The Short Textbook of Nursing Education Veerabhadrappa GM
Advantages of
computer instructions 168
microteaching 124
Aims of education 36, 37
Approaches to counseling 190
Areas of guidance and counseling 188
Assessment of
knowledge 173
skills 176
Attributes and skills of counselor 190
Audio aids 146, 169
Audio-visual aids 148
Barriers of
communication 6
interpersonal relations 27
Behavior of groups 17
Bulletin board 156
Cartoons 158
Chalkboard or blackboard 149
Changes in behavior 205
Channels of communication 5
Characteristic of
a good counselor 192
effective team 23
good lesson plan 71
microteaching 124
unit plan 78
Classroom management 80
Communication process 1, 4
Computer assisted instruction/ learning 117
Computers 168
Conducting a seminar 94
Conference 142
Content of course plan 76
Counseling 185
process 193
Course planning 74
counseling 202
home visits 202
intervention model 203
management 202
Criteria for
good report 139
pamphlet or leaflet 161
selection and statements of objective 68
selection of assessment technique 172
Cultural bonds 39
Definition of
computer 117
education 36
idealism 45
self-concept 9
learning 57
philosophy 40
Demonstration 87
Differential scale 182
Disadvantages of
microteaching 125
Distinguishing features of social attitudes 15
Early childhood (2 to 6 years) 12
Eclectic counseling 190
Eclecticism 55
media 145
uses of tape recorder 169
value of instructional television 165
Elements of
a specific educational objectives 68
communication 4
course planning 75
good lesson plan 71
Essential qualities of
group 20
model 159
Essentials of good lesson plan 71
Exhibition 114
Existentialism 50
Field trip and nursing
education 111
Field trip/field visit 108
Filmstrips 164
Flannel graph 156
Flashcards 154
Folk media 5
Formal and informal communication 3
Format of lesson plan 73
Formation of
group 20
attitudes 15
Functions of education 40
in human life 40
in national life 41
Functions/responsibilities of counselor 192
General aims of education 36
General principles of teaching 61
bar 153
column 153
curve 153
line 153
pie 153
surface 153
Graphs 153
discussion 90
dynamics 19
and thinking process 16
Guidance and counseling 184
Guidelines to prepare
flashcards 155
behavior 205
education 206
communities 210
groups 210
individual 210
bonds 39
museums and exhibition 214
relations 9
in context of nursing 17
in organization 9
Humanism 53
Idealism 45
aims of education 46
curriculum 46
discipline 47
methods of teaching 47
in education 45
Individual and group 15
Infant social relations 11
Influence of the group on the individual behavior 17
Information, education and communication for
health 205
Instructional uses of
computer 118
Instructions for the teacher to use flashcards 155
International seminar 94
Internet 168
communication 5
relations 25
Johari window 30
Lack of
autonomy 28
communication 27
health role models 27
positive reinforcement 27
Law of
effect 61
exercise 61
readiness 61
learning 61
LCD panels 167
Leaflets 161
Lecture method 84, 211
Ll thurstone scale 182
Logical bonds 39
Main seminar 94
Management of crisis and
referral 201
Mass media 5
Maxims of teaching 62
Meaning of
education 35
philosophy 39
pragmatism 49
realism 48
Media systems 5
Members involved in
symposium 97
Method of
overcoming this barriers 28
media for communicating health message 211
overcoming barriers of communication 6
teaching 84
Microscope 167
Microteaching 121
flow chart 122
Miniseminar 94
Mistrust 27
Modern contemporary philosphies of education 50
Morning and evening
reports 138
National seminar 94
Natural bonds 39
Naturalism and
curriculum 44
discipline 44
methods of teaching 44
biological 43
mechanical 43
physical 43
Nature and characteristics of learning 57, 58
purpose of communication 3
of guidance and counseling 186
Nontesting tools 197
Non-verbal communication 3
client helping relationship 17
management rounds 137
community relationship 18
family relationships 18
health team relationships 18
grounds 132
One-way communication 2
for field trips 110
of counseling services 189
Origin of panel discussion/ meaning 99
Overhead projector 162
Pamphlets and leaflets 161
Panel discussion 98
Patient comfort rounds 137
Personal body image 10
Phases of
crisis 202
interpersonal relations 26
microteaching 123
Philosophy of education 38, 56
Physical self-image 10
Posters 154
Pragmatism and methods of teaching 50
Pragmatism in education 49
Preparation/technique of using the cartoon 159
Prerequisites for good lesson planning 72
Principles in use of bulletin
board 157
Principles of
audio-visual aids 148
course planning 76
guidance and counseling 187
learning 59
naturalism 43
realism 48
Printed aids/media 161
Procedures adopted in microteaching 124
Process of organizing learning experience 77
Process recording 144
Programmed instruction/ learning 119
Progressivism 52
Project method 104
Projected aids 162
Psychological self-image 10
Psychomotor domain 176
Puppet 160
Purposes of
course planning 74
field trip 109
interpersonal relations 25
organizing counseling
services 189
process record 144
Purposes/scope of guidance and counseling 186
Qualification of counselor 191
Qualities/characteristics of specific educational 67
Realism 48
and aims of education 48
and curriculum 48
Reconstructionalism 54
between philosophy and education 56
intimate 26
social 26
therapeutic 26
Report of
charge nurse to physician 141
clinical instructor 141
Review of communication process 1
Role of teacher and student in clinical demonstrate 89
Roles in
workshop technique 113
using chalkboard/
blackboard 150
Rules to prepare poster 154
Scope of evaluation and assessment 171
Seminar 93
Simulation 127
attitudes 14
behavior 10
bonds 39
development among
children 11
drives 13
motivation 12
Sources of
audio-visual aids 149
cartoons 158
Stages of
awareness 206
decision-making 206
interest 206
crisis intervention
technique 203
group development 20
self-assessment 206
self-evaluation 206
trial to practice 206
Steps in
counseling 195
microteaching 121
formation of educational objectives 69
Steps of lesson plan 72, 73
Structure of course plan 75
Suggestions for organizing
panel 101
Summated scale 183
Symposium 96
Tape recorder 169
Teacher's role in course
planning 77
Team work 22
Techniques of
communication 7
counseling 195
lecture 86
Telecommunication and
internet 3
Three-dimensional aids 159
Traditional philosophies of education 42
Two-way communication 2
Types of
graphs 153
group 21
interpersonal relationship 26
nursing rounds 137
psychological test 196
classification of audio-visual aids 146
methods/forms of communication 2
Understanding of self-concept 10
plan format 80
planning 78
Use of
bulletin board in nursing education 158
chalkboard 149
bulletin board 157
cartoons 158
flannel graph 156
flashcards 155
Verbal communication 2
cassette recorder 166
tape recorder 166
aids 147
communication 3
Ways of conducting nursing rounds 138
Chapter Notes

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Review of Communication Processchapter 1

Communication is the basis for all human interactions. It is one of the most vital components of all nursing practice. Communication consists of all signals made by one person that have meaning for another person which affect their behavior and action, leading to interaction. Nurses communicate with the patients for developing an interpersonal relationship and to give instructions for medications, health teaching to the patient and relatives. This will ask for clear and effective communication, for effective care.
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Communication Process
  • Communication is the process of exchanging ideas, information, thought and feelings from one person to another.
  • Communication is the process of passing message, ideas, facts, opinions, attitudes, information and understanding from one person to another.
  • Communication means the exchanging of thoughts or information's conveyed to a person in such a way that the meaning received is equivalent to those which the initiator of the message intended.
  • Communication is the transmission and receiving of information, feelings, and/or attitudes with the overall purpose of having understood, producing a response.
One-way Communication
The flow of communication is “one-way” from the communicator to the audience. The familiar example is the lecture method in class rooms. The drawbacks of the didactic method are:
  • Knowledge is imposed
  • Learning is authoritative
  • Little audience participation
  • No feedback
  • Does not influence human behavior.
Two-way Communication
The Socratic method is a two-way method of communication in which both the communicator and the audience take part. The audience may raise questions, and add their own information, ideas and opinions to the subject. The process of learning is active and “democratic”. It is more likely to influence behavior than one- way communication.
Verbal Communication
The use of a spoken or written words are the ways for transmission of information, feeling, ideas and thoughts from one person to another.3
Examples of written words are: News paper, Books, Magazines, Notes, Letters and Records.
Non-verbal Communication
The unspoken events or it is the exchange of a information or message without the use of words.
Examples of unspoken events are: Facial expression, body posture, eye contact.
Formal and Informal Communication
Communication has been classified into formal (follows lines of authority) and informal (grape-vine) communication. Informal network (e.g. gossip circles) exist in all organizations. The informal channels may be more active. If the formal channels do not cater to the information needs.
Visual Communication
The visual forms of communication comprise: charts and graphs, pictograms, tables, maps, posters, etc.
Telecommunication and Internet
Telecommunication is the process of communicating over distance using electromagnetic instruments designed for the purpose. Radio, TV and Internet, etc. are mass communication media, while telephone, telex (or teletype) and telegraph are known as point- to-point telecommunication systems. The point-to-point systems are closer to interpersonal communication. With the launching of satellites, a big explosion of electronic communication has taken place all over the world.
  1. Communication is important for the nurse to understand and to exchange ideas to the client and their relatives, the doctors and other members of the health team.
  2. Poor communication results in poor patient care and poor interpersonal relationship.
  3. Good communication helps the nurses to improve quality care for the patients.
  4. Delegate authority and responsibility.
  5. It reduces the interpersonal tension and improves the interpersonal relationship.
  6. Good communication prevents disorders in the ward and hospital organization.
  7. Recruit, select, train and develop the personnel in the organization.
  8. It also helps to improve employer-employee relationship.
  9. Good communication helps the nurse to change or modify her behavior and at the same time, she will be able to influence the behavior of co-workers or subordinators.
  10. Encourage the participation in decision-making.
  11. It helps in the grievance procedure and disciplinary actions.
  12. Ensures job satisfaction.
  13. Improve public relation with government and other agencies.
  14. Include motivation, cooperation and coordination the employees.
Communication between two or more persons involves a series of elements. This is called communication process. We shall now see the elements of communication, steps in the process of communication and the process of communication itself.
Elements of Communication
In order to communicate, we should have to have the following basic elements.
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  1. Sender or the communicator or source: The person which passes informations or ideas to another person is known as sender.
  2. Ideas: This is the subject matter of communication. This might be opinions, attitudes, feelings, views, suggestions, orders, etc.
  3. Encoding: The process of transmission of message to symbols (words, actions, pictures, etc.) is called encoding. Symbols are transmitted from the sender to the receiver.
  4. Channel: The symbols are transmitted through certain channels, e.g. radio, telephone, speech, written message, etc. the choice of channel usually depends upon the nature, importance and urgency of the message.
  5. Receiver: It is listener or the one who receive the message.
  6. Decoding: Receiver converts the symbols received from the sender to give him the meaning of the message.
  7. Response or feedback: It is the message that the receiver returns to the sender.
By channel is implied the “physical bridges” or the media of communication between the sender and the receiver.
Media Systems
The total communication effort is based on three media systems:
  1. Interpersonal communication
  2. Mass media
  3. Tradition of folk media.
Interpersonal Communication
The most common channel of communication is the interpersonal or face-to-face communication. Interpersonal communication is particularly important in influencing the decision of the undecided persons.
When the message relayed via mass-media gets diffused in the community, it is picked up by the interpersonal and informal networks. The message is then subject to debate and discussion by interpersonal communications.
Mass Media
In mass communication the channel is one or more of the following “mass media” Viz TV, radio, printed media, etc. Mass media have the advantage of reaching a relatively larger population in a shorter time than is possible with other means. Being one-way channels of the communications mass media carry messages only from the center to the periphery; feedback mechanisms are poorly organized.
Folk Media
Every community has its own network of traditional or folk media such as folk dances, singing, dramas, caste or religious meetings. 6These are important channels of communication close to the cultural values of the rural population. Health messages may be communicated through these traditional media.
There are several factors that can:
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Fig. 1.1: Barrier's of communication
  1. Emotional factors: Such as fear, suspicion, jealousy, anger, anxiety, grief, lack of interest, lack of listening.
  2. Physical factors: Such as fatigue, illness, speech, defects, deafness, pain.
  3. Intellectual factors: Such as low IQ, lack of knowledge, difficult words, unfamiliar words.
  4. Social factors: Such as differences in culture, language, race, professional status, socioeconomic status, etc.
  5. Environmental factors: Such as noise, lack of privacy, uncomfortable accommodations, etc.
Communication may be blocked by:
  • Changing the subject.
  • Lack of listening.
  • Inappropriate use of knowledge.
  • Jumping into conclusion.
  • False and inappropriate reassurance.
  • Stating one's own opinions and ideas.
A nurse need to have a good background knowledge of the importance of effective communication and also practice the same, for effective patient care, and health education. He/she needs to practice good vocabulary so that he/she can communicates 7effectively to deliver her/his goods to the public through the network of health care delivery system.
  1. Have clarity in idea—the sender must be clear about what he wants to communicate.
  2. The sender and the receiver uses the same languages and express the ideas in simple words. The ideas should be expressed in commonly understood words, with brevity and completeness.
  3. Have adequacy of the message that is to be communicated.
  4. The sender should have a thorough knowledge of the subject being discussed and the informations that are given by her should be accurate in order to create confidence in others.
  5. Be sensitive to the receiver's needs, feelings and perceptions.
  6. Be a good listener. Follow LADDER pattern:
L - Look at the other person, maintain good eye contact.
A - Ask appropriate questions.
D - Don't interrupt.
D - Don't change subject.
E - Express emotions with control.
R - Responsively listen.
Specific techniques are considered that contribute to the nurses practice in communication therapeutically and creating learning experience, in which the client can achieves a greater awareness of self and a higher regard for self.
The following are the techniques of communication:
  1. Observation
  2. Listening
  3. Restating
  4. Validating
  5. Providing information
  6. Clarifying
  7. Paraphrasing
  8. Pinpointing
  9. Linking
  10. Questioning
  11. Focusing
  12. Sharing
  13. Summarizing
Observation: Observation is made by the nurse by wringing of hand, wiping perspiration, dry lips, speaking in a very low tone. The nurse is making the observation of a non verbal communication.
Listening: As the patient is talking, the nurse responds by nodding her neck, e.g. maintain eye contact.
Restating: Nurse restates or respect what the patient has been saying it can be in the form of a question or a statement.
Validating: It is a technique by which with nurse uses to confirm the accuracy of data or information given by the patient.
Providing information: Providing personal, social and therapeutic information increases the patient's resources.
Clarifying: The nurse's formation of a patient's statement or expression of feelings in cleaner terms without indicating approval or disapproval.
Paraphrasing: In which nurse restates whatever she has learned from the patient. Nurse paraphrasing gives a feeling to the patient to test whatever she has understood what she wanted to communicate.
Pinpointing: The nurse pays attention to certain consistent statements made by the patient. She pinpoints the difference in what the patient says and what he does.
Linking: The nurse tries to link the patient's two events feeling of persons together.
Questioning: Questioning in communication is used when the nurse wants clear information. Too many questions showed are avoided. The nurses use open ended or close-ended questions.
– Close ended question or the answer of yes or no, right or wrong.
– Open ended questions give more chances to the patient to speak.
Focusing: Concentrating on a single patient
Sharing: The nurse thinks about the patient other than the time she looks after him. She may evaluates whether the interaction are helping the patient.
Summarizing: In summarizing, the nurse highlights the main theme of what has been discussed. It is useful in focusing the patient's attention on what has been discussed. It is careful in following the patient's attention on what he has discussed.