The Pocketbook for Physiotherapists Gitesh Amrohit
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PharmacologyCHAPTER 1

  • Drug classes in alphabetical orders
  • Prescription abbreviations
2
 
ACETA ZOLAMIDE
Type: Diuretics.
Uses: Glaucoma, epilepsy, acute mountain, sickness, periodic paralysis, UTI.
Side effects: Hypokalemia, drowsiness, acidosis, abdominal discomfort.
 
ADENOSINE
Class: Anti-arrhythmic.
Uses: Tachycardias.
Side effects: Nausea, bronchospasm, dyspnoea.
 
ALBENDAZOLE
Type: Antihelmintics.
Uses: Filariasis, hydatid disease, trichinosis, tape worms.
Side effects: Diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain.
 
ALLOPURINOL
Class: Anti-gout.
Uses: Gout, kidney stones.
Side effects: Nausea, itching, rash.
 
AMIODARONE
Class: Anti-arrhythmic.3
Uses: Ventricular and supraventricular tachycardias.
Side effects: Liver damage, reversible corneal depositions.
 
AMLODIPINE
Class: Ca++ channel blocker.
Uses: Congestive heart failure, angina.
Side effects: Ankle oedema, flushing, palpitation, headache, hypotension.
 
AMOXICILLIN
Please refer ampicillin.
 
AMPICILLIN
Class: Antibiotic.
Uses: UTI, RTI, meningitis, gonorrhoea, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, bacterial endocarditis, septicaemias, cholecystitis.
Side effects: Diarrhoea, rashes, lymphatic leukemia.
 
ALPRAZOLAM
Type: Benzodiazepines.
Uses: Anxiety, depression.
Side effects: Sedation, light headedness, vertigo. Confusion, psychomotor and cognitive impairment.4
 
ASPIRIN
Type: NSAIDs and antipyretic.
Uses: As analgesic, antipyretic, acute rheumatic fever, RA, OA, post-myocardial infarction and post-stroke.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, rhinorrhoea.
 
ATENLOL
Type: B-antiadrenergic.
Uses: Arrhythmias, angina, hypertension, MI, congestive heart failure.
Side effects: Cold hand and feet, bradycardia, hypotension, fatigue.
 
ATROPINE
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: Corneal ulcers, peptic ulcers, pulmonary embolism, preanaesthetic medication, bradycardia, motion sicknes.
Side effects: Dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing and talking. Blurring of near vision.
 
CALCITONIN
Class: Hormone.5
Uses: Hypercalcaemia, bone pain, osteoporosis.
Side effects: Vomiting, nausea.
 
CARBAMAZEPINE
Type: Antiepileptic.
Uses: Partial and tonic–clonic seizures, trigeminal neuralgia.
Side effects: Drowsiness, epigestric pain, nausea, confusion, blurred vision.
 
CHLORAMPHENICOL
Class: Broad spectrum antibiotics.
Uses: Enteric fever, anaerobic infections, intraocular infections, H. influenzae, meningitis.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gray baby syndrome, bone marrow depression.
 
CHLORPROMAZINE
Type: Antipsychotic.
Uses: Schizophrenia, mania, organic brain syndrome, arxiety tetanus alcoholic hallucinosis.
Side effects: Dry mouth, blurring vision, constipation, parkinsonion symptoms, dystonic, jaundice, akathisia, malignant neuroleptic syndrome symptoms.6
 
CHLOROQUINE
Type: Antimalarial drug.
Uses: Malaria.
Side effects: Hypotension, vision loss, hearing deficit, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, itching.
 
CIPROFLOXACIN
Class: Prototype antibacterial.
Uses: UTI, gonorrhoea, bacterial gastroenteritis, typhoid, gynaecological disease, tuberculosis, meningitis, respiratory infections.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, bad taste dizziness, headache, rashes, urticaria.
 
CLOFAZIMINE
Please refer dapsone.
 
DAPSONE
Type: Antileprotic drug.
Uses: Leprosy.
Side effects: Haemolytic anaemia, gastric intolerance, rashes, headache, lepra reactions, nausea, vomiting.
 
DEXAMETHASONE
Please refer prednisolone.7
 
DIAZEPAM
Type: Benzodiazepines.
Uses: Anxiety, sleep disturbances, alcoholism and as muscle relaxants.
Side effects: Unsteadiness, drowsiness, dizziness.
 
DICLOFENAC
Type: NSAIDs and antipyretic.
Uses: RA, OA, ankylosing spondylitis, post-traumatic and postoperative inflammatory conditions.
Side effects: Epigastric pain, nausea, rashes, headache, dizziness.
 
DILTIA ZEM
Please refer amlodipine.
 
DOBUTAMINE
Class: Inotropic sympathomimetic.
Uses: Heart failure.
Side effects: Tachycardias.
 
DOPAMINE
Class: Inotropic sympathomimetic.
Uses: Shock, heart failure.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, tachycardia.8
 
DOXYCYCLINE
Please refer tetracyclines.
 
ERYTHROMYCIN
Class: Macrolide antibiotic.
Uses: Inflammation, diphtheria, syphilis, gonorrhoea.
Side effects: Gastrointestinal discomfort, rashes, fever.
 
FERROUS SULPHATE
Class: Iron salt.
Uses: Iron defeciency anaemia.
Side effects: Constipation, epigastric discomfort, darkening of faeces.
 
FLUCLOXACILLIN
Please refer penicillin.
 
GATIFLOXACIN
Please refer ciprofloxacin.
 
GENTAMICIN
Type: Aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Uses: Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella infections, respiratory infection's meningitis.9
Side effects: Vestibular disturbances, auditory loss, nausea, vomiting.
 
HEPARIN
Class: Anticoagulant.
Uses: Pulmonary embolism, DVT.
Side effects: Thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage.
 
HYDROCORTISONE
Please refer prednisolone.
 
IBUPROFEN
Class: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.
Uses: Pain, stiffness, swelling, OA, RA, soft tissue injuiries, headache, dental pain.
Side effects: Indigestion heart burn.
 
INSULIN
Class: Peptide hormone.
Uses: Insulin dependent and maturity onset diabetes mellitus.
Side effects: Irritation over injection site, hypoglycaemia, weakness.
 
INTERFERON
Class: Antiviral and anticancer.10
Uses: Leukaemia, multiple sclerosis, granualomatous disease.
Side effects: Lethargy, chills, myalgia, fatigue, rashes, fever, headache.
 
ISONIAZID
Type: Anti-tubercular drug.
Uses: Tuberculosis.
Side effects: Paresthesia, numbness, convulsions, mental disturbances, hepatitis.
 
ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE
Type: Antianginal drug.
Uses: Congestive heart failure, angina.
Side effects: Throbbing headache, flushing, sweating, palpitation, dizziness, fainting.
 
KETAMINE
Type: General anaesthetics (IV).
Uses: As anaesthetics agent (not use in head and neck surgery).
Side effects: Tachycardia, hallucinations, increased blood pressure.
 
LACTULOSE
Class: Osmotic laxative.11
Uses: Constipation, hepatic encephalopathy.
Side effects: Diarrhoea, stomach cramps, flatulence.
 
LEVODOPA
Type: Dopamine precursar.
Uses: Parkinson's disease.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, postural hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, alteration in taste sensation, behavioural changes, abnormal movements.
 
LIGNOCAINE
Class: Na+ channel blocker.
Uses: As anaesthetic and antiarrhythmic.
Side effects: Dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
 
LIQUID PARAFFIN
Class: Laxatives.
Uses: Constipation, before surgery night.
Side effects: Dehydration, lipid pneumonia.
 
MANNITOL
Class: Osmotic diuretic.
Uses: Glaucoma, head injury, stroke.
Side effects: Nausea, diarrhoea, headache.12
 
METHYLDOPA
Class: β adrenergic blocker.
Uses: High blood pressure.
Side effects: Sedation, lethargy, disturbed mental capacity.
 
METHOTREXATE
Class: Cytotoxic and immunosuppressive.
Uses: Leukaemia, lymphoma.
Side effects: Diarrhoea, bone marrow suppression, vomiting, inflammation.
 
METRONIDAZOLE
Type: Antiamoebic drugs.
Uses: Giaridiasis, amoebiasis, trichomonas viginitis, enterocolitis, gingivitis bacterial infections
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, headache, glossitis, rashes, dizziness.
 
MORPHINE
Class: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: Ventricular failure, pain.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, rerpiratory depression.
 
NORFLOXACIN
Please refer ciprofloxacin.13
 
OMEPRAZOLE
Class: Proton pump inhibitors.
Uses/Side effects: Please refer ranitidine.
 
OXYTETRACYCLINE
Please refer tetracycline.
 
PANCURONIUM
Please refer vecuronium.
 
PARACETAMOL
Class: Non-opoid analgesic.
Uses: Pain, fever.
Side effects: Liver failure.
 
PENICILLIN–G
Class: Benzyl penicillin.
Uses: Streptococcal, pneumococcal, meningococcal infections, gonorrhoea, syphilis, diptheria.
Side effects: Pain at inj. Site, nausea, rash. Itching, urticaria, shock, exfoliative dermatitis.
 
PETHIDINE
Class: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: Severe pain, pain during labour, anxiety, during anaesthesia.14
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness.
 
PHENYTION
Class: Anti-convulsant.
Uses: Epilepsy.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache, dizziness, ache, increased body hair.
 
PREDNISOLONE
Type: Glucocorticoid.
Uses: Adrenal insufficiency, adrenogenital, syndrome, anthritides, collagen disease, asthma, lung and eye disease, malignancies, intestinal and skin disease.
Side effects: Peptic ulcer, osteoporosis, glaucoma, growth retardation, fetal abnormalities, muscular weakness, cushing's habitus, fragile skin, psychiatric disturbances.
 
PROPRANOLOL
Class: Na+ channel blocker.
Uses: Sinus tachycardia, atrial and nodal ESs.
Side effects: Dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
 
RANITIDINE
Class: H2 blocker, for peptic ulcer.15
Uses: Duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastritis, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, GERD.
Side effects: Nausea, loose stool, muscle and joint pain, dizziness, abdominal pain.
 
RIFAMPICIN
Type: Antitubercular drug.
Uses: Tuberculosis, leprosy, meningitis.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, malaise, bone pain, purpura, breathleness.
 
SALBUTAMOL
Type: B2 agonist.
Uses: Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
Side effects: Weakness, tremors, drowsiness, nervousness.
 
SALCATONIN
Please refer calcitonin.
 
SENNA
Class: Stimulant laxative.
Uses/Side effects: Please refer lactulose.
 
STREPTOMYCIN
Class: Aminoglycoside antibiotics.16
Uses: Tuberculosis, plague, bacterial endocarditis, tularemia.
Side effects: Vestibular disturbances, auditory loss paresthesia.
 
TETRACYCLINE
Class: Actinomycettes, broad spectrum antibiotics.
Uses: Infections, pneumonia, plague, rickettsial infection, cholera, UTI. Acne, lung disease.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, diarrhoea.
 
TINIDAZOLE
Please refer metronidazole.
 
VECURONIUM
Class: Muscles relaxants.
Uses: During general anaesthesia, convulsions, trauma, tetanus, status epilepticus.
Side effects: Respiratory failure, muscle soreness, hypotension.
 
WARFARIN
Please refer heparin.17
 
LIST OF PHARMACOLOGY ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviation
Meaning
ac
before bed
ad lib
as desired
bd
twice daily
cap
capsule
IM
intermuscular
IV
intravenous
LA
local anaesthetic
Liq
liquid
oc
oral contraceptive
od
once daily
om
in the mornings
on
at night
OPV
oral poliomyelitis vaccine
ORS
oral rehydration salt
ORT
oral rehydration therapy
PC
after food
PRN
when required
qid
four times a day
qqh
every four hours
sI
sublingual
sos
as required
stat
immediately
susp
suspension
syr
syrup
tab
tablet
tds
three times a day.