Internship Textbook for General Nursing and Midwifery I Clement
Active agencies 19
Activities in simulation 65
Activities of
Ford foundation 257
Rockefeller foundation 257
Administration believes in
cost-effectiveness 182
delegation of responsibility and authority 182
effective communication 183
execution and control of work plans 182
flexibility in certain situation 183
human relations and good morale 183
Advantages of
aims of education 10
delegation 194
demonstration method 37
field trips 41
interviews 148
laboratory method 35
micro-teaching 365
care plan 85, 342
case study 82
rounds 75
questionnaires 146
role play 63
seminar 45
simulation 66
three-dimensional aids 105
workshop 53
Agencies of
education 19
United States 255
Aims of
education 10
interview 147
laboratory 32
organization 190
Annual plans (1966-69) 319
Anova 174
Areas of nursing research 158
Assessment of
head to toe of major body systems 328
duties 378
Assignments 351
Attitude scale 149
Autocratic style 226
biometrics 327
economic terms 294
nursing principles 237
principles of micro-teaching 362
Bedside nursing hours 377
Benefits of audit 267
Bivariate descriptive statistics 152
Blood pressure 326
Brain storming 351
Branches of philosophy 17
Budget 203, 205
Cardiovascular system 328
Career roles of nurse 342
Cartoon 104
incident technique 350
method 350, 378, 384
presentation 76
Central nervous system 328
Centralization vs decentralization 193
Characteristics of
audit 267
central tendency 167
chi-square test 174
community school 23
demonstration 36
economics 278
explorative research 138
good teaching aids 93
health care services in market 308
hypothesis 173
micro-teaching 361
normal curve 172
process 334
research 130
peer group 24
planning 187
qualitative research 139
role play 62
standards 264
true experiments 138
Chi-square test 174
Classification of
hospitals 210
standards 265
teaching aids 95
Code of ethics 243
Colombo plan 257
Comic strips 113
Commercial banks 313
barriers in utilization 157
errors of interpretation 157
legal issues 246
student's problem 86, 342
Communication of nursing research reports 157
as educational agency 26, 27
school 23
Compartment of planning 187
Competitive equilibrium in five health markets 306
Components of
critical thinking 336
health information system 161
in-service education 261
nursing care plan 341
process recording 59
simulation 65
Concept of
demand 302
economic growth and economic development 289
economics 279
Cone of experience 96
Constructing care plan 83, 340
for American relief everywhere 256
movement in India 317
sector 316
vs authoritarian supervision 201
Cost of health care 298
Criteria for
applying ‘t’ test 173
applying chi-square test 175
case study 81
process recording 60
seminar 44
profession 238
Critical thinking in
nursing practice 332
patient care management 335
Critical thinking
skills and subskills 336
through nursing practice 336
Criticism of lecture method 31
Data collection process 144
DCM recommendations 250
Definitions of
conferences 262
research 130
statistics 162
vital statistics 164
Delegation 194
Demand and supply
in health care 302
sides of health care market 308
Demerits 385, 387, 388
Demerits of
process recording 61
symposium 47
Democratic style 227
Dental Council of India (DCI) 250
research 137
statistics 151
study 137
Developing patient care plans 84, 341
Dioramas 114
Disadvantages of
demonstration method 37
interviews 148
laboratory method 35
care plan 86
rounds 75
questionnaires 147
role playing 64
seminar 45
simulation 66
workshop 53
Discussion techniques for
larger groups 353
small group 353
Domains of care plan 341
Dramatization 86
Economic planning 318
Economics as
art 280
normative science 285
positive science 285
science 281
Economist in today's environment 283
Education in ancient India 2
media 91
role of state 25
Eighth-five-year plan (1992-97) 321
Eleventh-five-year plan (2007-12) 322
Eliciting specific information 346
Emergency fund (UNICEF) 253
Essentials of good
project 348
questionnaire 51
Ethical issues in nursing 243
Ethics of nursing 244
Exhibits 113
Expenditure method 312
Experimental research 138
Explorative research 137
Factors affecting demand 303
Factors influencing
cost of production 299
demand 303
role play 63
ward management 380
Factors of effective supervision 198
Female reproductive system 330
Field trip 38, 41
Fifth-five-year plan (1974-79) 320
First-five-year plan (1951-1956) 318
Five ‘r's of micro-teaching 363
Flannel board 102
Flash cards 101
Flip charts 111
Focus of health economics 287
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 255
Ford foundation 257
Fourth-five-year plan (1969-74) 320
Functions of
family 20
hospital 209
Indian Red Cross 250
laboratory teaching method 33
Medical Council of India (MCI) 249
statistics 163
supervision in directing 198
television 109
WHO 251
World Bank 258
Gastrointestinal system 329
Genesis of modern teaching and its pioneers 3
Gobi strategy by UNICEF 253
Governing body 247
Health care
demand 304
markets 305
contribution to India 252
information system 160
planning in India and National Health Policy 293
plans in India 318
problems of India 290
status of India 289
Henri Fayol principles of administration or management 183
Importance of
budget 204
descriptive research 137
health 288
historical research 136
nursing research 131
planning 187
records 217
research in nursing 158
sampling 178
television 108
ward teaching 67
Important features of
law of demand 302
research approach 135
steps in good demonstration 37
values of proper use of audiovisual aids 92
Income method 311
Indian national commission for cooperation with UNESCO 254
Indian Red Cross 250
Input-output model 309
Integumentary system 330
International code of nursing ethics 244
International council (INC) of nursing 247
Introduction to
economics 277
education 1
health economics 286
nursing research 129
in nursing education 34
method 32
Laissez-Faire style 227
Law and nurse 246
positions 344
styles 226
Legal issues in nursing 245
Levels of measurements 143, 151
Macroeconomics 274, 282
Magenetic chalkboard 113
Male reproductive system 330
Meaning of
cost 298
economics 277
education 1
nursing rounds 73
patient assignment 69
philosophy 17
structured self-report 48
symposium 45
Measures of
central tendency 151, 167
dispersion or variability or scatterness 169
Medical Council of India 249
Meeting of council 250
Membership of TNAI 249
Merits of
process recording 61
project method 348
symposium 47
Methods of
clinical evaluation 355
estimating correlation 175
estimating national income in India 312
measuring national income 311
obtaining vital statistics 164
planning 189
recruitments 270
research report presentation 157
sampling 178
supervision 200
teaching 29
Microeconomics 273, 282
Micro-teaching 360
Mock-ups 107
Modes of
organizing patient care/nursing care delivery system 384
vital statistics presentation 165
Moulage 107
Multivariate statistical procedures 153
Musculoskeletal system 331
Narasimham Committee 315
National income 310
National policy on continuing education 260
Nature of
experimental approach 138
historical research 136
organization 191
population 141
staffing function 202
Ninth-five-year plan (1997-2002) 322
Nurse's responsibility in record keeping 221, 269
audit 256, 266
auditor 267
plan 339
standards in ward management 376
education 41
ethics 243
homes 343
management 235
philosophy 16
process 334
research and nurse 157
rounds 73, 74
science 238
standards 264
Objectives of
care India 256
conducting nursing research 131
FAO 255
field trip 38
health information system 161
hospital 208
interpretation 156
laboratory method 32
nursing audit 267
patient assignment 69
personnel management 232
seminar 43
supervision 197
Observation methods 148
Occupational health or industrial nurses 344
and management of nursing service unit 378
of field trip 39
Organizational structure 251
Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests 152
Participation style 227
Passive agencies 19
Patient assignments 69
Phases in case presentation 76
Phases of
micro-teaching 365
process recording 59
Philosophy of
administration 181
nursing and nursing education 16
Population and samples 140
Positive and normative economics 282
Practical guidelines for clinical practice 325
Preparation for nursing conferences 263
health care and its elements 292
nursing 388
Principles of
administration 183
budget 204
delegation 194
education and teachinglearning process 11
lecture method 30
maintaining record 268
organization 192
patient assignment 70
planning 186
puppets 106
record 218
supervision 199
symposium 46
teaching 11
ward teaching 67
workshop 53
Problems/defects in clinical evaluation 360
and health organizations 247
equities 239
ethics 243
Progressive patient/client care 387
Properties of
median 168
regression coefficient 176
Psychological tests 149
Psychosocial system 331
Public sector banks 313
Pulse 326
Puppets 105
Purposes of
budget 203
charts 99
field trip 38
laboratory 32
lecture method 29
nursing rounds 73
record 217, 268
report 220
role play 62
seminar 43
standards 264
workshop 52
analysis process 154
data management and organization 155
research 139
Qualities of speaker 44
Quantitative analysis 151
Questionnaire method 51
Questionnaires 146
Records for effective supervision 267
Regional organizations of UNICEF 253
Reproductive system 330
approach 135
process 132
related activities in nursing 158
Resources of care plan 83, 340
system 329
rate 327
Responsibilities of
head nurse 214, 376
teacher in field trip 40
Restrictions of regression 176
Rockefeller foundation 256
Role of
members in seminar 45
in research 132, 159
manager in staff development 225
statistical study 179
State and Central Governments in financing 322
Scientific vs intuitive supervision 201
Scope of
economics 280
hospital 209
Second-five-year plan (1956-61) 319
Seminar 42
Seventh-five-year plan (1985-90) 321
Sixth-five-year plan (1980-85) 320
Skewness and kurtosis 172
Skill required for conducting conference 263
Sources of
cartoon 104
case data 81
finance 313
information 161
nursing care standards 265
Span of control 192
Specimens 114
Steps for calculating anova 174
Steps in
budgeting 206
clinical evaluation 354
computing SD 170
control process 195
developing questionnaire 50
nursing case study 81
preparation and presentation of seminar 43
process recording 59
research process 133
scientific method 238
simulation 65
Strategy of micro-teaching 362
Supervision of nursing procedures 269
Supply of health care 304
Symposium 45, 46
‘t’ test 173
Technical vs creative supervision 201
Techniques of
laboratory method 33
supervision 201
symposium 47
Techniques to conduct seminar 44
Tenth-five-year plan (2002-2007) 322
Terminology in economics 273
Tests of sound measurements 178
Third-five-year plan (1961-66) 319
Trained Nurses Association of India (TNAI) 248
Trends in modern education and teaching 5
Types of
auditing 267
blackboards 97
case study 82
charts 99
clinical evaluation 354
control system 196
correlation 175
cost 299
demonstration 36
diagrams and charts 166
experimental approach 139
field trips 39
graphs 100
hypothesis 173
important vital statistics 165
interviews 147
law 246
audit 357
conferences 262
observation procedures 148
patient assignment 70
planning 188
population 140
puppets 105
qualitative research 140
question 146
record 218
regression 176
report 220
research approaches 135
sampling method 141
simulation 64
staff development program 224
statistics 163
supervision 200
tabulation 165
television programs 108
ward rounds 73
ward teaching program 67
UNESCO activities 254
UNICEF in India 253
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 255
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 254
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 254
Unity of command 193
Urinary system 329
Uses of
averages or measures of central tendency 167
chi-square test 174
health information 161
lecture method 30
normal distribution and curve 172
nursing conference 263
process recording 58
role play in nursing 63
simulation 66
standard deviation 171
statistics 163
symposium 47
vital statistics 164
Variability 152
Video tape recorder (VCR) 110
Vital statistics 164
class 350
clinics 350
teaching program 349
WHO expert committee criteria 161
Working methods of workshop 53
World Bank 257
World Health Organization (WHO) 251
Chapter Notes

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Introduction to Education1

The word education derived from the Latin word educare which means to lead out. This derivation canotes growth from the within. Thus, the root meaning of education can be given as making manifest the inherent potentials in child. The idea of education is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil in some subjects but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which may successfully face the future. Education is the process of helping the child to adjust with this changing world. By means of education the child is subjected to certain experiences that are intended to modify his behavior in order to bring about proper adjustment with the changing environment. In fact, education is the basis of life. For leading a purposeful and ideal life is needed.
Education is for knowledge and know-how, for the development of esthetic and ethical skills, for artistic and intellectual creativity, for artistic and moral development, for self-discovery, for pursuit in search of truth, for intellectuality, for social equality and social efficiency, for ability, for emancipation and eternal happiness, for integrated growth and international understanding, for good citizenship, for democracy, for national integration, for delight, for leisure, for an obscure enjoyment, for ornament and for vocation. Education is for culture, for respecting human values, for refinement and sophisticity in characterization, for bringing up the posterity in a knowledgeable manner, for material prosperity, for employment, for building up a healthy society, for understanding human right, human duties and human dignity, for inculcating discipline, for quelling the savage and brutish qualities in the human being, for complete living so on and so forth are the main tenets of education, to name but a few. Education emancipates the human beings from oddities and infirmities. It is also a process of self-realization hind emancipation.
  1. Education modifies the behavior. It brings such changes in the behavior of a child which is for his good. In the past, the education of a child meant the filling up of the child's mind with stuffed knowledge.
  2. The modern education aims at the harmonious development of the personality of the child. The schools and the teachers are to create such situation were the personality can be developed freely and fully.2
  3. Education is a social process; its main concern is the modification of behavior. Thus, educational psychology studies the human behavior as it is influenced by the social process of education.
  4. It also studies and investigates those processes that lead to the understanding of the way in which behavior is modified through education.
Philosophers and thinkers and their views:
Sl. No
384-322 BC
Creation of a sound mind in a sound body.
427-347 BC
Developing the body and the soul of all the perfections which they are capable of.
469-399 BC
Dispelling error and discovering truth.
551-478 BC
Development of the whole man.
Comenius, John Amos
Development of the whole man.
Locke, John
Attainment of a sound mind in a sound body.
Joseph Addison
Belived, what scupture is to a block of marble, education is to a human being.
Pestalozzi JH
Natural, harmonious and progressive development of man's innate powers.
Herbart, Johann Friedrich
Developing morality.
Feoebel, Friedrich
Leading and guiding for peace and unity with god.
Aurobindo Sir
Building of human mind and spirit.
Dayananda Swami
Formation of character
Dewey, John
Increasing social efficiency.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
Controlling the mind.
Spencer, Herbart
Preparing for complete living
1861- 1941
Tagore Ravindranath
Making life in harmony with existence.
Vivekananda Swami
Manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.
Gandhi MK
An all round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit.
Montessori, Maria
Helping in the complete unfolding of the child's individuality.
Radha Krishnan, Sarvapalli
Training the intellect, refinement of the heart and discipline of the spirit.
Vedas, Aranyakas and the Upanishads give us the glimpses of the values and ideals of learning and educational system during the ancient period. When we go through these texts, one thing which comes to our mind, is the teacher who was worthy of highest reverence next only to one's parents. System was to lay great emphasis on acquisition of knowledge, discipline of the mind and body. The father was considered as the first teacher and the home as the first school. Vidyarambha (starting of education) was an important ceremony to initiate the primary education.
Education was always started with keeping in mind the auspicious day in the fifth year, i.e. akhsharamba. The next step was Upanayana a ceremony to mark the beginning of upper three 3classes. It was assumed as the second birth, i.e. dhviaja. A person achieves spiritual and cultural re-birth through a life of learning, austerity, discipline of body and mind through brahmacharya.
According to thinkers in ancient India, Vidya or knowledge or learning or education was considered the third eye of man, which gives him an insight into all affaires and teaches him how to act; it leads us to our salvation: In the mundane sphere, it leads us to all round progress and prosperity.
The concept of education is like a diamond which appears to be of different colors (nature) when seen from different angles-points of view or philosophy of life. There are four important reasons for different definitions and interpretation of education.
  1. Complex nature of human personality.
  2. Complex nature of environment of a society.
  3. Different philosophies of life.
  4. Different educational theories and practices.
Education Implies
  1. Act of drawing out.
  2. Act of extracting out.
  3. Act of learning forth.
  4. Act of leading out.
  5. Act of teaching.
  6. Act of training.
Chief Characteristics of Education
  1. Education is a bipolar as well as tripolor process.
  2. Education is a child-centered process.
  3. Education is a psychological process.
  4. Education is not literacy.
  5. Education is a sociological process.
  6. Education is a life-long process.
  7. Education is more than instruction and teaching.
  8. Education is a deliberate as well as informal process.
  9. Education is more than giving informations.
  10. Education is developing knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Sl. No
Roger Ascham
An English Scholar and Author. He worked treatise an education. The school master in which he talked about the relation between teacher and pupil, the nature of children, the teaching of grammar, the development of morals and the selection of those who can become scholars.
Richard Mulcaster
An English Scholar. He believed in the principle of individual differences and the principle of readiness. His revolutionary idea was regarding teacher's training.
Sl. No
French Essayist and Scholar. He set down his views in his two essays, on the education of children and on pedantry. He said this great world is true mirror wherein we must look in order to know ourselves as we should.
Bacon, Francis
English Philosopher, he would like the man to be the architect of his own success. He pleaded for the liberal education.
Commeniuus, John Amos
Czechoslavian Educationist, textbook writer a pioneer of modern educational sciences. He believed in the process of natural growth of the child.
Descartes, Rene
French Mathematician and Philosopher. He penned his views in his Le Monde (The world). He advanced the revolutionary theory that the earth was in motion.
Lock, John
English Philosopher. In an essay concerning human understanding, he was concerned primarily with the question of how the mind acquires knowledge and he emphatically.
Rousseau, Jean Jaques
Swiss Educational Reformer. True education, he said, is simply the development of the original nature of man. Therefore, he stressed that child should be treated as a child a taught according to his nature.
Basedow, Johann Bernhard
Swiss Educator. He was of the view that all education should be by means of play, pleasant and entertaining. Games were devised for teaching the languages and to develop motor control.
Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich
Swiss Educator. He named his direct method of acquiring knowledge as Anschaung which stands for direct knowledge acquired by the pupils own experience.
Herbart, Johann, Friedrich
German Educator and Philosopher. He is best known for his formal steps of lesson planning. He wrote several books- relation of school to life, encyclopedia of philosophy.
Frobel, Friedrich, Wilhelm August
German Educator and Founder of the Kinder Garden Method.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
American Educator, Moralist, Essayist and Poet. The drill and discipline, Emerson whished, should be made parts of a process which arouses the child to exercise his natural vigor.
Spencer, Herbart
English Educator and Philosopher. He recorded some important maxims of teaching from simple to complex, from known to unknown from concrete to abstract, etc.
Binet, Alfred
French Experimental Psychologist. He is noted for Binet-Simson Scale. Regarding the proper foundation of pedagogy, he said Believe that the determination of aptitudes of children is the greatest business of instruction and education.
Dewey, John
American Educators, Philosopher and Writer. He is best known for his pragmatic philosophy which has been variously termed as experimentism, instrumentalism, and operationalism or functional.
Tagore, Rabindranath
Indian Poet and Educational Practitioner. The traditional school to him was more like a pigeon holed box than a human habitation. His publication A poet's school shows the place of nature in life and education. He established his famous school Shantiniketan on the model of ancient ashrams in sylvan surroundings.
Sl. No
Whithead, Alfred North
American educator. He wrote do not teach too many subjects. What you teach thoroughly.
Gandhi MK
Indian Freedom Fighter, Patriot, Philosopher, Statesman, Educator and Originator of basic system of education which has dealt with separately.
Montessori, Maria
Italian educator known for her Montessori method which is discussed separately.
Kilpatrick, William Heard
American Educator. He promoted the concept of the project method.
Keller, Helen Adams
A pioneer in the education of the deaf.
Aurobindo, Sir
Indian Philosopher, Sage and Educator. He wrote every child is an inquirer, an investigator, and analyzer. The chief aim of teaching should be to help the growing soul to draw out.
Lane, Homer Tryrrel
British Educator. He was a firm believer in self-government in educational institutions and for caring out his ideas into practice; he started the little commonwealth a reformatory school in 1912.
Parkkhurst, Helen
Originator of the famous Dalton planner Contract plan, based on three principles of freedom, cooperation and budgeting the time.
Sukhomlinsky, Yasily
Russian educator. He analyzed collective influences among their children. His most important publication is to children I give my heart
Independent India
Sl. No
Dr Radhakrishnan
University Education Commission of 1948, Dr Radhakrishnan was the chairman of this commission.
Dr Mudaliar
Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53, Dr Mudaliar was the chairman.
AS Kothari
Kothari Education Committee of 1964-66, chairman was AS Kothari.
  1. Education for all and compulsory primary education and adult literacy.
  2. Enlarged concept of education in terms of 7R's against the traditional 3R's.
  3. Meeting individual differences of pupils.
  4. Teaching by learning (studying) in pupils.
  5. Activity/project control teaching.
  6. Socialization of the child through group dynamics.
  7. Pupil as an adventurer, discoverer, explorer and inquirer being inplace of a passing being.
  8. Socialization of pupils through group work.
  9. Diversified curriculum with core subjects and activities.
  10. Teaching-learning by a variety of techniques and aids.6
  11. Teaching-learning a cooperative affair.
  12. Student's involvement in some aspects of school administration.
  13. Liberal as well as vocational learning.
  14. Due consideration to the individuality of the child.
  15. Use of electronic media in teaching-radio, TV, teaching machines, computers, language laboratory, etc.
  16. Compulsory education for weaker students.
  17. Enrichment programs for the gifted.
  18. Educational and vocational guidance.
  19. Integrated and correlation of subjects.
  20. Constructive, creative and social discipline.
  21. Freedom for the child, no corporal punishment.
  22. New and enlarged methods of appraisal and evaluation.
  23. Parental and community cooperation
  24. New demands on teachers.
New modes of education- correspondence distance and open.
John Dewey says, “Activity with an aim is all one acting intelligently”.
To endow utmost benefit to the society, the aims of education have to be determined. What are its goals? What are the aims and objectives? Education is one of the basic activities of people in all human societies. Education is a main component necessary for the survival of the society. The continued existence of society depends upon the transmission of culture to the young. Every new generation must be Liven training in the way of the group so that the same tradition will continue.
Every society has its own ways and means of fulfilling this need. Hence, education has to be one of the ways of fulfilling this ever increasing need.
The great thinker and philosopher Plato explains the aim of education is to allow the individual to develop along the line of his own greatest powers. According to Athenians, it was the harmonious development of body and mind. There are many a number of aims of education. It changes according to the period in prevailing situation and prevailing philosophy of life. Political ideology, religious precepts, social problems, economic soundness so and so forth is also determining factors of the aims of education. The Education Act, 1944 of England pronounces the objectives of education as “Happier childhood and the better start of life”. Americans elaborated the aim of education as “education should be guided by a clear conception of the meaning of democracy”. This was during the time of the First World War.
Political ideologies do become a governing factor in determining the aims of education. JF Brown is of the view that “Education in any country at all periods reflects values of its ruling class”. The utilitarian aims of education are legion. Nevertheless, we may spellout a few of the aims:
  1. Education for knowledge
  2. Education for character transformation
  3. Education for vocation
  4. Education for culture
  5. Education for spiritualizm and moral values
  6. Education for leisure and pass time
  7. Education for individual development
  8. Education for social justice
  9. Education for social efficiency social development
  10. Education for complete living
  11. Education for citizenship
  12. Education for democracy.
zoom view
Fig. 1.1: Aims of education
In ancient India, the aim to make the man with right thinking, right attitude and right conduct and to honor the moral values of the society. The four major aims of education were Dharma and on its basis Artha; Kama and Moksha. Reasoning, analysis and synthesis were the extolled and popular methods of study. Education was mainly for awakening and to make the man to live harmoniously and peacefully.
The aim of education as visualized by Rabindranath Tagore is “Enabling the mind to find out that ultimate truth which emancipates us from the bondage of dust and gives the wealth not of things but of inner light, not of power, but of love, making thus its own and giving expression to it.8
With the advent of modern civilization, there appears to be erosion in the moral values. With a view to surmount this irreparable loss, education should serve as a catalyst in bringing the equilibrium. It is at this juncture the assiduous efforts of the teacher for value based.
Education is mostly a planned and purposeful activity it must have clear aims and objectives, in view. An aim is predetermined goal which inspires the individual to attain it through appropriate activities. Similarly, without an end or objective no purposeful activity will have the real force which directs it, and makes it meaningful.
Sl. No
Need for the aims
1. Education is a purposeful and organized activity which deliberately endeavors to modify the behavior of educed.
2. Acting with an aim is all one with acting intelligently. The aim makes us act with a meaning.
3. The aims help us to measure our success and failures.
4. The aim of education, keep both the teacher and the taught on the right track.
Factors determine
1. Philosophy—philosophy determines the aims of education.
2. Elements of human nature are always considered for the determination of educational aims.
3. Religious factors—Buddhism emphasized the inculcation of the ideals of that religion.
4. Political ideologies—the educational aims of a democratic political system can be quite different from that of an autocratic political set-up.
5. Socioeconomic factors and problems of a country.
6. Cultural factors—sociocultural heritage of a country have a great influence on the aims of education.
7. Exploration of knowledge—education today is science-oriented and technology based. It has to aim at exploring new information.
Educational aims in relation to time and space
Educational aims cannot be fixed for all times, all places.
1. Education is not a single-aim activity.
2. Human nature is multisided with multiple needs.
3. Educational aims are correlated to ideals of life.
4. The different types of education, such as general, technical, nursing, medical, commercial, etc. have separated aims for themselves.
Individual aims of education
Education should aim at the training and development of the individual. The individual aim of education is stressed on the following grounds, i.e. biological, naturalists, psychological, spiritual and progressive.
1. Biological: Every child that comes to this world is a new and a unique product and a new experiment with life. The biologist believes that every individual is different from others.
2. Naturalistic standpoint: According to the naturalist, the central aim of education is the autonomous development of the individual. It is therefore, that education should be according to nature which would make an individual what he ought to be.
3. Psychological standpoint: The psychologists are of the opinion that education is an individual process. No two children are identical in intellectual capacity and emotional disposition.
4. Spiritual or moral standpoint: Since spiritual development of man is individual, the man function of education should be leaded the individual to self-realization and the realization of higher values in life.
5. Progressive standpoint: The progressivist is of the opinion that the progress and advancement of mankind is due to great individuals, born in different periods of history. They include great scientist, inventors, explorer, religious leaders, social reformers, philosophers and the like.
Sl. No
Social aims of education
Individuality is of no value and personality a meaningless term apart from the social environment in which they are developed and made manifest.
1. State socialism: The state has the right to mould and shape the individual so as to suit its purposes and progress. It uses education as the most convenient means for preparing individuals to play different roles in society.
2. Willing obedience to authority: Social aims in their extreme form tell us that state is an idealized metaphysical entity over and above the individual citizen superior to him in every way, transcending him in all his desires and aspirations.
3. Social aim of education: Historical evidence:
  1. Ancient Sparta where each man was born for himself but for his country, having not a wish but for country, affords a perfect example.
  2. Modern Germany also before World War Second had a fanatical belief in the absolute value of the state and educational system there, like that of sparata, was merely material.
  3. Roman Catholic doctrine also affords such an example. The slogan of extreme social aim has been everything of the state, for the state and by the state.
4. Social aim of education in democratic countries: In democratic countries, however, the social aim of education is interpreted as education for social service or education for citizenship.
  1. Society is considered to be efficient only when it is physically strong, intellectually enlightened, economically self-sufficient and morally high.
  2. It is only such individuals can contribute richly toward the welfare of that society. In democratic countries, therefore, education aims at developing socially-efficient individuals who are ready to sacrifice their own desires if their satisfaction is harmful to others or if does not contribute to social progress.
  3. John Dewey says, in the democratic and technological environment, the aim of education should be to enable the individual to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities.
Specific aims of education
1. Vocational development:
  1. It makes one economically self-sufficient. b.
  2. Vocational aim purpose to educational activity.
  3. Vocational education is the only hope of children with lower intelligence.
  4. Vocational education is essential for bridging the gap in society.
2. Cultural aim: Human race has a rich heritage in the form of traditions, manner and customs which is called culture. It is to be conserved and transmitted to the raising generalization through the agency of education, which is both a conservative and a dynamic force.
3. Spiritual aim: Ancient Indian educators defined education as a means for salvation. The idealist proclaims that the only aim of education is to develop the spiritual side of an individual.
4. Moral aim: Mahatma Gandhi, the embodiment of morality says, education of heart, or moral education is the prime most function of education to provide. If it is to be worthy of its name.
Aims of education in independent India
The secondary education commission of 1952 (Mudaliar Commission) suggested the following aims of education in free India.
1. Democratic citizenship—clear thinking, speech, writing for growth of nation.
2. Development of personality—all round development.
3. Development of leadership—should train the youth.
4. Vocational efficiency—creates a new attitude towards work.
5. Initiating students to the art of living—learn the art of harmonious living.
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The Kothari Education Commission of 1964-66 proposed some more aim of education in India.
1. Education for increased productivity—production of man power.
2. Social and national integration—inculcate the feeling of oneness and belongingness.
3. Education for modernization—update scientific and technological advancement.
4. Education for social, moral and spiritual values—the curriculum should include instruction in these subjects.
Aims of nursing education in India
Nursing education has its aims in common with the aims of education in general as well as its specific aims.
1. Nursing manpower development—well qualified professions.
2. Knowledge aim—impart scientific and up-to-date knowledge.
3. Leadership aim—preparation of nurses as good leader.
4. Professional development aim—ethics and standards
5. Personality development aim—all round development.
6. Nursing research—scientific investigation is essential.
7. Democratic citizenship—responsible and contributing citizen of the country.
Importance of Aims of Education
  1. Education is purposeful, useful and planned activity.
  2. It is undertaken by the educator (teacher) and the educed (child) to achieve the clear cut aims of life.
  3. Without aims purposeful activity cannot be achieved. Absence of aims makes the activity haphazard, confused and chaotic.
  4. Without aims neither an individual nor an institution can realize the potentialities of education.
Aims of Education
  1. An activity which has beginning, an end and an interviewing process between the two can be said an aim.
  2. John Dewey defined, an aim implies an orderly and ordered activity, one in which the order consists in the progressive completion of a process.
  3. A consists in the systematic nature of activity and sense of order to the activity. So in simple terms an aim is a foreseen end that gives direction to the activity.
Advantages of Aims of Education
  1. An aim of education directs the child to accomplish the goals of life.
  2. It gives fore-sight to the education for effective planning.
  3. It stimulates both teacher and taught to know what the out-come will be before the completion of an activity.
  4. It makes the individual child to act with meaning and intelligence.
  5. It keeps both the teacher and taught on right path.11
Educational Aims are not Fixed for All Times
Education is not a single aim of activity. It has many aims. It is not limited to a particular stage of individual life. It is for different stages and for different levels. When educational aims are formulated, the educators should consider the unique needs, characteristics and the level of mental development of individual child. For example, the aims of education for primary stage are not the same as that of the secondary or university stage.
Human Needs is Multisided and Multiple Needs
Single aim of education cannot meet the requirements of the multilateral nature of man. For example, the teacher cannot attend to the body ignoring mind and spirit. Similarly, we cannot afford to give training for a profession which ignores morality. He should follow an educational program which can meet the multiple needs of the child.
Educational Aims are Correlative to the Ideas of Life
The ideas of life change from time-to-time and country-to-country according to the changes in political, social, economic and physical conditions. So educational aims are also change according to the different schools of philosophies, religious, social, and scientific influences. It is clearly stated in the report of secondary education commission that, as political, social and economic conditions change and new problems arise. It becomes necessary to re-examine carefully and re-state clearly the objectives which education at each stage should keep in view.
Principles of Teaching
The educators and philosophers have emphasized certain principles of teaching which the teachers are expected to bear in mind for making their teaching effective, efficient and inspirational. Sometimes, these principles are classified as psychological and general principles.
Psychological Principles of Teaching
  1. Principle of activity or learning by doing: Children are active by nature and they process or method that is not based upon the student activity is not in accord with the progressive educational theories. Activity does not mean mere physical activity. If a pupil is to develop all sides of his personality, then it is necessary for him to be active in all ways, to exercise all the power he has.
  2. Principle of play way: This principle is closely related to the principle of learning by doing. According to Froebel, play is the chief activity of childhood. It gives joy, freedom, contentment and inner and outer peace. It holds the source of all that is good. But without rational conscious guidance. Froebel says, childish activity degenerates into aimless play instead of preparing for those tasks of life for which it is designed. Play comes from within. It is a voluntary activity and is the mainfestated of creative urge.12
  3. Principle of motivation: The teacher will do his best to motivate all children in the lesson. Motivation arouses the interest of children and once they become interested, they are willing to concentrate and work. Motivation is developed by following techniques:
    1. Utilizing the instinctive tendencies of the children in an effective manner.
    2. Satisfying the curiosity of children.
    3. Utilizing all the senses of children.
    4. Relating closely body and mind.
    5. Linking teaching-learning with life.
  4. Principle of self education: Best teaching is enabling the child learn by his own efforts. Teacher must fire the imagination of their students. Children, we are told, must be left free to express themselves for the best education is self education. Teachers, we are told, must stand aside. They must talk less, explain less and direct less.
  5. Principle of individual differences: No two children are alike. Teaching to be effective must cater to individual differences of children.
  6. Principle of goal setting: A definite goal must be set before each child according to the standard expected of him. Short-term or immediate goals should be set before small children and distant goals for older ones. It must be remembered that goals should be very clear and definite and the children must understand these goals.
  7. Principle of stimulation: Burton has said, teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning. Ryburn emphasizes these aspects in these words; the guidance of the teacher is mainly a matter of giving the right kind of stimulus to help him to learn the right things in the right way.
  8. Principle of association: Thorndike points out those things we want to go together should be put together. Many different things or ideas which we want to go together should be associated with each other. They should form a part of one process. Then it becomes easier to make the student's understand their relationship.
  9. Principle of readiness: This principle is indicative of learner's state of mind to participate in the teaching-learning process. Readiness is preparation for action. A teacher must be alive to his principle.
  10. Principle of effect: This principle states a response is strengthened if it is followed by pleasure and weakened is followed by displeasure.
  11. Principle of exercise or repetition: According to it, the more a stimulates induced response is required, the longer it will be retained. Other things being equal, exercise strengthens the bond between situation and response. Conversely a bond is weakened through failure to exercise it. Thus the principle has two sub-parts, (1) Principle of use and, (2) Principle of disuse.
  12. Principle of change and rest: Psychological experiments in learning have demonstrated that fatigue, lack of attention and monotony can be overcome by making appropriate provision for change, rest and recreation. While farming the time table it is kept in view that subjects and activities are provided in such a way that the students do not experience boredom and fatigue. Usually, two consecutive periods of a subject are not provided in a class.
  13. Principle of feedback and reinforcement: Learning theories point out that the immediate knowledge of the results and positive reinforces in the form of praise, grade, certificates, token money and other incentives can contribute to make the task of learning joyable.
  14. Principle of training senses: Senses are said to be the gateways of knowledge. The power of observation, discrimination, identification, generalization and application can only be appropriately developed through the effective functioning of senses.13
  15. Principle of group dynamics: Under the influences of group behavior, appropriate changes in the behavior of the members of the group can take place. Individuals composing the group think and feel as the group feels, do as the group does. A suitable climate foe group dynamics is to be created in the classroom environment.
  16. Principle of creativity: Opportunities should be provided the student to explore things and events and find cause-effect relationships. The principle envisages that every student possesses some element of creativity which must be explored and developed to the maximum extent.
  17. Principle of correlation: Gandhi was of the firm view that correlation should be the basis of all work. He advocated that correlation of the learning task should be established with the craft, physical and social environment.
Successful teaching necessitates that the teacher comes down to the level of the pupils and at the same time assists them in rising above it. To a great extent, the principles of teaching to be followed depend upon the age of the pupils, the subjects and topic of the lesson. However, there are certain general principles which should underline the teaching of all subjects. As already stated, there is no clear-cut dividing line between psychological and general principles of teaching.
  1. Principle of definite goals or objectives: Destination or goals of teaching-learning must be clear to the teachers and students. Goals and objectives keep the teachers and students on the track. Definiteness of goals helps in planning, executing and evaluating every step, phases or act of the teaching-learning process.
  2. Principle of child centeredness: The entire teaching endeavor is for the child. Therefore, it is essential that teaching strategies should cater to the aptitude, interest and abilities of the students. In the drama of education, child should be assigned the role of hero.
  3. Principle of individual differences.
  4. Principle of linking with life: Teaching can never be performed in vacuum. It is always in a social context. In the teaching of all the school subjects, examples from everyday life should be given their due place.
  5. Principle of correlation: Knowledge is one whole. Various ideas and events are inter-related. There exist links among various subjects. Correlation of the present events can be made with the past similarly future can be visualized on the basis of the present happenings or state of affairs. Gandhi propounded his system of basic education with correlation as its cornerstone-correlation with the craft, correlation with the physical environment and correlation with social environment.
  6. Principle of active involvement and participation of students: Teaching and learning is a two-way traffic. Traditional teaching was almost teacher-centered. There was very little scope for the involvement of the students. The teacher taught and the students listened to him passively. The new teaching emphasizes that the students must actively participate in all the stages and steps of teaching-learning.
  7. Principle of cooperation: Classroom environment becomes lively when the teacher and taught work in unison, helping each other in carring out the task of teaching and learning. All the participants have the same common interest. Naturally, they must cooperate with teacher.
  8. Principle of remedial teaching: All students do not learn with the same speed and accomplishment. Some lag behind and need extra coaching. The teacher has to find out where the fault lies and 14think for positive measures. He may have to arrange for remedial or compensatory or extra teaching for any particular group of students for removing their specific difficulties.
  9. Principle of creating conductive environment: Physical as well as social environment of the classroom plays a vital role in motivating the learners. Arrangement of light and furniture, etc. should be properly attended to. There should be proper discipline and order. The teacher should be sympathetic but firm.
  10. Principle of planning: Planning determines the quality or success of any task. Planning in teaching involves the preparation of the lesson notes. Provision of teaching aids, and working out strategies to be adopted in the delivery of the lesson.
  11. Principle of effective strategies: Teaching process to be effective must adopt proper means, strategies and tact's. A teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, desired learning behavior in terms of goals of instruction and outline of planned tactics necessary to implement the strategy.
  12. Principle of flexibility: Strategies should serve as guides for effective teaching. Strategies may have to be changed if the classroom situations or warrant. Teaching is a complex task and a live phenomenon. The possibilities of alternation in planned strategies cannot be ruled out at the execution stage. A teacher must be quite imaginative and resourceful for adopting himself and his teaching to be requirements of the teaching-learning environment.
  13. Principle of verity: A variety of teaching aids and strategies should be adopted to motivate and sustain the interests of the students. Variety serves as great tonic for creating fresh environment and checking boredom and lethargy.
The maxims of teaching are very helpful in obtaining the active involvement and participation of the learners in the teaching-learning process. They quicken the interest of the learner and motivate them to learn. They make learning effective, inspirational, interesting and meaningful. They keep the students attentive to the teaching-learning process. A good teacher should be quite familiar with them. Now we proceed to discuss them.
  1. Proceed from the known to the unknown: The most natural and simple way of teaching a lesson is to be proceed from something that the students already know to those facts which they do not know. What is already known to the students is of great use to the students. This means that the teacher should arouse the interest in a lesson by putting questions on the subject matter already known to the pupils. The teacher is to proceed step-by-step to connect the new matter to the old one. New knowledge cannot be grasped in a vacuum.
  2. Proceed from simple to complex: The simple task or topic must be taught first and the complex one can follow later on. The word simple and complex are to be seen from the point of view of the child and not that of an adult. We would be curbing the interest and initiative of the children by presenting them complex problems before the simpler ones are presented.
  3. Proceed from easy to difficult: We must graduate our lessons in order of ease of undertaking them. Student's standards must be kept in view. This will help in sustaining the interest of the students. In determining what is easy and what is difficult, we have to take into account the psychological make-up of the child. Logically viewed one skill may be easy but psychologically it may be difficult. There are many things which look easy to us but are in fact difficult for children. The interest of the children has also to be taken into account.
  4. Proceed from the concrete to the abstract: A child's imagination is greatly aided by a concrete material. Things first and words after is the common saying. Children in the beginning cannot think in abstracts. Small children learn first from things which they can see and handle. Very young pupils learn counting with the help of pebbles, etc. a child understands is aeroplane with the help of a model. Actual visits to canals and rivers provide a clear idea of them. A lesson in geography can be made interesting with the help of models, pictures and illustrations of bridges, rivers and mountains, etc. Care must be taken exercised to ensure that the students do not remain at the concrete stage all the times. This is only the initial step for children with a view to reach the higher stage of abstraction as they advance in age.
  5. Proceed from particular to general: Before giving principles and rules, particular examples should be presented. As a matter of fact a study of particular facts should lead the children themselves to frame general rules. The rules of arithmetic, of grammar, of physical geography and almost of all sciences are based on the principle of proceeding from particular instances to general rules.
  6. Proceed from indefinite to definite: Ideas of children in the initial stages are indefinite, incoherent and very vague. These ideas are to be made definite, clear, precise and systematic. Effective teaching necessitates that every word and idea presented should stand out clearly in the child's mind as a picture. For classifying ideas, adequate use mus are made of actual objectives, diagrams and pictures. Every possible effort should be make the children interested in the lesson.
  7. Proceed from empirical to rational: Observation and experience are the basis of empirical knowledge. Rational knowledge implies a bit of abstraction and arguments approach. The general feeling is that the child first of all experiences knowledge in his day-to-day life and after that he feels the rational basis. For instance, plane geometry makes better sense when taught in the context of everyday life instead of it in the format of a highly abstract theory. It is always better to begin with what the children see, feel and experience then arguing and generalizing.
  8. Proceed from psychological to logical: logical approach is concerned with the arrangement of the subject matter. Psychological approach looks at the child's interests, needs, mental makeup and reactions. When we treat a subject logically, we are usually thinking of it from our own point of view and not from the point of view of the child. In psychological approach, we proceed from the concrete to the abstract, from the simple to the complex and from known to unknown. We start reading by teaching the child to read a whole sentence as it is for the adult. This is psychological approach. In drawing lesson a child has little sense in lines and curves. Logically we start with simple lines and curves but psychologically we start with drawing a whole animal.
  9. Proceed from whole to parts: Whole is more meaningful to the child than the parts of the whole. The learner sees a relationship between the central ideas of the material to be learner. The whole unit or passage for slow learner should be smaller than the whole for the fast learners.
  10. From near to far: A child learns well in the surroundings in which the resides. So he should be first acquainted with his immediate environment. Gradually, he may be taught about things which are away from his immediate environment. In a geography lesson we start from the local geography and then take up tehsil, district, state, the country and the world gradually.
  11. From analysis to synthesis: Analysis means breaking a problem into convenient parts and synthesis means grouping of these separated parts into one complete whole. Complex problems can be made simple and easy by dividing it into units.
  12. From actual to representative: When actual objectives are shown to children, they learn easily and retain them in their minds for a longer time. This is especially suitable for younger children. Representative objectives in the form of pictures, models, etc. should be used for the grown ups.
  13. Proceed inductively: This maxim include almost all the maxims stated above. In the inductive approach, we start from particular examples and establish general rules through the active participation of the learners. In the deductive approach, we assume a definition, a general rule or formula and apply it to particular examples. An example will make this distinction very clear. The farmers in India are very poor's is a general statement in the deductive type of reasoning.
Nursing Philosophy
What is the nature of nursing? What does a nurse do when a patient comes? What is the specific functional role of nursing within society? These and many others related questions are the continuing subject of many research studies, conferences, articles in periodicals. As yet, no adequate answer has been found to many of these questions.
Many of the problems and difficulties the role function of the professional nurse today and the competencies essential to the fulfillment of these functions arise from the continuing rapidly with which change is occurring in the total health care scene. Knowledge in the sciences-natural, social and psychological-contributing to health care is advancing a rate far faster the knowledge needed to apply it.
In the midst of change scene, the role function in nursing is changing continuously. Hospitals are becoming larger and more complicated; physicians are engaging in many more complex and demanding types of medical diagnosis and treatments, resulting in nursing assuming responsibility for new and more intricate procedures; various auxiliary personnel are being added to nursing staffs, thus expanding nursing functions to include more activities to management, teaching, supervision, and coordination. The addition of so many different personnel, plus the increased involvement of nursing with mechanisms, equipments, devices, etc. have caused patient care services to become fragments, with the result that nursing practice is becoming largely task oriented and focused.
Various efforts are being made in nursing to focus nursing once again on the patient. Evidence of this can be seen in thoughtful description of nursing which are appearing in the nursing literature. Nursing is a service to individuals and families to society. It is based upon an art and science which mold the attitudes, intellectual competencies, and teaching skills of the individual nurse into the describe and ability to help people, sick or well, cope with their health needs, and many be carried out under general or specific medical direction.
General Concepts Related to Philosophy
  1. A person is a unique individual with biopsychosocial and spiritual needs.
  2. A person has the right to receive optimum are regardless of race, religion, or social status.
  3. A person has the responsibility to maintain health and to participate in personal health care.
  4. Nursing is dynamic, evolving from changing in health care, and advices in medical sciences and technology.17
Changing Philosophy of Nursing
The last four decades have been the emergency of a wealth of nursing literature and development of nursing theories. While each theory approaches the question of what is nursing from different perspectives, and arrives at different answers, there are common strands.
Some of the common elements which emerges from recent theories are that nursing about persons and human dignity, about acceptance of others, about holism, holistic health and holistic practices.
A study of the educational literature reveals many different definitions of education. In many cases these definitions are quite incomplete, often including only the aim or only the process of education. It is difficult to give adequate definition of education since the subject of education is human, who is complex in his make-up and gifted with a free will.
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1. The term philosophy is derived from or can be traced to the Greek word philosophia which is made up two words, viz. Phileo and Sophia. Phileo means love and Sophia means wisdom.
2. Philosophy which helps answers all the questions by investigating the causes and reasons for all things in the universe.
3. Philosophy is search of wisdom and truth.
1. Philosophy is the science of sciences—Coleridge.
2. Philosophy is the science of knowledge—Fitche.
3. Philosophy is the ability to feel at ease in any society—Aristippus.
4. Philosophy is critical reviewing of just those familiar things—John Dewey.
5. Philosophy is the mother of all the true medicine of mind—Cisero.
Educational philosophy
Philosophy directs education by providing certain guidelines. In a way, education is the application of philosophy or philosophy of education is applied philosophy. Influences of philosophy in the cardial areas of education like:
1. Philosophy and aims of education.
2. Philosophy and curriculum.
3. Philosophy and methods of teaching.
4. Philosophy and teacher.
5. Philosophy and discipline.
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Study of the fundamental nature of reality and existence general theory of reality.
Study of theory of being.
Study of physical universe.
Study of knowledge (ways of thinking, nature of truth, and relationship between knowledge and belief.
Study of principles and methods of reasoning (interference and arguments).
Ethics (axiology)
Study of nature of values; right and wrong (moral philosophy).
Study of appreciation of the arts or things beautiful.
Philosophy of science
Study of science and scientific practices.
Political philosophy
Study of citizen and state.
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Idealism idolizes mind and self. Idealism believes in universal mind. Idealism regards man as a spiritual being. The world of ideas and values are more important than the world of matter. Real knowledge is perceived in mind.
Naturalism believes that education should be according to the nature of the child. Naturalism advocates the creation of conditions in which the natural development of a child can take place in a natural way. The different forms of naturalism are physical naturalism, mechanical naturalism and biological naturalism.
The term pragmatism derives its origin from a Greek word meaning to do, to make, to accomplish. Experience is central here; everything is tested on the touchstone of experience. The basis of all teaching is the activity of the child.
According to existentialism, the primary aim of education is the making of a human person as one who lives and makes decisions about what he will do an be.
Realism is concerned with the study of the world we live in. Realism believes that all knowledge is derived from experience. The realist believes that everything that exists in the universe is matter or energy or matter of motion.
Humanism is a movement to gain for man a proper recognition in the universe. Man is a free agent.
Humanistic existentialism
Humanistic existentialism is the youngest philosophy. Existentialism may be described as a modern philosophy which is primarily build upon the work of the scholars of the twentieth century.
Experimentalism is unreservedly a philosophy of change and of process. It teaches that everything is changing continually—man, morality, democracy and education; experience is the only reality.
Neorealism is a theory which excludes philosophy and theology as source of knowledge and truth; it looks to science as its primary source.
Eclectic tendency in education
It is a process of putting together the common view of different philosophies, into one comprehensive whole is eclectic tendency in education. It is the fusion or synthesis of different philosophies of education, is known as eclectic tendency in education. According to Munroe, the eclectic tendency is that which seeks the harmonization on principles, underlying various tendencies and rationalization of educational practices.
The term progressivism in education is an American Philosophy, which is a revolt against the formal, conventional and traditional system of education. The progressivism in education advocates that the education of the child should be for the present life it self and not for a future life.
Reconstructionism has its origin in Plato; his republic is his vision of an ideal society. Reconstruction is of two forms; total change or desirable change. The present educational system does not represent Indian cultures and traditions. The primary aim of education is an all round development of personality.
The dictionary meaning of the word eclectic means selecting or borrowing the best out of everything. According to eclectic tendency in education, modern education wants to synthesis the brief form of all the past movements into new structure.
Perennalism is a very constructive and inflexible philosophy of education. It is based on the view that reality comes from fundamental fixed truths, especially related to god. It believes that people find truth through reasoning and revelation and that goodness is found in rational thinking.
Existentialism is an attitude and outlook that stress human existence that is the distinctive qualities of an individual persons rather than man in abstract on nature and the world in general. It is a type of philosophy which endeavors to analyze the basic structure of human existence in its essential freedom.
Society depends upon education for the community development and progress of its physical and social life. Each generation has to handover experiences, customs, thoughts and values of its own as well as those that it has inherited from the past generation to such succeeding generation. This from the past generation to such succeeding generation. This will not take place without education. So each society has to maintain and develop institutions for the transmission of its rich cultural heritage to the coming generation. Such institutions are called agencies of education.
Different Kinds of Agencies of Education
Agencies of education may be said to be formal and informal on one hand, active and passive on the other.
Formal Agencies
The formal agencies which are developed with scientific and exclusively for imparting education are called formal agencies of education. They are deliberately, purposefully planned program. The procedure and performance of their activity are fixed and well-defined. Such agencies include school, the church, the state organized recreational centers, etc.
Informal Agencies
Informal agencies are those which group up spontaneously. They do not observe formation of rules and regulations of rules. They directly exercise great educational influences on members. Such agencies are known as informal agencies. The family, the society, the play group, etc.
Active Agencies
The agencies which provide education through the interaction of persons are called active agencies. Education is two way process. Here, there is an interaction between the educator and educand, the individual and the group. They aim at controlling and guiding the social process. Family, church, school, sports, clubs, social welfare agencies are some agencies of this type.
Passive Agencies
Passive agencies are those which imply one-way process. The influence on the individual but not influenced by him. However, they are subjected to public control, public taste and state censorship. For example, cinema, radio, press, television, etc.
Family is the original social institution from which all other institutions developed. It is from this institution everyone is born. It is the first unit of social life for the child. It is also the unit of interaction of persons. Every member in the family has a specific role to play and sort of status us. The status of the family measured on the basis of economic, educational, cultural and political position. The mother is foundation head of child's training for social life.20
Family is the best significant primary group in the socialization of the child. It provides a sense of security and affection for the child. It helps the child to develop proper attitudes and right behavior. It fulfils the child's physical, mental and cultural needs. The family is the place where the child acquires ideas, vocabulary and speech. It is in the home the child receives his first lesson of citizenship and learns moral discipline through face-to-face contacts. It is in the home he learns the ways, manners and traditions to the family and gradually realizes the solidarity of it. He moves from self-love to loyalty in the family. It is the main agency from which the child gets training for socialization and forming better personality. It is in the family the child sees the light of the day.
Functions of the Family
The functions of the family are not constant. They change from time-to-time according to the socio-economic structure of the society. Ogburn has mentioned seven functions of the family in the past. They are:
  1. Affectional.
  2. Economic.
  3. Educational.
  4. Protective.
  5. Recreational.
  6. Social.
  7. Religious.
But some of these functions have been almost dropped as the result of industrialization in a socio-economic organization of the society. For example, vocational and educational functions are to be used by the family in past, but now it is the responsibility of the state through its organized departments like schools and colleges. Similarly, the function of recreation has taken over by the cultural agencies like cinema, radio, and dramatic clubs. Religious functions become out of use in an average family because of materialistic outlook in life.
But the above analysis, however, should not suggest that contemporary family has no responsibility in upbringing the children. In fact, the parents should assume more specialized responsibility. Care and attention to bring-up children in the days of increasing child and adolescent psychologies, parents should understand the cultural and educational potentialities of the family and cooperate with other agencies. Hence, home has to play certain specific educational functions.
  1. Providing opportunities for the physical development: The home should provide favorable opportunities to the child for sound physical development. He has to get nutritious food, proper clothing, rest, sleep, etc. he should learn personal cleanliness, hygiene and habit of exercise, etc.
  2. It should awaken the child's intellectual, esthetic and practical abilities: The home should see the early formation of intellectual and practical interests of the child. The intelligent parent should recognize that what is best for the child and supply what is needed in the form of conversation, discussion, etc.
  3. It should train the child for life: The child should be made to participate in household activities and trained to the realities of life. He should duly develop habits of industry, perseverance and orderliness and to subordinate his activities to the general interest of the family.
  4. It should train the child for play and recreation: The home should realize that early infancy and childhood is the best time for play. So, it can engage the child to develop his play instincts.21
  5. It should provide opportunities for the constructive activities of the child: Thus, there should be a small workshop, a miniature laboratory, a garden, a field of plenty of material for self expression, newspapers, magazines, books, etc. It is through that the outside world opens chances for the child to build-up health habits, interests and attitudes.
  6. Family is the only effective agency to provide moral and spiritual education: The schools SELDOM provide moral education to the children. A member of the family generally has some religious faith and celebrates some religious ceremonies. A good deal of education about religion is to be imparted to the children without making them conscious of it. It will become a foundation of morality and spirituality at later stages.
Thus, the importance of family as an effective agency of education cannot be minimized. It is the very basis of all social, political, moral, and economic. Esthetic and religious interaction in the society. Many speculations (doubts) have been expressed on the future role of the family that in due course of time, it will disappear as a unit of social interaction. The conclusion may not hold sound because face-to-face human relationship and emotion warmth of parental instincts will continue mainly in the home. Therefore, family as an educational agency has greater influence even now.
The school is a formal, active, socialistic educational agency. It is an organized institution. It has unique purpose to shape the personalities of the pupils and control their behavior. It is a miniature society controlled and properly guided. It is a unity if interacting personalities, a field of social force, system of formal and informal control, a special cultural world and an image of the society.
With the complexity of modern life and the emergency of democratic society, the school today has become a big natural enterprise. The family and other informal agencies have been proved inadequate to give useful education to the child. The school therefore has to discharge the functions of the family and society besides its own responsibilities. Important functions of the school: The school has very important role to socialize the child. The important functions are:
  1. Conservation and perpetuation of social life: One of the important functions of the school is to maintain the continuity of social life bypassing the best human heritage from one generation to another.
  2. Promotion of culture and civilization: The school should not only transmit cultural heritage to the raising generation but it also train children to establish a better and happier society.
  3. All-round development of the individual: The school should aim at the around and harmonious development of the child. The whole environment of the school should be of representative and balanced character. The success or failure of the school is determined by the products it produces as members of the society. The child after completing his school education must adjust himself with the outside society.
  4. The present school should prepare the students for democratic society by providing democratic experiences.
  5. Students are made realize the importance of rights and duties of a responsible member of a democratic society.
  6. The students should be trained in the art of living together.
  7. The school should develop a spirit of scientific enquiry among students. They have to be given training to apply information and knowledge in practical situations to develop intelligence and creative thinking.
  8. The school life should be closely related to the real life of the community so that the students will get training to solve the problems which they will face in their future life.22
  9. The present day school must create a passion for social justice against social evils and exploitation in the minds of the students.
  10. The school should provide opportunities for the development of a creative mind and freedom for self development.
  11. The school should provide vocationalization of education to the students.
  12. Inculcation of higher values: The school should provide moral and religious education to its members. It should develop in the children the true appreciation of truth, goodness and beauty.
  13. Development of we feeling among children: The school should promote healthy relationship between teachers and pupils. The teacher should not only sensitive to pupils by favoring one against the other or signing the same child for one wrong or the other. It is for the good of both the teacher and taught. Teacher-pupil relationship should be maintained with mutual trust and cooperation.
  14. Training for leadership: The school must provide a large number of activities, so that children of varied temperaments develop the qualities of leadership. Social progress depends upon good leadership.
How does School will Bring Home Together?
The school cannot discharge its responsibilities without the cooperation of the home because the child spends major part of the day in the family. As such, the family influence plays a very important part in the development of the child's habits, attitude and behavior. Therefore, mutual relationship and cooperation between home and school is essential.
Brown says that the responsibility of the school towards home is three folded.
  1. It should know the home background of the child.
  2. It should develop in the child a deep appreciation of the role of the family in the total pattern of school interactions.
  3. The school should cooperate with the family in directing social process in order to provide for wholesome personality.
The following are the ways and means to secure cooperation between home and school:
  1. Parent-teacher association: This is a way to promote understanding between the home and the school. Both the parents and teachers should be given membership in this association. Program set for discussion should be related to school as well as social problems and needs of individual pupils. It should be a fact finding and problem solving body.
  2. School visits by parents:
    1. Parents can be invited to various functions of the school like sports day, celebration of republic day and independence day, etc.
    2. Celebrating parents day.
    3. Holding educational conferences with parents at school.
    4. Using parents as sponsors of school clubs.
  3. To seek the parents cooperation for the organization of students welfare services.
  4. Using the services of parents as resources persons for school projects and using parents as members of the advisory committees.
  5. To help the school to organize free mid-day meal programs and frees distribution of uniforms and textbooks to deserve students.
  6. Checking the educational activities of the children with the consultation of teachers.
  7. Sending reports to the parents: Reports and records sending to the parents should contain the comprehensive progress of pupils physical, social, emotional development and also his particular tasks, interests, attitudes and habits.23
  8. Home visit by the teachers: He should assess the home conditions and offer suggestions for the child's improvement of life and activities.
  9. Education of parents: Good parents are made but not born. So, it is the duty of the school to educate them to understand the needs and problems of their children.
Thus, both the school and home can work together in healthy environment to bring about the maximum possible development.
A community school is that which is intimately connected with the life of the community serving as a center for many community activities and utilizing community resources in improving the Education Program.
Characteristics of Community School
  1. To educate the youth to participate fully in the basic life activities (human needs, areas of living, persistent problems).
  2. To give training for democratic life in and outside the school.
  3. The cooperate actively with the other social agencies in providing community life.
  4. Using community resources in all aspects of its program.
  5. Educate the teachers for community leadership.
Socialization is the process of interaction among members of the society through which the children will learn the values of the society and also its ways of doing things.
What are the conditions that should prevail in the school for socialization of the children?
  1. Democratic social climate in the school.
  2. Effective interpersonal relationship.
  3. Motivating learning situations.
  4. Group methods of teaching.
  5. Social discipline.
  6. School-community relationships.
  7. Student's participation and involvement in the school administration.
  8. A rich program of co-curricular activities.
What is the role of the school in socialization of the students?
  1. The school should organize a number of cocurricular activities, so that the children will learn cooperation.
  2. By celebrating the birthdays of great leaders of the nation, children can be acquired with the social events.
  3. Introduction of common school dress, community prayers and common lunch, etc. in the schools will help to achieve feeling of oneness.
  4. Making the children to participate in social and useful productive work which enable the children to gain firsthand experiences.
  5. The teachers and parents should respect the personalities of the children.24
  6. The teacher should provide democratic ways and means to develop democratic outlook.
  7. Children may be taken from time-to-time to public places like parks, zoos, museums, and places of historical importance.
  8. The mechanism of praises or blame, reward or punishment should be carefully used to socialize the children.
  9. Community activities like camps; common meals, etc. should be frequently organized.
  10. There should be close relationship between teachers and parents in socialization of children.
The peer group consists of children of same age. It is very important group that exerts strongest influence on the growing children. The children learn many things from his peers that are needed to become an adult. The peer group interests are short and temporary but its influence go a long way and permanent. It is not an established institution like family but it has certain customs of many groups simultaneously. For example, a child becomes a member of a peer group, youth organization, church, etc. in each group he has some status and expected to play and behave in a certain way. Because of these expectations of peer group the influences on the child's is great both in the school and outside the school.
Characteristics of Peer Group
  1. The peer group is of two types, primary and secondary.
  2. The age or play and other more or less common interests bring them together.
  3. They form more or less spontaneously without the help of the elder generations.
  4. The primary peer group may undertake either constructive or destructive type of activities.
  5. The secondary peer group mainly carries out chiefly constructive type of activities.
  6. They care for the welfare of the youth.
  7. They undertake activities for the benefits of the society.
  8. They help for the development of wholesome personality and formation of good conduct and character.
Classify the peer group. Explain the activities of primary group:
The peer group may classify as primary group and secondary group. The primary group is further divided into (1) Early play group, (2) Cliques and (3) Gangs. The secondary peer group is the youth organizations like clubs, junior red cross, scouts, girl's guides, NCC, and NSS.
  1. Early play group: In the early childhood the children make friendship with other children of the same age group who are being in close proximity. The chief interest for them is play. The differences of castes, sex, and religion are not found in their group. They carry out many life responsibilities in the form of play.
  2. Cliques: Clique is a small secretive group contains of 4 or 5 members. They cooperate and conflict with each other. They carry out activities secretively. They spread roomers; carry lies on one another and backing biting. Common interests like caste, play and other cultural activities are responsible for formation of the cliques.
  3. Gangs: A gang literally means a band of persons acting or going together for criminal purposes. Generally, a gang is at first diffused but under a strong leader it becomes a well knit solidarity. In course of time it may develop into a club with outward decent appearance but secretly continues to play its nefarious trade. They are usually formed during the later childhood and continue during adolescent stage and also carried over adulthood. The destructive gang groups carry out 25antisocial activities like stealing, wandering, gambling, haunting after girls, teasing, etc. Sex differences are found in the formation of the gangs. They formed as autonomous group but spontaneously with any external influence.
What are the remedial measures for the removal of gangterism?
  1. Establishing psychosocial clinics.
  2. Organization of social service program compulsory.
  3. Organization of better educational program for leisure and vocational.
  4. Introduction of learn-while you earn scheme.
  5. Provision for part-time work.
How does the secondary peer group form? What are they?
Youth organizations of different kinds come under secondary peer group associations. They are formed consciously and deliberately. The external agencies like governmental or voluntary agencies should take interest and utilize their energies on right channels. They are wholly constructive organizations. The scouts, girl guides, the young men's and women's associations like YMCA, YWCA, the junior red cross, youth clubs, NCC, NSS, etc. are the examples of youth organizations.
What is the role of peer as an educational agency?
  1. The member of the peer group learns social customs, practices, social prejudices, etc.
  2. The peer group provides a way in which children can become independent of family authority.
  3. They learn to make heterosexual adjustments, select vocation of their choices to gains good education and establish a home of their own.
  4. The peer group provides experience of the children egalitarian (equal) relationships which is not possible in the family. In the peer group the child is free from inequalities of home relationships.
  5. The peer group gives knowledge to child which he does not have any access in the family. For example, Tobo subjects like sex problems, knowledge about adolescence tastes, etc.
  6. The peer group helps the child to become a more mature person. It is through peer groups the child learns values and experiences of the families and become socialized.
  7. Peer group fulfills both the personality and social needs of growing children and youth.
  1. The state should provide schools of primary, secondary and technical-according to the needs of each locality. It should made adequate provision for higher education.
  2. Active implementation of free and compulsory primary education.
  3. It should chalk out aims and objectives of education with the cooperation of eminent educationists and teachers.
  4. It has to assure the responsibility of general control and supervision of education. It includes planning of educational policy framing curricular activities, etc.
  5. It should provide financial assistance to meet the experiences on education.
  6. It should provide commissions and committees to survey educational practices and assess the state of situations and suggests means to improve various aspects of education example, aims, methods of teaching, curriculum, etc.
  7. Recognition of private educational institutions and to give incentives for the expert services for the expert services they render.
  8. Supply of equipment and apparatus to schools and colleges.26
  9. Prescription of curricula and courses of study and textbooks.
  10. Encouragement of educational research through giant-in-aid distribution of informational through publishing journals, etc.
  11. Organization of contacts courses, workshops, seminars, service program for teachers and lectures of schools and colleges.
  12. Improvement of girls and women education in the state.
  13. Expansion of educational facilities for socially backward people like scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
  14. Expansion of special institutions for physically handicapped and mentally retarded children.
  15. Organization of youth programs, work experiences and physically fitness programs like NSS, NCC, NFC, scouts, guides, etc.
Mass communication media play a vital role in socializing children as an informal agency. The cinema, radio, press and television come under this category.
The radio as a means of communication is a great recreational and educational force. To fulfill as an agency of education its program should encourage pupil's curiosity and interests to develop critical mind, train the sense of adjustments and taste. For school children different items of the school dramatized programs. By means of elements of stories dramas may help the subjects simple, easy to understand and to retain.
The educational films should be exhibited for specific age and ability groups. It should be fitted into the school syllabus. The language used for commentary should be simple and understandable. A good educational film should ask questions without providing ready-made answers. It lead to discussion rather than providing potted information. Educational films present abstract and abstruse problems of life and native in creation of reality illuminate the hidden meaning of events and mysterles of nature. It can be an instruction force it is used properly in the classroom.
Television is used to broaden and enrich the experiences of children. To create genuine interest in subject learning. To provide variety of teaching and critical appreciation.
The community is the informal socializing educational agency. It is with the community that the child comes into contact with outside life. Every individual is a member of the community into which he born. He grows and develops as an adult by living and adjusting to social environment.27
A community is a social group with some degree of we feeling and with definite human boundaries. Cook and cook defines, a community is a people who dwell in a given places and by means of efforts build social system which supports them people include everyone-all age ranges.
Characteristics of Community
  1. The member of the community feels the sense of belongingness or loyal to the community.
  2. Each community has its own common, social and cultural heritage.
  3. Members are fully aware of their ideas.
  4. They have devotion to common territory, traditional and survival.
  5. Every group depends upon another group for economic self-sufficiency.
Community as an Educational Agency
  1. The community as a potential agency creates formal and nonformal agencies to provide education to its members.
  2. It has to provide liberal finance for the development of educational program.
  3. The school is formal agency of education created by the community to serve the educational needs of its members. So the community has to set the climate for the functions of the school.
  4. It helps in designing the curriculum and general organization of the school.
  5. The community may also help in the solution of the school personnel.
  6. The community has its educational role by inculcating its children not only for folk ways but also for the development of desirable attitudes and values.
  7. The community has to provide information about education to its members but establishing museums, art galleries, libraries, music and drama enters, etc.
How to make the school a center of community survives?
The relationship between the school and the community has been stressed by John Dewey as, what the best and wisest parent wants for his own child that must the community wants for all its children. Any other idea for schools is narrow and lovely acted upon, it destroys our democracy.
  1. Program: The school should plan its educational program according to its needs of the community.
  2. The school should be made a center of light and learning for all men and women of the community by keeping school building, furniture's library, play ground for the education of all adults.
  3. Social service clubs: Social service clubs be organized in schools to investigate some of the pressing needs, problems of the surrounding area. For example, the conditions of the roads, percentage of literacy, drainage of the streets, etc.
  4. Social service leagues: Social service leagues may be organized to clean the lanes, streets; organizing first-aid centers to the public, constructing drains are some of the activities to be undertaken.
  5. Literary classes for adults may be organized in the schools either in the morning or in the evening.
  6. People of the local community may be invited for the important functions organized in the school.
  7. Formation of parent-teacher association may be encouraged.
  8. Residents of the local community may be invited to participate in some of the important functions organized in the school premises.28
  9. The adult may be encouraged to make use of the school library and reading room after school hours are over.
  10. It should undertake vocational guidance and cultural program by: (a) extending cooperation with the mandala development and national extension service departments for community reconstruction, (b) arranging public program like economic and art exhibition, health demonstration, sports competitions, cleanliness services.
Education is the deliberate and systematic influence exerted by the mature person upon the immature through instruction, discipline and harmonious development of all the powers of the human being, physical, social, intellectual, esthetic, and spiritual, according to their essential hierarchy, by and for their individual and social uses, and directed towards the union of the educand with his creator as the final end. Since, the human is the subject of education, the underlying concept of the orgin, the nature and the destiny of man will greatly influence the concept of education and its function that is held by the individual educator.
The agency of education is the medium through which education is carried out. Educational institutions are commonly referred as agencies of education. Educational agencies fall into one of the four types namely formal, informal, active and passive agencies. According to FJ Brown, education agencies can be classified as formal institutions, group organizations, commercial agencies and non-commercial agencies. Formal institutions and group organizations are synonymous with formal and informal agencies of the first classisification. Commercial agencies are profit oriented ones like press, cinema, etc. noncommercial agencies are service oriented ones such as governmental organizations, voluntary agencies, etc.
In the ultimate analysis it must be observed that the maxims are meant to be our servants and masters. Moreover, by and large all are inter-related. It is also to be kept in view that children differ in their aptitude, capacities, interests, mental and physical makeup. Different maxims suit different situations and different children. It is therefore, essential that a judicious use should be made of each maxim.
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