Hyperemesis Gravidarum: A Holistic Review and Approach to Etiopathogenesis, Clinical Diagnostic and Management Therapy

JOURNAL TITLE: Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

1. Tigor P Simanjuntak
2. Rian Wibowo
3. Samuel A Andrian
4. Ni MU Elingasari
5. Stella A Kurniawan
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@53e842c0 ,
2. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@23670264 ,
3. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@135cff6f ,
4. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@ce9b3b8 ,
5. com.mps.common.model.Contributor@1d860ea7
Article keywords
Etiopathogenesis, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Incidence, Outcomes, Treatment


Aim: To provide an overview of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to present possible links between factors associated with the pathogenesis of HG also the effectiveness and safety of the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic options available to treat HG. Background: Although HG incidence is 0.3–2% worldwide, it is the number one cause of hospitalization in the first-trimester pregnancy, costs greatly to one financially, and also reduces the quality of life. This literature review focuses on articles published over the last 7 years to examine current perspectives and recent developments in HG. Review results: Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms during early pregnancy. When vomiting is severe, it is referred to as HG. Despite its high prevalence, it tends to be underestimated. The etiopathogenesis remains unknown, but many risk factors have been determined. Currently, the therapy focused on improving the symptoms while minimizing risks to the mother and fetus. If HG is left untreated, it may lead to significant maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion: Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex and multifactorial condition. The incidence is higher in developing countries rather than in developed countries. Hyperemesis gravidarum can manifest as mild to severe signs and symptoms. The therapy ranges from dietary and lifestyle changes, intravenous fluid rehydration, hospitalization, nonpharmacologic, and pharmacologic treatment. Hyperemesis gravidarum can result as a mild to severe maternal and fetal complications.

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