Essentials of Nursing Maheshwari Loganathan
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Medical ScientistsCHAPTER 1

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INTRODUCTION
The some of the scientists who have made great efforts in medical field and which has influenced the science to grow more, and it has not only developed the medical field, and it has contributed the nursing field also. So to know about nursing, the fresher students should know first about the medical scientists.
CV Raman: CV Raman was born at Tiruchinapalli in South India on November 7th, 1888. On February 28, Chandrashekar Venkataraman discovered the radiation effect involving the inelastic scattering of light that would bear his name the–Raman effect and which would win him Asia's First Noble Prize in any science subject, in 1930.
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Subramanya Chandrasekhar: Born in Lohore, India, in 1910, theoretical astrophysicist Chandrashekar was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (USA) only two years after he became a US citizen in 1953. Chandrasekhar was noted for his work in the field of stellar evolution, and in the early 1930s he was the first to theorize that a collapsing massive star would become an object so dense that not even light could escape it.
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Srinivas Ramanujan: Born on December 22, 1887 in his grand mother's house in Erode, Tamil Nadu. On May 2,1918, Srinivas Iyengar Ramanujan was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London. Before he died, Ramanujan wrote down about 600 theorems on loose sheets of paper, which were discovered and published only in 1976 as the “Lost Notebook”of Ramanujan.
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Jagadish Chandra Bose: Born in Mymensingh, Bengal, in November 30, 1858, Bose went to study medicine at the University of London. Bose turned his attention from electromagnetic waves to response phenomena in plants by the end of the 19th century. He showed that only animal but vegetable tissues under different kinds of stimuli–mechanical, application of hest, electric, shock, chemicals, drugs–produce similar electric responses.
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Hargovind Khorana: Dr Hargovind Khorana was born on 9 January 1922 at Raipur, Punjab (now in Pakistan). He obtained his MSc Honours in Organic Chemistry from the Punjab University in 1945 and later received his PhD from the university of Liverpool in England. He won the Prize for medicine in 1968 sharing it with MW Nuremberg and R Wholley for interpreting the genetic code and analyzing the function in protein synthesis.
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Homi Jehangir Bhabha: Homi Jehangir Bhabha was born in an aristocratic family in Bombay in 1909. He passed the Senior Cambridge Examination in 1940, at the behest of CV Raman, director of the Indian Institute of Science Bangalore. He served as the president of the UN conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy in 1955 and as president of the international Union of Pune and Applied Physics from 1960 to 63.
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He passed away in a plan crash on Mont Blanc on January 24, 1966.
Satyendranath Bose: Satyendranath Bose was born on the first of January 1894 in Calcutta. He studied at the university of Calcutta, then taught there in 1916, taught at the University of Decca (1921-45), then returned to Calcutta (1945-56). Satyendranath Bose and Albert Einstein published a series of papers on the physics of particles with integer spins (bosons).
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Vikram Sarabhai: Vikram Sarabhai was born on 12 August 1919 at Ahmedabad. In 1966, he was appointed the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. He drew up plans to take education to remote villages through satellite communication, implemented under the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE).
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Edward Jenner: Edward Jenner performed the fist vaccination. In the eighteenth century an English country doctor named Edward Jenner began to study the link between smallpox and the milder disease, cowpox, by injecting one boy with the cowpox he found that the boy became immune to smallpox. Edward Jenner published his findings in 1798. The year 1996 marked the two hundredth anniversary of Edward Jenner's first experimental vaccination. That is inoculation with the related cow pox virus to build immunity against the deadly scourge of smallpox.
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Louis Pasteur: Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822-September 28,1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist who advocated the gem theory of disease and develop techniques of inoculation. Pasteur's method of immunization was effective and employed by many other physicians leading to the eradication of the diseases types and polio as threats.
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Joseph Lister: Joseph Lister, British surgeon, whose discovery of antiseptics in 1865 greatly reduced the number of deaths due to operating room infections. Born in Upton, Essex and educated at the university of London and Edinburgh lister to study the coagulation of blood and the inflammation that followed injuries.
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Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. He became interested in hypnotism and how it could be used to help the mentally ill.
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Ronald Ross (1857-1932): Ronald Rose born on May 13, 1857, as the son of Sir. CCG Ross a general in the English army. In 1901 Ross was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and also a Fellow of the Royal Society, of which the became Vice President from 1911 to 1913.
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His great contribution in the form of the discovery of the transmission of malaria by the mosquito, but also found time and mental energy of many other pursuits, being poet, playwright, writer and painter.
Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943): Karl Landsteiner was born in Vienna on June 14, 1868. Landsteiner studied medicine at the university of Vienna, graduating in 1891. Even while he was a student he had begun to do biochemical research and in 1891 he published a paper on the influence of diet on the composition of blood ash.
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Frederick G Banting (1891–1941): Frederick G Banting was born on November 14, 1891, at Alliston, Ont., Canada. Banting and best started the work, which was to lead to the discovery of insulin.
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Dr Albert Sabin 1906–1993: Dr Albert Sabin developer of the oral, live virus polio vaccine, began his career in biomedical research in 1926 while still a student at New York University where he received his MD degree. He worked at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research from 1935–64 that about 100 millions persons of all ages received the vaccine in the US.
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Galileo Galilei: Italian scientist and philosopher. Galileo was a true Renaissance man, excelling at many different endeavors, including flute playing and painting. He attended medical school in Padua. While in a cathedral, he noticed a chandelier was swinging with the same period as timed by his pulse, regardless of its amplitude. Galileo grew interested in the heavens, and built his own a telescope in 1609 after the discovery of lenses was reported from Holland.
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Isaac Newton: Isaac Newton was born in the manor house of Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire. Although by the calendar in use at the time of his birth he was born on Christmas Day 1642. Among his many achievements were the invention of the reflecting telescope, basic design behind all large telescopes used today; the invention of a branch of Mathematics known as calculus, a critical tool throughout science.
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Benjamin Franklin: Benjamin Franklin was born in Biston, in the year 1706 but spent most of his life in Philadelphia. Franklin is best known in the popular imagination for his nonscientific pursuits; printer, American revolutionary ambassador, to mention only a few roles he played. His scientific reputation rests mainly on his accomplishments as an inventor and as a pioneering theorist in the physics of electricity, but his interests were also mathematical.
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Albert Einstein: Einstein received the Nobel prize in 1921 but not for relatively rather for his 1905 work on the photoelectric effect. In fact he was not present in December 1922 to receive the prize being on a voyage to Japan. Around this time he made many international visits. He had visited pairs earlier in 1922 and during 1923 he visited Palestine. After making his last major scientific discovery on the association of waves with matter in 1924, he made further visits in 1925, this time to South America. Among further honours which Einstein received, were the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1925 and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1926.
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Alfred Nobel: Nobel invented dynamite in 1866 and later built up companies and laboratories in more than 20 countries all over the world. A holder of more than 350 patents, he also wrote poetry and drama and even seriously considered becoming a writer. The idea of giving away his fortune was no passing fancy for Nobel.
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Marie Curie: Pierre and Marie Curie are best known for their pioneering work in the study of radioactivity, which led to their discovery in 1898 of the elements radium and polonium. Marie Curie, born in Warsaw, Poland Nov 7, 1867 spent many impoverished years as a teacher and governess before she joined her sister Bronia in Paris in order to study Mathematics and Physics at the Sorbonne, earning degrees in both subjects in 1893 and 1894.
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Thomas Alva Edison: In his lifetime, Thomas Alva Edison profoundly affected the technology of modern society. The American inventor was born February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio during his time in West Orange Edison produced the commercial phonograph, the Kinetoscope, the Edison storage battery, the electric pen, the mimeograph and the microtasimeter. In 1913 Edison introduced the first talking moving pictures.
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In 1915, he was appointed president of the US Navy Consulting Board.
Alexander Fleming: Sir Alexander Fleming was born at Lochfield near Darvel in Ayrshire, Scotland on August 1881. He qualified medical school with distinction in 1906 and began research at St. Mary's under Sir Almroth Wright, a pioneer in vaccine therapy. He gained MBBS (London) with Gold medal in 1908, and became a lecturer at St. Mary's until 1914.
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