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Textbook of Visual Science and Clinical Optometry
© 2009, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 2009
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
My parents Prativa Bhattacharya and Late Biresh Chandra Bhattacharya
along with My parents-in-law Geeta Roychowdhury and Late Satyabrata RoychowdhuryForeword
Textbook of Visual Science and Clinical Optometry is a wonderful knowledge book for the ophthalmic practitioners, optometrists and students of ophthalmology.
This book explains the anatomy and physiology of the eye in a very well-formatted concise manner. It enlightens the optical defects and its correction in a most lucid and methodical way. In the glamour of ophthalmic innovations, the fundamental optics and refraction of the eye have become a forgotten territory.
I thank Dr Bikas Bhattacharyya for bringing out this book in such a “transparent and structured format”. Bikas, 2 years junior to me in Medical Education in the same University, is always remembered for his unusual inclination to minute details and documentation. This book is reflection of his qualities.
I am sure we will learn a lot of skills from this book and use it for more efficient eye care. This will be the most fitting tribute to the hard work that he has put into writing this book.
Dr Debashish Bhattacharya
Disha Eye Hospital and Research Centre (P) Ltd
Barrackpore, West Bengal, IndiaPreface
Textbook of Visual Science and Clinical Optometry is designed to cater to the needs of eye care team which includes ophthalmologists, ophthalmology residents, optometry students and ophthalmic technicians.
The book includes 18 chapters which are divided into 6 sections and each chapter is supplemented by numerous illustrations. Every attempt is made to make this book as clinically relevant as possible.
to deal with the normal human eye and its optical principle. deals with the different types of refractive errors and its correction. stresses on the various optical lenses, frames, measurements and contact lenses. Knowledge on these topics () is usually not covered in books on ophthalmology. The last section is unique in a way as it covers three special chapters on ophthalmic instrumentation techniques, low visual aids and paediatric eye examination, which is invaluable to all those involved in eye care.
I hope that my humble efforts would prove successful in helping the beginners in ophthalmology. I have tried to make the topics as comprehensive and simplified as possible. However, certain inaccuracies may arise for which I apologise sincerely.
Any suggestions and comments on the book would be greatly appreciated.
During my residency training and subsequent practising years, I felt the need of a comprehensive book covering all aspects of practical ophthalmic examinations and clinical optics.
I would like to thank M/s Appasamy Associates, Chennai, India for giving me the relevant photographs for publication.
I would also like to express my gratitude to Mr Sirajul Mullick, Department of Optometry Science (DOS) for the invaluable assistance he has extended to me during preparation of the chapters related to clinical optometry.
I would like to convey my gratitude to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi and all the technical staff.
I would also like to thank all my colleagues in different institutions for their continued encouragement.
Finally, I would like to thank my wife and children for their continued support and their patience for tolerating my preoccupation with the book.Abbreviations AC
Accommodative convergence / Accommodation ratioadd
Addition for near visionARC
Abnormal retinal correspondenceARMD
Age-related macular degenerationBE
Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopyBOZD
Back optic zone diameterBOZR
Back optic zone radiusBRAO
Branch retinal artery occlusionBRVO
Branch retinal vein occlusionBVP
Back vertex powerCB
Cup disc ratioCF
Contact lens acute red eyeCME
Cystoid macular oedemaCNV
Cycle per degreeCRAO
Central retinal arterial occlusionCRVO
Central retinal vein occlusionCR-39
Columbia Resin 39Ct
Computer vision syndromeD
Distance between lensesDBR
Distance between rimsDk
Extracapsular cataract extractionEOG
Early receptor potentialEUA
Examination under anaesthesiaEW
Extended wear contact lensFAZ
Foveolar avascular zoneFM100
Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue testftcs
Front vertex powerGAG
Giant papillary conjunctivitisHEMA
Intracapsular cataract extractionIO
Infrared, inferior rectusJ
Jaeger type notationKCS
Levator palpebrae superiorisLR
Low vision aidM
Minimum angle of resolutionMR
N system of notationn
Index of refractionnm
Oculus dexter, i.e. right eyeOKN
Oculus sinister, i.e. left eyeOU
Oculus uterque, i.e., both eyesPAL
Progressive addition lensPAM
Potential acuity meterPAS
Peripheral anterior synechiaePD
Perception of lightPMMA
Primary open-angle glaucomaPVD
Posterior vitreous detachmentPXF
Relative afferent pupillary defectRE
Rigid gas permeable contact lensRPE
Retinal pigment epitheliumSO
Abbé's number/constringence/V-value, visionVA
Visual evoked potentialVER
Visual evoked responseVKC
Angle lambda; wavelength¥