SAQs in Anatomy VG Sawant
Chapter Notes

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  • Q. 1. Define anatomical position of the body. What are supine and prone positions of the body?
Ans. Anatomical position—The body is erect, the eyes look straight to the front, the upper limbs hang by the side of the trunk with the palms directed forwards and the lower limbs are parallel with the toes pointing forwards.
Supine position—Lying down position with the face directed upwards.
Prone position— Lying down position with the face directed downwards.
  • Q. 2. Give examples of three classes of levers in the body.
Ans. I class lever—Triceps bringing about extension at the elbow joint
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II class lever—Rising on the toes.
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III class lever—Biceps bringing about flexion at the elbow joint.
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  • Q. 3. What is superficial fascia? Mention its two functions.
Ans. Superficial fascia is a general coating of the body beneath the skin made up of loose areolar tissue with varying amount of fat.
  1. It facilitates movement of the skin.
  2. Conserves body heat.
  • Q. 4. What is deep fascia? Mention its two functions.
Ans. Deep fascia is a fibrous sheet which invests the body beneath the superficial fascia and is devoid of fat.
  1. Keeps the underlying structures in position.
  2. Provides extra surface for attachment of muscles.
  • Q. 5. Give any four modifications of deep fascia.
  1. Aponeurosis.
  2. Retinaculum.
  3. Bursa.
  4. Capsules of joint.
  5. Sheaths around arteries—carotid sheath.
  • Q. 6. Give functions of articular capsule.
  1. It binds the articular bones together.
  2. It supports the synovial membrane on the inner surface.
  3. Due to numerous sensory nerves supplying capsule, it acts as a ‘watch’ dog by producing reflex contraction of muscles thus protecting the joint.
  • Q. 7. Give functions of synovial membrane.
  1. The synovial fluid secrected by the synovial membrane provides nutrition to the articular cartilage.
  2. It liberates hyaluronic acid which maintains viscosity of the fluid.
  3. It removes particulate matters and worn out cartilage cells by the phagocytic activity.
  • Q. 8. Define terms origin and insertion of a muscle.
  1. Origin of a muscle—It is the proximal attachment of a muscle, which is relatively fixed during its contraction.
  2. Insertion of a muscle—it is the distal attachment of a muscle, which is relatively movable during its contraction.
  • Q. 9. What is isotonic or concentric action of a muscle? Give one example.
Ans. Isotonic—Iso-means same. Tone of the muscle remains same. Length of the muscle is reduced by 1/3 or more during contraction and tone remains same.
Example—lifting a load by contraction of biceps and brachialis at the elbow joint.
  • Q. 10. What is isometric contraction of a muscle? Give one example.
Ans. Isometric—Iso-means same, metric-means length. Length of the muscle remains same.
During isometric contraction, the tension is same as load and length of the muscle does not change.
Example—holding the arm outstretched.
  • Q. 11. What is excentric action or paying out of a muscle? Give one example.
Ans. In excentric action the tension is less than the load and the muscle lengthens while active thus paying out gradually to control the speed and force of a movement in the direction opposite to that normally produced by the muscle when it is shortening.
Example— lowering the arm to the side.
  • Q. 12. Give peculiarities of sesamoid bones.
  1. Develop in the tendon of a muscle
  2. Ossify after birth
  3. Devoid of periosteum
  4. Absence of Haversian system.
  • Q. 13. Give classification of cartilaginous joints mention one example of each.
  1. Primary cartilaginous joint-the bones are connected by hyaline cartilage and the joint is temporary.
    Example—Spheno-occipital joint.
  2. Secondary cartilaginous joint-united by a disc of fibrocartilage
    Example—Symphysis pubis.
  • Q. 14. What are the swing and the shunt components of a muscle?
Ans. A swing component of a muscle produces angular movement of the joint.
A shunt component of a muscle tends to draw the bones along the shaft towards the joint and compress the articular surface.
  • Q. 15. What is bursa? Give its function.
Ans. A bursa is a closed sac of synovial membrane containing a capillary film of synovial fluid lying between two mobiles but tightly opposed surfaces.
A bursa reduces friction between two mobiles but tightly opposing surfaces permit complete freedom of movement within limited range.
  • Q. 16. Name any four types of normal bursae.
  1. Subcutaneous
  2. Submuscular
  3. Subfascial
  4. Subtendinous
  5. Communicating
  6. Noncommunicating.
  • Q. 17. Name any four adventitious bursae.
  1. Student's elbow
  2. Porter's shoulder
  3. Housemaid's knee
  4. Clergyman's knee
  5. Weaver's bottom
  6. Bunion
  • Q. 18. Give examples of sesamoid bones.
  1. Patella
  2. Pisiform
  3. Two segamoid bones beneath the head of Ist metatarsal in flexor hallucis brevis
  4. Fabella in the lateral head of gastrocnemius
  5. Rider's bone in the Adductor longus.
  • Q. 19. What is active insufficiency of a muscle? Give one example.
Ans. When a tendon of muscle crosses several joints it cannot work with efficiency at all joints simultaneously. This is called as active insufficiency of a muscle. As Flexor digitorum, profoundus crosses wrist metacorpophalangeal interphalangeal joints, the fingers cannot be fully flexed when the wrist is also flexed.
  • Q. 20. what is closed-packed and loose-packed position of a joint? Give one example.
  1. Closed-packed position—when the joint surfaces become completely congruent, their area of contact is maximal and they are tightly compressed, no further movement is possible, e.g. knee-full extension, shoulder-abduction and lateral rotation.
  2. Loose-packed position—when the joint surfaces are not congruent, i.e. least packed position.
    For example, knee-semiflexion, shoulder-semiabduction.
  • Q. 21. Define posture. Name any two postural muscles.
Ans. Posture is defined as the relation of the segments of the body, i.e. head, trunk and limbs to each other.
Postural muscles-soleus, gastrocnemius quadriceps femoris, gluteus maximus erector spinac.
  • Q. 22. Specify the line of gravity and centre of gravity in standing position.
Ans. The line of gravity passes anterior to the ankle and knee joints, posterior to the hip joints, behind the lumbar vertebrae, anterior to the thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae and through dens of the axis vertebra.
The centre of gravity in standing position lies 2-3 cm in front of the first sacral vertebra.
  • Q. 23. Name the synovial joints in which articular surfaces are covered by white fibrocartilage.
  1. Sternoclavicular joint
  2. Acromioclavicular joint
  3. Temporomandibular joint.
  • Q. 24. Name intra-articular structures.
Ans. Tendons—
  1. Long head of biceps brachii
  2. Popliteus
Cartilages—Intra-articular disc of TM and sternoclavicular joints, menisci, labrum glenoidule labrum acetabulum.
Ligaments—Cruciate ligaments of knee joint
Fat—haversion pad of fat.
  • Q. 25. Enumerate membranocartilaginous bones.
  1. Clavicle
  2. Occipital
  3. Temporal
  4. Mandible
  5. Sphenoid.
  • Q. 26. Give functions of bones.
  1. They give shape and support to the body
  2. They provide surfaces for the attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments
  3. They form joints where movements take place
  4. Protection of viscera like lungs, heart brain spinal cord
  5. Bone marrow manufactures blood cells
  6. Bones store body calcium and phosphorus.
  • Q. 27. Enumerate the factors which limit the movements of a joint.
  1. Reflex contraction of antagonistic muscles.
  2. Approximation of soft parts
  3. Tension of the ligaments
  4. Stimulation of mechanoreceptors in articular tissue.
  • Q. 28. Name different types of sutural joints.
  1. Serrate
  2. Denticulate
  3. Squamous
  4. Limbous
  5. Plane
  6. Schindylesis
  • Q. 29. Name different types of epiphysis giving one example of each.
  1. Pressure epiphysis—head of femur
  2. Traction epiphysis—trochanter of femur
  3. Compound epiphysis (Pressure + traction)—ischial tuberosity
  4. Composite epiphysis—upper end of humerus
  5. Atavistic epiphysis—coracoid process of scapula
  6. Aberrant epiphysis—at the bases of metacarpal bones.
  • Q. 30. Name uniaxial synovial joints giving one example of each.
  1. Hinge joint—elbow joint
  2. Pivot joint—superior radioulnar joint.
  • Q. 31. Name biaxial synovial joints giving one example of each.
  1. Condylar joint—temporomandibular joint
  2. Ellipsoid joint—wrist joint.
  • Q. 32. Name multiaxial synovial joints giving one example of each.
  1. Saddle joint—first carpometacarpal joint
  2. Ball and socket joint—shoulder joint.
  • Q. 33. Give any four examples of skeletal muscles with parallel fasciculi.
  1. Quadrilateral—thyrohyoid
  2. Straplike—sartorius
  3. Straplike with tendinous intersections—Rectus abdominis
  4. Fusiform—biceps brachii.
  • Q. 34. Give any four examples of skeletal muscles with oblique fasciculi.
  1. Triangular—Temporalis.
  2. Unipennate—flexor pollicis longus
  3. Bipennate—rectus femoris
  4. Multipennate—deltoid
  5. Circumpennate—Tibialis anterior.
  • Q. 35. Give any four characteristics of synovial joint.
  1. The articular ends are covered by articular hyaline cartilage.
  2. The joint is covered by joint capsule
  3. The inner aspect of joint capsule and intracapsular non-articular parts of the bone are covered by synovial membrane
  4. The joint cavity contains synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane
  5. The joint is strengthened by ligaments
  6. Some degree of movement is always possible.
  • Q. 36. Name the arteries supplying a long bone.
  1. Nutrient artery
  2. Epiphyseal artery
  3. Metaphyseal arteries
  4. Periosteal arteries.
  • Q. 37. Give morphological classification of bones.
  1. Long bones
  2. Short bones
  3. Flat bones
  4. Irregular bones
  5. Pneumatic bones
  6. Sesamoid bones
  7. Accessory bones.
  • Q. 38. Give developmental classification of bones mentioning one example each.
  1. Membranous bones—parietal
  2. Cartilaginous bones—humerus
  3. Membranocartilaginous bones-clavicle, mandible.
  • Q. 39. Define a bone. Give its two functions.
Ans. A bone is highly vascular, constantly changing, mineralized living connective tissue.
  1. Gives shape and support to the body
  2. Provides surface for the attachment of muscles and tendons.
  • Q. 40. Give medicolegal importance of bones.
  1. Estimation of age
  2. Estimation of sex
  3. Estimation of height
  4. Cause of death.
  • Q. 41. Enumerate the areas of the body where lymph capillaries are absent.
Ans. Epidermis, cornea, articular hyaline cartilage, splenic pulp, bone marrow, liver lobule, brain, spinal cord.
  • Q. 42. Name the areas of the body where sebaceous glands do not open into hair follicle but open directly on the skin surface.
Ans. Lips, nipple and areola of breast, tarsal glands of the eyelids, glans penis, inner surface of prepuce, labia minora.
  • Q. 43. Name the areas of the body where sweat glands are absent.
Ans. Nipple, inner surface of prepuce, labia minora, glans penis, glans clitoris, margins of lips, nail bed.
  • Q. 44. Name the areas of the body where apocrine sweat glands are present.
Ans. Axilla, prepuce, scrotum, monspubis, labia minora, areola of the breast and perianal regions.
  • Q. 45. Enumerate the areas of the body where fat is absent in the superficial fascia.
Ans. Eyelids, external ear, penis, scrotum.
  • Q. 46. Name the structures present in the superficial fascia.
Ans. Cutaneous nerves and vessels, lymph nodes, deeply situated sweat glands, mammary glands, subcutaneous muscles in the face, neck and scrotum.
  • Q. 47. Name any of the four end arteries in the body.
  1. Central artery of retina
  2. Arteries of spleen, kidney, lung
  3. Central branches cerebral arteries
  4. Vasa recti of small intestine.
  • Q. 48. Give examples of actual anterial anastomosis.
  1. Palmar arches
  2. Plantar arches
  3. Circle of willis
  4. Labial branches of facial arteries
  5. Intestinal arcades
  6. Uterine and ovarian arteries.
  • Q. 49. Name the organs where portal systems of vessels are found.
  1. Liver
  2. Pituitary
  3. Kidney
  4. Suprarenal.
  • Q. 50. Name the areas where capillaries are absent.
  1. Epidermis
  2. Hair
  3. Nails
  4. Articular hyaline cartilage
  5. Cornea.
  • Q. 51. Classify nerve cells according to polarity giving example of each.
  1. Unipolar—mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.
  2. Bipolar—olfactory cells of nasal mucosa
  3. Psuedounipolar—Dorsal root ganglia
  4. Multipolar—most of the neurones in the body.
  • Q. 52. Enumerate the sites where smooth muscles are present.
  1. Iris
  2. All blood vessels
  3. Pulmonary tree
  4. Walls of gastrointestinal tract from the lower portion of the esophagus to the internal anal sphincter
  5. Walls and tubes of genitourinary tract
  6. Piloerector muscles.
  • Q. 53. what is a dermatome? Give its clinical importance.
Ans. The area of skin supplied by one spinal nerve is called a dermatome. The area of sensory loss of the skin following injuries of the spinal cord or of the nerve roots can be determined by examining the dermatomes for touch, pain, and temperature.
  • Q. 54. Enumerate the curvatures of the vertebral column and mention the age at which they develop.
  1. Primary curvatures-concave anteriorly thoracic and sacral appear before birth.
  2. Secondary curvatures-convex anteriorly
    1. Cervical-3 to 4 months when the child starts holding its neck
    2. Lumbar-6 to 9 months when the child starts sitting (according to some authors about 1 year i.e. when the child starts standing).
  • Q. 55. Enumerate the abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column.
  1. Kyphosis-exaggerated thoracic curvature
  2. Scoliosis-lateral bending
  3. Kyphoscoliosis-Kyphosis + scoliosis
  4. Lordosis-exaggerated lumbar curvature.
  • Q. 56. Define a joint. Enumerate three main varieties of joints.
Ans. A joint is a junction between two or more bones or cartilage with or without movement.
Structural classification
  1. Fibrous joints
  2. Cartilaginous joints
  3. Synovial joints.
  • Q. 57. Mention the dermatomes at the following levels.
    1. Sternal angle
    2. Xiphoid process
    3. Umbilicus
    4. Pubis.
  1. Sternal angle-T2
  2. Xiphoid process-T7
  3. Umbilicus-T10
  4. Pubis-L1
  • Q. 58. Draw and label a typical synovial joint.
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  • Q. 59. Enumerate the functions of the intervertebral discs.
  1. They form secondary cartilaginous joints
  2. They give shape to the vertebral column.
  3. They act as shock absorbers
  4. They take part in weight transmission
  5. Because of their elasticity they allow slight movements of vertebral bodies on each other.
  • Q. 60. Draw and label a diagram showing distribution of a typical spinal nerve.
Ans. Typical spinal nerve.
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  • Q. 61. Give functional classification of blood vessels. Mention one example of each.
  1. Conducting vessel – Aorta (Elastic Artery)
  2. Distributing vessel – Brachial (Muscular Artery)
  3. Resistance vessel – Arteriole
  4. Exchange vessel – Capillary
  5. Capacitance vessel – Vein
  • Q. 62. What are venae comitants? What are their functions?
Ans. Below the knee and the elbow joints most of the deep veins are arranged in pairs along the sides of the arteries, which are called as venae comitants.
  1. Venae comitants help in the return of blood towards the heart by the transmitted pulsations of the arteries.
  2. They help in countercurrent heat exchange between arteries and veins.
  • Q. 63. Enumerate the valve less veins.
  1. Venae Cavae
  2. Hepatic
  3. Ovarian
  4. Renal
  5. Spinal
  6. Cerebral
  7. Umbilical
  8. Pulmonary
  9. Emissary
  10. Veins having less than 2 mm diameter.
  • Q. 64. What are cavernous tissues? Name any three cavernous tissues.
Ans. Cavernous tissues are blood filled spaces lined by endothelium and surrounded by trabeculae containing smooth muscle fibres. Arterioles and venules open directly into these spaces.
Cavernous tissues
  1. Erectile tissue of penis
  2. Erectile tissue of clitoris
  3. Nasal mucous membrane
  4. Cavernous sinus
  • Q. 65. Give differences between red and white muscles fibres.
Red Muscles
White Muscles
1. They are red in colour due to more myoglobin and rich capillary plexus around each muscles fiber.
1. They are paler in colour due to less myoglobin and poor capillary plexus around each muscle fiber.
2. They show slow tonic contraction.
2. They show fast phasic contraction.
3. They are rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes.
3. They are poor in mitochondria but rich in glycolytic enzymes.
4. They have less cross striations more sarcoplasm.
4. They have more cross striations and less sarcoplasm.
5. As they show well developed aerobic metabolism, they are highly resistant to fatigue.
5. As they show anaerobic metabolism, they are quite easily fatigued.
  • Q. 66. Enumerate tortuous arteries in the body
  1. Facial
  2. Occipital
  3. Splenic
  4. Uterine
  5. Nutrient
  • Q. 67. Enumerate the surfaces of the body without hair.
  1. Palms
  2. Soles
  3. Glans penis
  4. Labia minora
  5. Umbilicus
  6. Inner surface of labia majora
  • Q. 68. Name the arteries formed by fusion of other arteries.
  1. Basilar artery – vertebral arteries
  2. Anterior spinal artery – anterior spinal branches of vertebral arteries.
  3. Azygous arteries of vagina – branches of uterine and vaginal arteries.
  • Q. 69. Enumerate hyaline cartilages.
  1. Articular
  2. Thyroid
  3. Cricoid
  4. Tracheal rings
  5. Costal
  6. Nasal
  7. Bronchial
  8. Lower part of arytenoid
  • Q. 70. Enumerate elastic cartilages.
  1. Cartilage of epiglottis
  2. Cartilage of pinna
  3. Corniculate
  4. Cuneiform
  5. Apex of arytenoid
  6. Cartilage of auditory tube
  7. Cartilage of external acoustic meatus.
  • Q. 71. Enumerate fibrocartilages.
  1. Intervertebral disc
  2. Inter-pubic disc
  3. Articular discs of temporomandibular, sternoclavicular, and inferior radioulnar joints
  4. Labrum glenoidale and acetabulare
  5. Mensci of knee joint
  • Q. 72. A skeletal muscle is sometimes referred to as voluntary muscle. However, it is an unsatisfactory term. Explain.
Ans. The skeletal muscle is sometimes referred to as voluntary muscle because the movements in which it participates are often initiated under conscious control. However, this is an unsatisfactory term since it is involved in many movements – breathing, blinking, swallowing and the actions of muscles of the perineum and the middle ear are examples— that are usually or exclusively driven at an unconscious level.
  • Q. 73. What are synergists? Give one example.
Ans. When the prime movers cross more than one joint, the undesired actions at the proximal joints are prevented by certain muscles called as synergists. During making a tight fist the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus 15flex the fingers. The wrist joint is fixed in slight extension by extensors of wrist. These are called as synergists.
  • Q. 74. Define terms (a) Prime mover (b) Anta-gonist. Give one example of each.
  1. Prime mover—When a muscle is a chief muscle or a member of a chief group of muscles in producing a particular move-ment is called a prime mover. Brachials is a prime mover in the movement of flexion of the elbow joint.
  2. Antagonist—The muscle which opposes the action of the prime mover is called the antagonist. The treeps brachii opposes the action of brachialis in flexing the elbow joint. Antagonist actually help the prime mover by active controlled relaxation due to recprocal innervation.
  • Q. 75. Mention the factors maintaining stability of joints.
  1. Bony configuration
  2. Ligaments
  3. Tone of the muscles
  4. Atmospheric pressure
  • Q. 76. Mention functions of articular discs.
  1. Divide the joint cavity
  2. Lubrication
  3. Prevent wear and tear of the articular cartilage
  4. The upper compartment shows gliding movement and lower compartment shows angular movements.
  • Q. 77. Why the shaft of a long bone is hollow?
Ans. The hollow shaft of the long bone confers high strength in bending, minimizes bone mass and increases the speed of the movement.
  • Q. 78. Name the skeletal muscles with no bony attachments.
Ans. Frontalis, bulbospongiosus, risorius, palmaris brevis, intrinsic muscles of the tongue, subcutaneous part of external anal sphincter.
  • Q. 79. Name unpaired muscles in the body.
Ans. Diaphragm, trachealis, posterior cricoarytenoid, external urethral sphincter, internal anal sphincter.
  • Q. 80. Name elastic ligaments in the body.
Ans. Ligamentum nuchae, ligamentum flavam, spring ligament.
  • Q. 81. Name commonly ruptured tendons in the body.
Ans. Tendon of quadriceps femoris, tendocalcaneus, biceps brachii, supraspinatus, external pollicius longus.
  • Q. 82. Name the prevertebral muscles.
Ans. Longus capitis, longus colli, scalenus anterior, medius and posterior, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, piriformis.