Principles and Practice of Public Health Dentistry Madhusudan Krishna, Pralhad L Dasar
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1Principles and Practice of Public Health Dentistry2
3Principles and Practice of Public Health Dentistry
Madhusudan Krishna MDS Associate Professor Department of Public Health Dentistry Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India Pralhad L Dasar MDS Associate Professor Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Virajpet Coorg, Karnataka, India
4Published by
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Principles and Practice of Public Health Dentistry
© 2010, Madhusudan Krishna and Pralhad L Dasar
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the authors and the publisher.
First Edition: 2010
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Printed at :
My Parents, wife Thanuja and my son Aniketh
—Madhusudan Krishna
My Parents
—Pralhad L Dasar6
It has been our earnest endeavor to write a comprehensive yet brief book on the vast subject of Public Health Dentistry.
Early in the infancy of this book, it became quite apparent that one person could not assimilate the vast literature on this subject. But the apparent isolation of chapters and the fragmentation of materials from various authors was an issue sorted out by careful reviews and critical evaluation.
During the past 50 years, there has been an increasing amount of information available on the very broad discipline known as ‘Preventive and Community Dentistry’, a name fast becoming obsolete and being replaced more aptly and precisely by ‘Public Health Dentistry’. Very too often undergraduate students are unaware of the scientific basis of ‘dental camps’ or the purpose of the various ‘indices’ exercise they are made to carry out without having proper background knowledge of epidemiology and surveying techniques. So, a critical evaluation is included to give a more objective view of the various dental indices used.
The contents of the book are so arranged to prevent fragmentation and compartmentalization of knowledge and provide the reader a logical and rational approach to the subject to make it an exciting learning experience.
In the western countries, there has been a dramatic decline in dental caries in the past 25 years, whereas in developing countries such as ours, it is steadily on the rise due to many factors including rapid changes in dietary habits. For this reason, extensive coverage has been made on the topic of preventive dentistry. Further, the huge problem of oral cancer hangs like the proverbial ‘Damocles sword’ on our heads. Early detection and prevention of the problem is the basic duty of a Public Health Dentist, or for that matter even a general dental practitioner, in reducing the ravages of pain and death.
In recent years, the topic of Forensic Dentistry is gaining vast importance, especially for a public health dentist working in the field. The branch has superceded all previous superficial borders and is now seen as a science on its own. A chapter on this topic has therefore been included to provide the reader an in-depth knowledge of the subject. Further recognizing the role of public health dentist in Anthropology, a chapter on Dental Anthropology is included. Also we have tried to provide justice to such subjects as Computers in Dentistry and Evidence-based Dental Research which is fast becoming the purview of the dental surgeon, just as any health-service provider.
The book is divided into two sections based on the title and each section is further divided into units to facilitate easy understanding and to ensure depth in work, continuity and logical presentation.
Any endeavor in collecting and presenting such a vast body of knowledge is bound to be fraught with unforeseen errors. Though there are a good many books on this particular subject, it is our hope that this one competes with the very best.
We request our readers to fill in with any kind of constructive criticism, which we are ready to receive humbly.
Madhusudan Krishna
Pralhad L Dasar8
Many individuals have contributed, assisted, nurtured, and guided us in writing this book. As aptly elucidated by the Sanskrit subhashita, ‘Just as a thread reaches the God through the flower, so also a man acquires distinction in the company of noble gentlemen’. Indeed it has been very exciting right from arranging the author-contributor coordinating sessions to the editing of the final manuscript.
The authors wish to place on record the guidance, encouragement and sometimes the critical scrutiny by their teacher, mentor, friend and philosopher Dr. K.V.V Prasad, Head of Department, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad.
Our heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Vishwanath R for providing valuable assistance in preparing the chapters on Forensic Odontology and Epidemiology and Prevention of Oral Cancer. A further note of appreciation to Dr. Krishna Raj Ganesh for providing the chapters on Epidemiology and Prevention of Periodontal Diseases. We would also like to thank Dr. Girish R Shavi for contributing extensively in the textbook. We place on record our heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Sunitha for providing valuable information in preparing the chapters on Epidemiology and Prevention of Malocclusion.
A sincere note of gratitude goes to all the reviewers, especially Dr. Thanuja MN, Dr. Sushanth Hirekalmath, Dr. Preethi J, Dr. Pradeep, Dr Armugam, Dr. Venkatesh, Dr. Sunayna and Dr. Benley without whom this entire endeavor would have been like traveling on water on a sheet of paper.
I (Madhusudan Krishna) wish to thank my parents and family for their unrelenting support and encouragement. I also thank the critical reviews and typographical work provided by my wife in completing this work.
I (Pralhad L Dasar) wish to thank my parents and family for their love and encouragement. We wish to specially thank Shri Jitendar P Vij (Chairman and Managing Director), M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, for providing us with timely help.