Preventive & Community Dentistry: Clinical Record Book M Shivakumar
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DefinitionsCHAPTER ONE

 
HEALTH
WHO Definition: A state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Talcott Parsons: A state of optimum capacity for the performance of valued task.
Webster's English Dictionary: The soundness or the general wholesomeness of the body.
Perkins: A state of relative equilibrium of body, form and function which results from its successful dynamic equilibrium adjustment of forces to disturb it. It is not passive interplay between body substance and forces impinging upon it but an active response of body forces working towards adjustment.
 
PUBLIC HEALTH: CHARLES EDWARD A. WINSLOW
It can be defined as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community efforts for sanitation of environment, control of communicable infections, education of individuals in personal hygiene, organization of medical and nursing services for early diagnosis and preventive treatment of diseases and development of social machinery to ensure for every individual a standard of living adequate for maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits to enable every citizen to realize his birth right of health and longevity.
 
DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
The science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts.
 
COMMUNITY
It is defined as the group, small or large living together in such a way that the members share not one or more specific interests but rather the basic conditions of common life.2
 
COMMUNITY DENTISTRY
Lars Granath and William D. Mc.Hugh: It is that branch of dentistry which is practiced in relation to population and groups, which derive from epidemiology an awareness of service required and which include the development of technique necessary to organize the application of these services for the benefit of the population.
It is also defined as the field concerned with the study of dental and oral health diseases in the population of a defined community.
 
COMMUNITY HEALTH
Defined as including all the personal health and environmental services in any human community, irrespective of whether such services were public or private ones.
 
PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY
It can be defined as a science and art of promoting and preventing the onset of oral and dental diseases and treatment of these diseases in their early stages and prolonging the life by promoting dental or oral health as well as physical and mental health and efficiency of the individuals, families, groups and communities.
Blackerby: It is defined as the efforts made to maintain normal development and physiological functions to prevent diseases of mouth and adjacent parts.
Brauer: Prevention as it applies to the dentistry involves the mechanisms that are employed to combat or intercept dental and systemic diseases which tend to destroy the functions of oral tissues.
 
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Defined as the organized activities of the community to prevent the occurrence as well as progression of the disease and disability, mental and physical and the timely application of all the means to promote the health of the individual and of the community as a whole including prophylaxis, health education and similar work done by a good doctor in looking after individual and family.
 
SOCIAL MEDICINE
The study of man as a social being in the total environment. It is concerned with the health 3of groups of individual and individuals within the groups to create, promote, preserve, maintain optimum health.
 
COMMUNITY MEDICINE
Deals with the population and comprises those doctors who try to measure the needs of the people both sick and well, who plan and administer services to meet those needs and those who are engaged in research and teaching in the field.
 
COMMUNITY DIAGNOSIS
Refers to the identification and quantification of health problems in a community in terms of mortality and morbidity rates and ratios and the identification of these correlates for the purpose of defining those individuals or groups at risk or those in need of pulp care.
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Parkin (1873): As the branch of medical science which deals with the treatment of epidemics.
Englander (1962): The study of those factors which influence the occurrence and distribution of health, disease, defect, disability and death in population.
John M.Last (1988): The study of the distribution and determinants of health related state and events in specified population and the application of the study to the control of health problems.
Greenwood (1934): The study of disease, any disease as a mass phenomenon.
Macmohan and Pugh (1960): The study of distribution and determinants of disease frequency in man.
 
EPIDEMIC
The unusual occurrence in a community or region of disease, specific health related behaviour or other health related events clearly in excess of expected occurrence.
 
ENDEMIC
It refers to the constant presence of a disease or infectious agents within a geographic area or population group without importation from outside.4
 
PANDEMIC
Disease usually affecting a large proportion of population occurring over a wide geographic area.
 
1. HEALTH EDUCATION
WHO (1969): To persuade people as to adopt and sustain healthy life practices, to use judiciously and wisely the health services available to them, to take their own decision both individually and collectively to improve their status and environment.
 
2. HEALTH EDUCATION
National conference on preventive medicine USA is defined as the process which informs, motivates and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and lifestyles, advocates environmental changes as needed to facilitate this goal and conducts professional training and research to the same end.
 
INDEX
Defined as a numerical value describing the relative status of a population on a graduated scale with definite upper and lower limits which is designed to permit and facilitate comparison with other population classified by the same criteria and methods.
 
SURVEY
It is the investigation where information is systematically collected but in which experimental method is not used. Survey may be descriptive or analytical.
 
BIOSTATISTICS
It is the method of collecting, organizing, analyzing, tabulating and interpreting of data related to living organisms and human beings.
 
PLANNING
EC Banfield: A plan is a decision about the course of action. It is the process of preparing a set of decisions for action in the future and must proceed for the development and change in an organization.5
 
EVALUATION
Is defined as the judgement of merit or worth about a particular person, place or thing. It is the collection and analysis of information to determine the programme performance.
 
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
It was established in the year 1948 for the purpose of cooperation among themselves and with others to promote the health of the people. Defined by its constitution as the directing and coordination authority on oral health work. It aims in the attainment by all the people of the highest possible level of health.
 
COMPREHENSIVE DENTAL CARE
It is the meeting of accumulated dental needs at the time a population or group is taken into the program and the detection and correction of new increments of dental disease on a semiannual or other periodic basis.
 
INCREMENTAL DENTAL CARE
It is defined as a periodic care so spaced that increments of dental diseases are treated at the earliest time consistent with proper diagnosis and operating efficiency in such a way that there is no accumulation of dental needs beyond the minimum.
 
VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS
Defined as an organization that is administered by an autonomous board which holds meetings, collects funds for its support chiefly from private sectors and expends money with or without paid workers in conducting a programme directed primarily to furthering the public health by providing health education by advancing research or legislation for health or combination of these activities.
Community dentistry has two aspects:
  1. Community diagnosis
  2. Community treatment.
 
COMMUNITY DIAGNOSIS
It is a systematic study of community dental and oral health status through epidemiological surveys.
6The following data should be collected:
  1. Demographic pattern of the community.
  2. Socioeconomic conditions of the people.
  3. Incidence and prevalence rate of dental and oral diseases.
  4. Identification of dental and oral health problems and treatment needs.
  5. Identification of high risk and vulnerable group of people.
  6. Identification of resources in the community.
 
COMMUNITY TREATMENT
It aims at planning the oral health programmes and schemes for carrying out oral health and other services required to solve community oral health and other problems. Importance should be given to the FELT NEEDS of the community.
 
WHAT IS COMMUNITY ORAL HEALTH ?
Community oral health is the organization of an array of promotive, preventive and curative oral health services required at individual and community level for the people living in a community.
 
DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
The American Board of Dental Public Health modified Winslow's definition of public health as the science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts.
It is that form of dental practice that serves the community as a patient rather than an individual. It is concerned with dental health education of public, with research and the application of findings of research, with administration of dental care programme for groups and with prevention and control of dental diseases through a community approach.
 
THE SCIENCE OF DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
It is the concept that oral health service should be aimed at the community level rather than the individual patient level with scientific approach.
It renders the application of principles of Epidemiology, Health Administration, Dental Health Education, Biostatistics, Behavioural Science and Sociology.7
 
THE ART OF DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
Applying only scientific principles and arriving at community diagnosis is not sufficient for successful community treatment. The art of dental public health has to be developed. The essential features of the art of community health are:
  1. To give priority for the FELT NEEDS
  2. To establish co-operation between the health care beneficiaries and providers
  3. To utilize all the existing resources with maximum efficiency
  4. To establish easy access to health services
  5. To give priority to high risk and vulnerable group of people
  6. To make health services available and affordable to all
  7. To provide comprehensive dental health care.
 
OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNITY DENTISTRY
  1. Health promotion for the entire population.
  2. The detection and eradication or control of those factors operating in the community which are imminent to oral health and community well-being.
  3. To assess the needs of dental care of the community.
  4. Determination of procedures and statement of objectives.
  5. Determination of available resources for programme implementation.
  6. Improvement of community oral health by:
    1. Implementing effective preventive and therapeutic measures.
    2. Deploying the available resources to meet the needs on the basis of priority.
    3. The measurement of effectiveness of present services and planning of new services.
    4. The co-ordination and integration of dental services and health services.
  7. Providing treatment services to persons who do not have easy access to general practitioner.
  8. Establishment and maintenance of community laboratories.
  9. Co-ordination and participation in the teaching of dental public health and in preventive practices to students, teachers, health educators, dieticians, doctors and nurses.