Recent Advances in Pediatrics (Volume 17): Hot Topics Suraj Gupte
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1Recent Advances in Pediatrics—17: Hot Topics2
Also by Prof (Dr) Suraj Gupte
3Recent Advances in Pediatrics—17: Hot Topics
Editor Suraj Gupte MD, FIAP Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics Maharaja Agrasen Medical College Agroha, Hisar 125 047 Haryana, India E-mail:,
Honorary Director: Pediatric Education Network, Children’ Health Center
Editor: The Short Textbook of Pediatrics, Textbooks of Pediatric Emergencies, Neonatal Emergencies, Pediatric Nutrition, and Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Pediatric Yearbook Series, Pediatric Today Monograph Series, Newer Horizons in Tropical Pediatrics, Towards MRCPCH Part II (Theory) Examination
Author: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatrics, Instructive Case Studies in Pediatrics, Pediatric Drug Directory, Infant Feeding, Speaking of Child Care: Everything You Wanted to Know, The Baby Book: The Parents’ Guide from Birth to Infancy
Co-editor: Asian Journal of Maternity and Child Health (Manila, Philippines)
Section Editor: Pediatrics Today (New Delhi, India)
Editorial Adviser: Asian Journal of Pediatric Practice (New Delhi, India)
Editorial Advisory Board Member/Reviewer: Indian Journal of Pediatrics (New Delhi, India), Indian Pediatrics (New Delhi, India), Synopsis: A Current Survey of World Literature in Pediatrics (Detroit, USA), Indian Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (Jaipur, India), Maternal and Child Nutrition (Preston, UK)
Examiner: National Board of Examinations (NBE) for DNB, New Delhi, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) and several universities
Pediatric Faculty Selection Expert: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Punjab Public Service Commission, Jammu and Kashmir Public Service Commission, Union Public Service Commission
4 Published by
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Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
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Recent Advances in Pediatrics—17: Hot Topics
© 2007, Shamma-Bakshi Gupte, Executive Editor
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the editor and the publisher.
First Edition: 2007
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at Ajanta Offset
5 To
The fond memory of our late parents
whose inspiration, blessings and
moral support continue to contribute
a great deal to our academic
endeavors and
Everybody contributing to child health
and welfare for a better future
6Contributors 10Preface
Years ago, the World Health Organization had called upon the child health providers to “take advantage of the rapid and ongoing expansion in knowledge of various aspects of child health and disease for improving the quality of care for the child population in the developing countries, nay globally.”
In keeping with this well-meaning “call”, the noted international series, Recent Advances in Pediatrics, addressed to teachers and taughts in the academic medical institutions, those providing care for children and those eager at knowing about the state-of-the-art in the field, continues to aim at driving home the advances in the science and art of pediatrics for the ultimate benefit of infants, children and adolescents.
This, the 17th annual volume of the series, first launched in 1991 and now concurrently in the 16th and 17th special volumes (RAP Special Vol 18: Pediatric Neurology and RAP Special Vol 19: Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, respectively), attempts to cover key topical issues in the field of general and miscellaneous pediatrics. The 34 state-of-the-art chapters covered by as many as 44 experts attempt to review the ever-expanding knowledge in the field of pediatrics with special reference to its applicability in the Indian subcontinent.
Each and every chapter is remarkable by its excellence, providing a stimulating and, not infrequently, even provocative, matured and informed update. Understandably, such an approach is befitting when the goal is not only to inform but also to motivate discussion. interaction, research and innovation.
In keeping with the professed policy of the series, multidisciplinary approach with an eye on future continues to occupy pride of place in this volume too.
We wish to record our indebtedness to our distinguished contributors for providing excellent state-of-the-art chapters in various aspects of general and miscellaneous pediatrics and related topics. They were also gracious enough to repose confidence in our editorship. Without their understanding and cooperation, this volume wouldn't have seen the light of the day.11
Thanks are also due to the Advisory Editorial Board for providing inputs and advice in various editorial matters and peer reviewers for not only providing us the benefit of their critical expertise but also for the promptness in responding to our requests for speedy action.
Our daughter, Dr. Novy, and son, Er. Manu, voluntarily provided all sorts of assistance in taking the project to its logical conclusion.
M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd and their dedicated staff deserve our special thanks for speedy work on the project and its skillful production qualities.
Suraj Gupte
Academic Editor
Shamma-Bakshi Gupte
Executive Editor