Essentials of Practical Microbiology Apurba S Sastry, Sandhya Bhat
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table.
A
Acanthamoeba 302
Acid-fast stain 28, 191f, 262
Acinetobacter baumannii 271
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 153
Adenovirus 61f
AETCOM 324
Agar dilution method 53
Agglutination reaction 80
Air surveillance 128
Albert stain 28, 30, 245f, 247
Amoebic liver abscess 208
Amoebic meningoencephalitis, primary 302
Anaerobic culture 21, 22
Anaerobic glove box 40
Animal inoculation 65, 247
Anoxomat system 220
Anthrax 225
Antigen-antibody reactions, types of 78t
Antigenic variation 273
Antimicrobial susceptibility test 17, 48f, 49, 54
Anti-rabies prophylaxis 301t
Antiretroviral therapy 123, 159
Antistreptolysin O 217
Ascaris lumbricoides 198
Aspergillosis 105, 281, 284
Automated blood culture techniques 35
Automated identification system 247, 264
B
Bacillus cereus 176
Bacitracin sensitivity testing 217
Bacterial agglutination test 145f, 178f
Bacterial growth curve 14, 15
Bacterial meningitis 288
Bacterial motility 43
Bacterial pharyngitis 243
Bacterial pneumonia 250
Bacterial vaginosis 322
Balantidium coli 186, 281
Beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections 215
Bile esculin agar test 314f
Bile solubility test 252, 252f
Biomedical waste management 117, 119t, 279
Bloodstream infection 18, 138
Bordetella pertussis 20
Bright-field microscope 7f
Broth dilution method 52
Brown and Brenn modification 27
Brucellosis 148
Brugiya malayi 170, 170f
Burkholderia cepacia 258, 268
Burkholderia pseudomallei 268
C
Candida albicans 172, 173f, 321, 323f
Cellophane tape technique 198f
Central sterile services department 109, 109f
Cerebral malaria 303
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis 293, 296, 297
Cestode 192f
Chancroid 317, 318
Chemiluminescence-linked immunoassay 91
Chickenpox 230
Chlamydia trachomatis 321
Chlamydophila psittaci 135
Chocolate agar 33f, 252, 255f
Cholera 180
Citrate utilization test 45, 46f
Clonorchis 210, 210f
Clostridioides difficile 176
Clostridium perfringens 126, 176, 221
Coagulase negative Staphylococcus 214
Coccidian parasitic infections 190
Coccidioides immitis 174, 281
Congenital rubella syndrome 235
Corona virus 61f, 272
Corynebacterium diphtheria 30, 33, 43, 79, 243, 245, 245f
COVID-19 272, 275, 276f
Cryptococcal meningitis 306
Cryptosporidium 186, 190
Cyclospora 186, 190, 190f
Cystic echinococcosis 210t
Cystoisospora 186, 190, 190f
D
Dalmau plate culture 174
Dark-ground microscopy 31, 317
Dengue 153, 159, 160
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli infections 176, 179
Dimorphic fungi 74
Diphtheria 102, 243247
Diphyllobothriasis 194
Direct immunofluorescence assay 87, 274
Donovanosis 317, 318
Duke criteria, modified 134, 135t
E
Echinococcus granulosus 281
Eijkman test 127
Elek's gel precipitation test 78, 79, 79f, 248
Entamoeba histolytica 125, 186, 187t, 188f, 191, 208
Enteric fever 142
Enterobiasis 197
Enterococcus faecalis 314f
Entero-test 189
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 59, 83, 84, 84f, 86, 156
Epstein-Barr virus 272, 280
Escherichia coli 14f, 34, 45, 126, 139, 258, 288, 307310
Ethylene oxide sterilizer 108
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis 260
F
Fasciola hepatica 194, 208, 210, 210f
Fasciolopsis buski 192, 194, 196f
Flotation technique 71, 71f
Fluorescence microscope 9, 62
Formol-ether technique 71f
Free-living amoebae infections 302
G
Gas gangrene 220222
GeneXpert 264, 265
Genito-ulcerative disease 317
Giardia lamblia 186, 189f
Giemsa stain 169f, 175f, 302
Gonococcal urethritis 317, 321
Gram-staining 25, 75, 247, 255, 271, 291, 291t, 308
Group A Streptococcus 136, 216
H
Haemophilus ducreyi 65
Haemophilus influenzae 14f, 250, 256f, 288, 292
Hand hygiene 92, 93, 96, 102
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease 235, 235f
Hanging drop method 44, 44f
Helicobacter pylori 22
Hepatitis viruses 203, 205, 206
Herpes simplex virus 227, 296
Heterophile agglutination test 81, 280
Histoplasmosis 174
Hookworm infections 200
Hospital infection control 331
Hot air oven 111
Human echinococcosis 208
Human immunodeficiency virus 153, 158
Human papillomavirus 231
Hydatid cyst 209f
Hymenolepiasis 193
I
ICUT tests 178, 258, 271
Immunochromatographic test 59, 90, 90f, 151, 169, 171, 187
Immunoelectron microscopy 184
Immunofluorescence assay 9, 59, 87, 87f, 191
Impregnation methods 23, 30
Inclusion bodies 62
Indole test 45, 45f
Infectious mononucleosis 280
Infective endocarditis 133, 135
Influenza 272, 273
Intestinal cestode infections 192
Intestinal coccidian parasites, laboratory diagnosis of 191t
Intestinal flukes 194
Intestinal taeniasis 193, 305t
Intestinal trematode 192
Invasive aspergillosis 285f
Invasive pneumococcal disease 251
Iodine mount 70
J
Japanese encephalitis 298
Jones criteria 137
K
Kinyoun's cold acid-fast staining 263
Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion test 49, 50
Klebsiella 310
Kopeloff and Beerman's modification 27
L
Lactophenol cotton blue 75
Latex agglutination test 81, 82, 151
Leishmania donovani 168
Lepromin test 225
Leprosy 220, 224
Leptospira 151
Listeria monocytogenes 176, 288, 292
Loeffler's serum slope 37, 247
Lowenstein-Jensen medium 33, 34f, 263, 264f
Lung flukes 194
Lyme disease 293
Lymphatic filariasis 162, 170
Lymphogranuloma venereum 317
M
Malaria 162
McCrady statistical table 127t
McFadyean's reaction 226f
McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar 40f, 220
Measles 232
Melioidosis 268
Membrane filtration method 127
Meningitis 18, 172, 254, 290f
Meningococcal meningitis 288
Metachromatic granules 246
Microsporidia 186
Microsporum canis 236f, 237
Molecular test 148, 244
Molluscum bodies 63f, 232
Motility, types of 44, 44t
Mucormycosis 282
Mucosal candidiasis 238
Mueller-Hinton agar 50, 179f
Multiple tube method 126, 127f
Mycetoma 239
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 29, 33, 36, 104, 105, 260, 293
Mycoplasma pneumonia 81, 103, 243
Myxoviruses 272
N
Naegleria fowleri 302
Nagler's reaction 223, 223f
National AIDS Control Organization 120, 123, 153
Needle stick injury 121, 122
Negri body 63f, 300
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 243
Neisseria meningitidis 102, 292
Nipah virus 297
Nitrate reduction test 308
Nocardia 240
Non-gonococcal urethritis 317, 321, 321t
Nontreponemal tests 317
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis 179
Norwalk virus 185
Nutrient agar 33, 213f, 269
O
Optochin sensitivity 252
Orientia tsutsugamushi 148
Oxidase test 45, 45f, 178
P
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 174, 175, 281
Paragonimiasis 281, 282t
Passive agglutination test 81
Paul-Bunnell test 280
Penicilliosis 281, 286
Peptone water 33f
Periodic acid-Schiff stain 75
Peripheral blood smear 163, 170f
Personal protective equipment 94, 95, 96f, 102, 103, 120, 278
Pertussis 102
Plasma sterilization 110
Plasmodium falciparum 165f, 166f, 303
Plasmodium vivax 162, 165f
Pneumococcal meningitis 250, 289
Pneumocystis pneumonia 287
Pneumonic plague 102
Polymerase chain reaction 56, 59f, 64, 147, 152, 169, 171
Post-exposure prophylaxis 122, 123, 124t, 248
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis 217, 244
Pour plate technique 38
Poxvirus 61f
Proteus 45, 147, 309
Pseudomonas 126, 258, 268, 269f, 270t
Psychrophiles 16f
Pulmonary tuberculosis, primary 261, 261t
Pyogenic meningitis 291
Q
Quellung reaction 253, 255
Quick SOFA criteria 139
R
Rabies 299, 300, 301
Rapid diagnostic test 166, 293
Rapid plasma reagin test 318, 319f, 319t
Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program 260
Rheumatic fever 133, 136, 244
Rhinosporidiosis 241
Robertson cooked meat broth 35, 41, 220, 221f
Rotavirus 11f, 61f, 125, 184
Rubella 234
S
Sabin-Feldman dye test 303
Sabouraud's dextrose agar 75, 76f, 236f, 286f
Salmonella 45, 143f
Saturated salt solution technique 71, 71f
Schistosomiasis 194, 195f
Scrub typhus 142, 147, 148
Sedimentation technique 71
Sexually transmitted infections 60, 316
Shigella 144, 176
Silver impregnation method 31f, 317
Slide agglutination test 80f, 144
Slide coagulase test 212, 213t
Slide culture technique 76f
Specimen 163, 180, 220, 222
Sporothrix schenckii 240, 241f
Sporotrichosis 240
Sporulated oocysts 190f
Staphylococcal infections 211
Staphylococcal pneumonia 257
Staphylococcus aureus 53f, 53t, 82, 102, 133
Steam sterilizer 109, 110f
Sterile universal container 19
Sterilization 108
Streptococcus agalactiae 217t, 218, 219f, 219t, 288, 292
Streptococcus gallolyticus 133
Streptococcus pneumoniae 16, 250, 250t, 288, 292
Streptococcus pyogenes 215, 216, 216f, 216t, 217t, 243
String test 182f, 189
Strongyloides 192
Strongyloidiasis 200
Syphilis 78, 316318
T
Taenia 192
Thayer Martin medium 320
Tissue culture 65
Toxocara 208
Toxoplasmosis 302
Transmission electron microscope 10, 10f
Treponema pallidum 31, 293
Treponemal serological test 319
Trichomonas vaginalis 321, 322t
Trichomoniasis 321, 322
Trichophyton mentagrophyte 237, 238f
Trichophyton schoenleinii 237
Trichuris 192, 197
Triple sugar iron agar test 46, 46f, 292
Tube coagulase test 212, 213f,
Tuberculosis 18, 260
Tuberculous meningitis 291
Typhoid fever 147
Tzanck smear 63f, 228f
U
Ultraviolet radiation 114
Urea hydrolysis test 45, 46f
Urease test 46, 237
Urethritis 21, 313, 317, 320
Urinary tract infection 18, 172, 211, 307310, 313
V
Vaginal candidiasis 323
Varicella-zoster virus 230
Vector-borne diseases 60
Venereal disease research laboratory 78, 316f, 317, 319t
Venkatraman-Ramakrishnan medium 34, 180
Vibrio cholerae 14f, 16, 33, 34, 45, 176, 180, 181, 181f, 182
Viral encephalitis 60, 295, 297
Viral exanthems 227
Viral hemorrhagic fevers 160
Viral isolation 300
Viral meningitis 291, 295, 296
Viral transport medium 61, 274
Viridans streptococci 250t
Visceral leishmaniasis 162, 168
Voges-Proskauer test 182
Vulvovaginal candidiasis 322
W
Water surveillance 125
Weigert's modification 27
Weil's disease 151
Weil-Felix test 147, 311
Western blot 88, 89f, 156
Whooping cough 102
Widal test 80, 81, 81f, 145
Wood's lamp examination 237
Wool Sorter's disease 225
Wuchereria bancrofti 170f
Z
Ziehl-Neelsen technique 28, 29, 29f, 262
Zygomycoses 281, 282, 283f
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Chapter Notes

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1General Microbiology, Immunology and Hospital Infection Control
SECTION OUTLINE
  • 1. Introduction to Microbiology Department
  • 2. Microscopy
  • 3. General Bacteriology
    • 3.1. Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria
    • 3.2. Specimen Collection and Transport
    • 3.3. Direct Detection 1: Simple Staining
    • 3.4. Direct Detection 2: Gram Staining
    • 3.5. Direct Detection 3: Special Staining (Acid-Fast Stain, Albert Stain) and Other Methods
    • 3.6. Culture Media (Including Automated Culture) and Culture Methods
    • 3.7. Identification of Bacteria (Conventional and Automated)
    • 3.8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test
    • 3.9. Molecular Diagnosis
  • 4. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
  • 5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases
  • 6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungal Diseases
  • 7. Precipitation and Agglutination
  • 8. ELISA, ELFA and Immunofluorescence
  • 9. Western Blot, Rapid Tests and CLIA
  • 210. Standard Precautions: Hand hygiene and PPE
  • 11. Transmission-based Precautions
  • 12. Sterilization and Disinfection
  • 13. Biomedical Waste Management
  • 14. Needle Stick Injury
  • 15. Environmental Surveillance

Introduction to Microbiology DepartmentCHAPTER 1

This is the first practical class in the department of Microbiology. In this class, a formal interaction between students and teachers (faculty/post-graduate students) takes place where:
  • Introduction: The students and the teachers introduce themselves
  • Batch distribution: Students are divided into batches and table teachers are allotted for each batch
  • Departmental tour: Students are taken for the departmental tour. Activities/investigations carried out in each section are briefed to the students
  • ❖ General instructions to be followed (see below).
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Fig. 1.1: Steps of handrub and handwash.Source: World Health Organization.