, 6,076 babies were born; of which, 84 babies had congenital malformations, giving the prevalence of 1.38%. Majority of the women (55.7%) belonged to the age group between 21 years and 30 years. Congenital anomalies were seen more commonly (2.57%) in the multiparae in comparison with the primiparae (0.42%). The predominant system involved was the musculoskeletal system (36.90%) followed by the central nervous system (CNS) (25%) and the gastrointestinal (GI) system (16.6%). Talipes (17.1%) was the most common anomaly in the musculoskeletal group followed by cleft lip and cleft palate in the GI system. It was seen that majority of congenital anomalies were associated with low birth weight (LBW), prematurity, multiparity, and consanguinity.
Conclusion: Health education and awareness for preventable risk factors is to be emphasized in general population, and early prenatal diagnosis and management of common anomalies is strongly recommended for better outcome.