Principles of Hospital Administration & Planning BM Sakharkar
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1Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning
2Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning
BM Sakharkar MBBS, MHA, FRIPHH Formerly Director-Professor, Department of Hospital Administration Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Nagpur Professor and Head, Department of Hospital Administration NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur Maharashtra, India
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Jitendar P Vij
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
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Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning
© 2009, BM Sakharkar
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 1998
Second Edition: 2009
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at Replika
The current scenario of health care envisages preventive and curative health. The Government is trying its best to improve the primary health care since we attained independence 61 years ago. Rapid strides have been made to improve the quality of curative health care services to the people. There have been some spectacular successes such as eradication of smallpox. The infant mortality rate has also shown a steady decline. Life expectancy has doubled. The technological advances are taking place rapidly, and there is an improvement in the quality of total health care which has resulted in a rapid fall in the crude death rate from 27 per cent in 1951 to 9.8 per cent in 1991, and at present it stands at 6.4 per cent. New development in vaccinology is instrumental in providing protection against major communicable diseases.
The health care provides a three-tier system—the dispensaries of the primary health centres, the hospitals managed by the Government and the local authorities like Municipal Corporations and Hospitals managed by corporate organisations, and then tertiary care centres including the medical colleges.
As we prepare ourselves to enter the 21st century, the organisation and management of health services and hospitals will also have to change rapidly in tune with the advanced technological innovations. A thorough knowledge of proper application of the existing infrastructure would help the management to plan efficiently for acquiring more modern equipments. Organisational potency of any institution will depend on the achievement of the required output of its managers and professionals. Such organisations which are endowed with organisational potency would be able to help to achieve the desired health care goals. It is therefore very necessary that each and every professional in the organisation should be equipped with the knowledge of the managerial functions.
A brief review of the post-independent era would reveal that health services are extremely inadequate in spite of implementation of the various recommendations made by the committees appointed from time-to-time to suggest measures towards the improvement of it. We have made significant progress in the production of health professional manpower and establishment of specialised hospitals.
The concept of improving administration through education and training and by providing orientation to the administrators and heads of health care institutions has been widely accepted and practised. However, there is a need to have suitable books on the subject covering the principles of hospital administration and planning. This book will certainly fulfill the long felt need.
Some of the chapters in the book deal with general principles of management in adequate details taking into consideration the fact that these principles are to be applied by hospital administrators and planners in order to achieve maximum efficiency in providing medical services.
The chapter on Ethical and Legal Aspects of Hospital Administration which is written in the light of medical services coming under the orbit of the Consumer Protection Act is most useful to the medical fraternity to guide them and make them understand the responsibilities.
This book will be of great value not only to the medical fraternity but also to the administrators in medical and health care field and students of hospital management in improving the operational aspects of hospital planning and administration.
Dr BM Sakharkar has put in his very best which has culminated in an excellent production of this book. I hope that the contents of this book will be useful to the society and serve the community to provide better health care.
October, 1998
Snehalata S Deshmukh ms frcs fams
Vice Chancellor, University of Mumbai
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
5Preface to the Second Edition
When the first edition of Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning was published in 1998, it was the only book of its kind on the subject beside one other smaller volume, covering the varied facets of hospital administration and planning which hospital administrators as well as students of hospital administration were asking for. The book was enthusiastically welcomed and appreciated by both classes of readers. Nevertheless, commending the overall content of the book, many well-wishers and friends offered valuable suggestions for betterment of the overall content and inclusion of some additional topics. I am grateful to all these friends and well wishers for their suggestions and advice.
Appropriate changes and modifications have been incorporated in this edition as suggested by readers. Intensive Care Unit which could not be included in the previous edition due to various reasons, has now been covered. Recurrent natural and other disasters and the lackadaisical responses to them by various agencies including hospitals, prompted me to add a chapter on Disaster Management. Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules which were notified by the Government after the publication of the first edition, necessitated a major revision of the chapter on management of hospital waste. The chapter has been completely revised in the light of these Rules. With rising expectations of the people that hospitals should be obliged to provide an acceptable standard of medical care at reasonable cost, combined with increasing privatization of health care, marketing of health care services is assuming increasing importance. This subject has now been dealt with in adequate detail in a new chapter. Another new topic viz. Hospital Linen and Laundry Service has also been included in this edition.
Government support for health care has been historically low, averaging less than one per cent of the GDP at present. The private sector stands at over five per cent. The boom in health care is slated to rise from Rs 92,700 crore in 2001 to Rs 2,08,800 crore by 2012. Of this, upmarket private health care may go up to Rs 30,000 crore by 2012.
The entry of private hand in health care is not new, but the entry of big corporates is. Apart from those already in, about fifty more are slated to take off in the next three years. Because they have the wherewithal to mobilize huge resources, health care is being promoted as a brand product by large corporate hospitals, requiring a comprehensive understanding of the structure, functions, working methodologies and administrative procedures of hospitals by budding hospital administrators at all levels.
In administration, while current problems get tackled, new problems evolve. At the same time, approaches to many existing problems can throw up new opportunities. Hospital administrators are required to be alive to such situations at all times; visualize and anticipate problems in time so that they are prepared to tackle them before they turn into crisis situations. It is hoped that this revised edition would fulfill this need.
February 14, 2009
BM Sakharkar
6Preface to the First Edition
The drift from compassion and care to a shift towards technology and technical competence in the field of medical care has necessitated reshaping of hospital services. The dilemma in medical care services is, while as most of the society does not need and cannot afford high-cost technology, the demand for it is growing.
There is a great deal more to medical care than the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Hospitals are expensive to build and equip and equally expensive to maintain. With the shift towards newer diagnostic and treatment technologies, hospitals need a sizeable investment in resources and their prudent management. The challenge lies in effective planning and implementation, efficient utilisation of limited resources and providing effective medical care.
For all those involved in the provision of medical care, understanding the nuances of administration and management assumes significance in the light of the above. Ever since my days at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in the late seventies where we learnt hospital administration and management from British and American books, I felt the need for a source book covering most of the material on the subject in a single volume under one cover. This book is an attempt to meet that need by bringing together much of the knowledge pertaining to hospitals in a compact form for all those interested in better medical care.
Problems in medical care services are a direct result not only of the gap between requirement of resources and their availability but also of the inefficient manner in which they are managed. In this context, the problems of government hospitals are no more different than those of hospitals in the corporate or voluntary sector. Whether he or she is the chief executive of a charitable, a proprietary, corporate or a government hospital, the outlook, expertise and experience which a manager needs in handling problems are the same.
Starting from the current scene in hospital field, the book progresses to an understanding of the process of hospital planning in general, with outpatient services and nursing services being covered in somewhat detail.
This is followed by a discussion on planning, organising, directing and controlling which are the common ingredients of the management of any enterprise. Descriptions of individual clinical and other departments of the hospital follow. The format progresses from the general to the particular and would help to equip the administrator in effectively dealing with problems.
I do not claim exclusive credit for the book. Much of the material has been collected from professional journals, periodicals, review articles, books, discussions, personal communications and similar sources. In collecting, reviewing and collating the material, there are likely to be unintentional errors and inadvertent omissions. I take full responsibility for all such shortcomings and hope that the book will be a useful aid to health care professionals and students of hospital administration and management.
BM Sakharkar