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Living Surface Anatomy
© 2009, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 2009
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at Ajanta PressPreface
Surface anatomy is an important branch of anatomy which is used clinically. It has two subdivisions, surface marking and living surface anatomy.
Surface marking is projection of the various structures on either anterior or posterior surfaces of the body, useful for the surgeons and clinicians.
Living surface anatomy is one of the headings for first MBBS practical examination, more importantly it is of great clinical importance.
The various aspects of living surface anatomy are considered in this book. The understanding of the subject by the students is enhanced here by many illustrations.
The book comprises of three parts:
- Bony prominences, either seen (Inspection) or felt (Palpation).
- AuscultationThe living surface anatomy is mainly learned by inspection and palpation, percussion is used to some extent for lungs and abdominal organs, however, auscultation is mainly covered in physiology.Inspection includes close observation of nails, oral cavity, axillary folds, etc.Palpation includes feeling various arterial pulsation, lymph nodes, nerves, apex of heart, apices of lungs, etc.
- DemonstrationMainly includes demonstration on the subject of movements of joints and actions of muscles.
All three parts of living surface anatomy are considered region-wise in the following order:
- Superior extremity
- Inferior extremity
- Head, Face and Neck
Instructions to the Students
Before you begin, talk to the subject, explain him what you are going to do, warm your hands, be gentle to the subject. Thank the subject after you finish. Certain movements and actions, e.g. movements of inversion and eversion, actions of facial muscles can be demonstrated on your own body without using the subject.
Anatomical position may be assumed wherever possible.