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Ultrasound Anatomy and Normal Appearances (A Practical Approach)
© 2005, Dinesh Sethi
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 2005
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at Replika Press Pvt Ltd., 310 EPIP, HSIDC, Kundli, Sonepat (Haryana)
This book is dedicated
Ultrasound is a fascinating technique and happens to be my favorite imaging modality. The fun and challenge of ultrasound lies in the fact that it is real time and operator dependent. It has high level of biological safety as compared to X-rays and CT scan. It has an option of portability which is extremely useful for bedridden/immobile patients.
Diagnosing a pathology on the basis of ultrasound images requires the understanding of the normal ultrasound appearance of various organs. I have tried to explain this in terms of anatomical location, size, shape and echogenicity of different abdominal organs and structures.
This book intends to benefit each and every sonographer, in some way or the other.
Any feedback is welcome at
I am deeply indebted to my family for constant support and for allowing me to devote their share of time into writing this book. I am grateful to Mr JP Vij who not only agreed to publish this book but also gave me some important suggestions regarding its format. I wish to express my sincere thanks to Mr Manoj Pahuja (Graphic Designer) who helped me with the diagrams and Mr Sukhdev Prasad (DTP Operator) who did the final compilation of the images and text. My patients have been my greatest teachers so I would like to thank them as well. My acknowledgements would be incomplete without the mention of Dr. Prateek Sharma who actually initiated me into writing this book.Abbreviations C.B.D.
common bile ductG.B.
intrauterine contraceptive deviceI.V.C.
inferior vena cavaL.H.V.
left hepatic veinL.R.A.
left renal arteryL.R.V.
left renal veinM.H.V.
middle hepatic veinP.C.
right hepatic veinR.R.A.
right renal arteryR.R.V.
right renal veinS.M.A.
superior mesenteric arteryS.M.V.
superior mesenteric veinS.V.