Nursing Education BT Basavanthappa
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1Nursing Education
2Nursing Education
Second Edition
BT Basavanthappa MSc (N) PhD Professor and Principal (Retired) Government College of Nursing, PhD Guide for Research Work Bengaluru, Karnataka, Member Faculty of Nursing, RGUHS, Karnataka Academic Council, RGUHS, Karnataka Examiner UG and PG Courses on Nursing, Various Universities Ex-Programme Incharge IGNOU, BSc Nursing Course, Karnataka and Goa, India Life Member Nursing Research Society of India, New Delhi Trained Nurses Association of India, New Delhi President RGUHS, Nursing Teachers Association, Karnataka, India Winner Bharat Excellence Award and Gold Medal Vikas Ratan Gold Award UWA Life Time Achievement Award Shree Veeranjaneya “Shrujanashri” Award
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Nursing Education
© 2009, BT Basavanthappa
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 2003
Reprint: 2004
Second Edition: 2009
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at Ajanta Offset and Packagings Ltd, New Delhi4
My parents
My nursing profession
My dear students5
6Preface to the Second Edition
It gives me immense pleasure and satisfaction to introduce the second edition of Nursing Education to nursing community. In offering this title, I remain grateful to readers who supported my all titles on nursing, i.e. Fundamentals of Nursing, Community Health Nursing, Medical Surgical Nursing, Midwifery and Reproductive Health Nursing, Pediatric Child Health Nursing, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Nursing Administration, Nursing Research and Nursing Theories.
Now the nursing practice has become more exciting and autonomous than ever. The need for strong, differentiated educational preparation of nurses at all levels will be crucial. More nurses will recognize the value of bachelor's degree for beginning professional practice and master's degree for speciality practice. More will pursue doctoral degree to prepare for research and theory development. In response, colleges of nursing will expand flexible educational programs to improve across. They will also develop differentiated levels of nursing education than correspond to differentiated levels of practice.
The aim of this book is to provide an easy-to-read thought giving practical guidance to nursing education. It assumes no previous knowledge of nursing education and intended for any health care professional like nurses, midwives, and health visitors engaging in nursing education. It will be of use to newly qualified teachers, nursing students or staff to become a teacher in nursing, as well as more experienced teachers to impart knowledge to their students and junior colleagues.
Many of us will have experience that it is only after having finished a course of study that the real learning begins, as we start to unravel some of the new ideas and transfer new knowledge into the realities of our practice.
In the first edition of this book I stated that nursing profession was facing some of the greatest challenges. The major challenge for nursing education in the future will be to produce a steady supply of well-prepared graduates in this face of aging faculty, and budgetary constraints in higher education. Since that time, the nursing profession is facing challenges and nurse educators have become increasingly complex. The increasing diversity of students, the restructuring of institutions of higher education, the diminishing financial resources, the redesigning of health care delivery system and the continuing explosion of the use of information technologies in education and practice are just a few of the issues that nursing faculty must consider when designing curricula. The shortage of nurses and nurse educators is an additional challenge that must be addressed by the nursing profession. Nursing faculty, charged with the responsibility of preparing good dedicated nursing practitioners who represent the factors of our profession, are stepping forward to meet these challenges, and others that await them on college campuses are in varied practical settings. So this title has been designed for nurse educators preparing to teach in learning communities. It is for those nurses who are interested to become teachers in nursing or who recently become teachers and who are searching for answers to the daily challenges presented in their roles as educators and for experienced teachers who are transforming teaching practice for the future.
This book is also designed for graduate students who ultimately aspire to assume a faculty teaching role, because many of expert educators contemplate retirement shortly; it is crucial that faculty begin preparing and mentoring future faculty now. I hope that this book can help influence that preparation by providing guidance on the competencies essential to the implementation of the educator's role. The whole text is an overview of methods and strategies for working with students, developing curricula, designing learning experiences, using learning resources, and evaluating students, faculty, courses and programs.
It is my belief that the knowledge of how to perform a job of teaching already embedded in everyday practice, has still to be fully identified and articulated. By regularly engaging in it, it will become a part of the critical mass of nursing teachers in this century who believe that a dynamic relation between the provision of lifelong professional development and learning teachers and to prepare nurses for quality nursing care, personal experiences of teachers are doing so well. I hope to contribute to the development of specific knowledge about nursing education in whichever environment.7
I hope all readers would feel free to continue any dialogue in relation to nursing and nursing education or comment on any aspect of this title and how it can be improved. And I am aware of manifold reasons, errors might crept in and shall feel oblige, if such errors are brought to my notice for taking proper actions. Once again, I sincerely welcome constructive criticism from readers that would help me enrich my knowledge and good suggestion will be considered in coming editions of this title.
BT Basavanthappa
8Preface to the First Edition
It gives me immense pleasure and satisfaction to introduce text on Nursing Education to nursing community. There are a number of schools and colleges of Nursing established to meet the global demands of nursing personnel but there is a need of good nursing text for preparing good nurses.
We are living in a dynamic world where man with his uncanny intellect first tried to understand the nature, then started exploiting it and after that started manipulating it. Education has to be a process which prepares the student to learn to develop a way of thinking, that is to know how to seek information and find sources for obtaining it, how to sort-out the information, how to analyze and make meaning out of it for conceptualization and application. For all this, the students must be taught to convert whatever they learn in a classroom into a more practical knowledge. The education today revolves around ideas and innovations. Besides, it is extremely essential to learn to put these ideas and innovations into practice. The real education is that which provides freedom of thought and judgment and liberation from dogmas.
We are moving in an era of accelerating change in all walks of our life, and education is no exception to it. We are developing and moving toward newer educational activities based on the knowledge of nursing science and technology.
Nurses today must retain that special vision of what they can do and the difference they can make. The feeling that one can be a small but effective part of the answer to the aches and pains of the community should be given a special sense of hope and accomplishment. There have been major changes in nursing and nursing education. The goal of nursing education is to prepare today's students to meet the challenges of tomorrow. This preparation must extend beyond mastery of facts and skills. Nurses must be able to combine competence with caring and critical thinking. They must address physiologic, psychologic, sociologic and spiritual needs of clients. Above all, they must look beyond the condition and see the ‘Man as an individual with distinctive needs’. To prepare such nurses there is a need for good teachers in nursing.
The modern teachers of nursing must possess a system of principles and habits of thinking which will guide their practices. Principles and habits of thinking have both philosophic and scientific basis. These principles and habits of thinking are universal for teaching, whether one is teaching in a practical nursing school or college or university. The variations are in techniques and will be made by competent teachers as they adjust to the different levels of maturity, backgrounds of experience and the objectives and interests of learners. For it, teachers of nursing must have relevant knowledge and deeper understanding of the subject so that the nursing students will be prepared for tomorrow as well as for today. And the distressing fact is that many nursing teachers have neither an adequate knowledge base of teaching and learning nor a mastery of nursing and related knowledge.
Keeping these concepts in mind, I made an attempt to present this text on “Nursing Education”. This book is primarily designed to fulfill the requirements of nursing students. The treatment flows logically from one chapter to another. All possible efforts have been made towards the simple but effective language. This book provides an in-exhaustive treatment of the subject in a very lucid and cogent manner so that the students grasp the subject very clearly and completely.
This book attempts to make comprehensive and critical exposition of all facts of teaching. It evaluates the comparative soundness of principles, methods, techniques and devices of teaching. The chief accent of the book is on helping nursing teachers to teach better. Its objective is strictly utilitarian. It is designed to serve as a reliable guide to the work in classroom, teaching and clinical teaching in respective area of nursing. It offers practical suggestions for teaching-learning processes as well as effective and interesting teaching in nursing education.
In addition, this book may be suitable supplementary reading for preservice and inservice nursing teachers, who are interested in keeping themselves abreast with the latest developments in the techniques of classroom teaching-learning processes and also clinical teaching-learning situations.9
This book contains 21 chapters covering the key area which includes introduction to nursing profession; concepts, philosophies, aims and functions of education; evolution of education; women and professional education; curriculum concepts, process, innovation and course planning; teaching and teaching-learning process; teaching strategies, methods and educational communication media; educational evaluation in nursing education in classroom and clinical settings; educational administration and guidance and counseling.
I have tried my level best to meet the increasing demands of faculty and students to teach and to learn in an environment characterized by rapid changes and anomalous amounts of information. This text which serves as reference manual for practicing nurse teachers can be viewed as a practical guidance.
I am aware of manifold reasons, errors might be crept in and shall feel oblige, if such errors are brought to my notice. I sincerely welcome constructive criticism from readers that would help me to enrich myself and good suggestions will be incorporated in the next editions.
BT Basavanthappa
I owe a great deal of thanks to many who encouraged and supported me with their time and valuable suggestions throughout.
Shri G Basavanappa, Former Minister of Karnataka State for having initiated and supported me to take up the “Noble Nursing Profession” as my career.
Dr (Mrs) Manjula K Vasundhra, Former Professor and HOD of Community Medicine, Bangalore Medical College, who continuously encouraged me to write texts in the field of Nursing since nursing is a major force in Medical and Health Services.
My father Shri Thukkappa, who continues to grace for the progress of my career and all-round development of my personality for the welfare of the community.
My mother Smt Hanumanthamma who continues to be a bright spot in the lives of all who knew her and whose grace gave me strength to progress in my life.
My wife Smt Lalitha, who gives meaning to my life in so many ways. She is the one whose encouragement keeps me motivated, whose support gives me strength and whose gentleness gives me comfort.
My lovely children BB Mahesh and BB Ganashree, for all the joy they provided me and all the hope that they instill in me and who bear with patience throughout my works of the nursing texts. They keep me young at heart.
Finally, my warmest appreciation goes to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, for sharing my vision for this book and giving me the chance to turn vision into reality.
In addition, I am particularly indebted to the faculty, nurses, students nurses who have put their faith in my titles to assist them on their path of excellence and I also appreciate the many users who have shared their comments and suggestions on the previous editions.