Pathology Practical Book for Dental Students Harsh Mohan, Sugandha Mohan
The letter “t” after page number in the index below denotes Table and the letter “f” stands for Figure on that page.
Abscess lung, 801
Absolute values, 63
Accumulations, intracellular, 736
Actinomycosis, 878
Adenocarcinoma, colon, 934
Adenoma, rectum, 934
pleomorphic, 1078
Albuminometer, 24
Alcohol, grades of, 78
Ameloblastoma, 107
Amyloid, stain for, 15, 756
kidney, 745
spleen, 756
Anaemia, 43
Anuria, 22
Appendicitis, acute, 81
Artery, thrombus, 79
Ascitic fluid, cytology of, 38
Aspergillosis lung, 879
Atheroma, coronary artery, 1023
Ayre spatula, 36
Barr bodies, 38
Basal cell carcinoma, 98
Basophilia, 58t
Basophils, 55t, 56, 58
Bence Jones' proteinuria, 25
Benedicts' test, 256
Benzidine test, 28
Bile derivatives in urine, 278
Bleeding time, 645
Blocking, 9
Blood film (PBF), 513
Blood vessels, tumours of, 1035
Blueing, 11
Bones, common diseases of, 10912
cysticercosis, 8890
liquefactive necrosis, 712
duct carcinoma, 40f
fibroadenoma, 40f
FNA in carcinoma of, 39
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 38
Brown induration lung, 77
Buccal smears, 38
Bouin's fixative, 7
Calcification, dystrophic,
in tuberculous lymphadenitis, 83f
Candidiasis, 35f
Carbon dioxide, 123
basal cell, 98
colon, 934
infiltrating duct, breast, 40f
metastatic, lymph node, 1001
squamous cell, 913
Cardice, 13
Carnoy's fixative, 7
Casts, urinary, 302
Cervical cancer,
cytology of, 37f
Chronic venous congestion (CVC),
liver, 789
lung, 77
Clearing, 78
Clotting time, 66
Collagen, stain for, 14f, 15
Colon, adenocarcinoma, 934
Colorimeter, 44
Congo red, 14f, 15, 75f, 76f
Coronary artery, atheroma, 102
Cryostat, 13
Crystals in urine, 324
Cyanmet Hb method, 434
Cyst, radicular, 106
brain, 8890
Cytopathology, 3640
exfoliative, 369
fine needle aspiration (FNA), 3940
Cytospin, 38f
Dacie's fluid, 49
Dark ground illumination (DGI), 5
Degenerations, 6971
Differential leucocyte count (DLC), 548
normal values of DLC, 55t
Differentiation, staining, 11
DPX, 11
Drabkin's fluid, 434
Dry ice, 13
Duct carcinoma, NOS, breast, 40f
Duke's method, 65
Effusion for malignant cells, 38
Ehrlich's test, 27
Ehrlich, Paul, 19
Electron microscope, 5
Embedding, 9
Embedding centre, 9
Eosinopenia, 58t
Eosinophilia, 58t
Eosinophils, 55t, 56, 57
Esbach's albuminometer, 24
ESR, 5961
Exfoliative cytology, 369
Fat, stain for, 14f, 145
Fatty liver, 734
Fibroadenoma breast, 40f
Fine needle aspiration (FNA), 3940
Fixation, 67
Fixatives, 67
Fluid cytology, 38
Fluorescent microscope, 5
Formaldehyde, 7
Formalin, 7
Fouchet's test, 278
Franzen handle, 39f
Freezing microtome, 13
Frozen section, 123
Gerhardt's test, 26
Giant cell tumour, bone, 1101
Giemsa stain, 39, 53
Glucosuria, 256
Glutaraldehyde, 7
Glycogen, stain for, 14f, 15
Granulation tissue, 812
Granulomatous inflammation, 836
H&E staining, 11
rapid, 13
capillary, skin, 1034
cavernous, liver, 1034
Haematocrit, 623
Haematoxylin, 11
Haemocytometer, 478
Haemoglobin estimation, 436
Hay's test, 27
Hayem's fluid, 49
Heart failure cells, 77
Heat and acetic acid test, 23
Heller's test, 23
Histopathology techniques, 117
Hyaline change, 6970
Impregnation, 8
Imprint cytology, 40
Immunohistochemistry, 167
brain, 712
kidney, 6971
Infections, 8790
Infestations, 8790
Infiltrating duct carcinoma, breast, 40f
granulomatous, 836
tuberculosis, 846
Involucrum, 110
Ivy's method, 65
Juvenile polyp, 93
Ketonuria, 267
coagulative necrosis, 6971
Lardaceous amyloidosis, 75
Lee and White method, 66
Leiomyoma, 6970
Leishman's stain, 523
Leuckart's (L) moulds, 9
Leucocytes, identification of, 556
counting of, 478
Leucocytosis, DLC of, 558
Leuwenhoeck, Anthony van, 1
cavernous haemangioma, 1034
fatty change, 734
nutmeg, 78
abscess, 801
aspergillosis, 879
CVC, 77
fibrocaseous tuberculosis, 845
metastatic sarcoma, 101
Lymph node,
caseous necrosis, 83
dystrophic calcification, 83f
metastatic carcinoma, 1001
tuberculosis, 834
Lymphangioma, tongue, 1045
Lymphocytes, 55t, 55, 57
Lymphocytosis, 57t
Lymphopenia, 57t
Masson's trichrome, 14f, 15
Melanin, 967
Melanoma, malignant, 97
Metachromasia, 14f, 15
Metastatic carcinoma, lymph node, 1001
Metastatic sarcoma, lung, 101
Methyl violet, 14f, 15
Microhaematocrit, 62
Microscopy, various types, 35
Microtomy, 911
freezing, 13
rotary, 9f
Monocyte, 55t, 55, 57
Monocytosis, 57t
Mordant, 11
Mounting, 11
Muscle stain for, 14f, 15
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 84f
Naevus, 967
caseous, 834
coagulative, 6971
liquefactive, 712
Neubauer's chamber, 478
Neutropenia, 56t
Neutrophilia, 56t
Nocturia, 21
Normal values, 11320
clinical chemistry, 115t
haematogical, 118t
other body fluids, 117t
Nose, rhinosporidiosis, 889
Nutmeg liver, 78
Oedema, pulmonary, 78
Oil red O, 14f, 145
Oliguria, 22
Osmium tetraoxide, 7
Osteoclastoma, 1101
Osteomyelitis, 10910
chronic pyogenic, 10910
tuberculous, 110
Osteosarcoma, 1112
Packed cell volume (PCV), 623
Pap smear, 367
Papilloma, squamous cell, 91
Parotid tumour, mixed, 912
Particle counter in haematology, 45f
Periodic acid Schiff (PAS), 14f, 15
Peripheral blood film (PBF),
DLC for, 548
examination of, 513
preparation of, 513
staining of, 523
Perl's stain, 14f, 156
pH of urine, 22
Picric acid, 7
Platelet count, 4950
Pleomorphic adenoma, 1078
Polarising microscope, 5
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN), 55, 56, 55t
Polyuria, 212
Pott's disease, bone, 110
Processors, tissue, 8
Proteinuria, 235
Prussian blue, 14f, 156
Pseudocartilage, 1078
Pus cells, urine, 30
Quality control in Hb estimation, 46
RBC count, 4950
Reticulin stain, 14f, 15
Rhinosporidiosis, nose, 889
Ripening, 11
Rodent ulcer, 98
Romanowsky dyes, 52
Rothera's test, 26
Rouleaux formation, 59
Sahli's method, 456
Salivary, mixed tumour, 1078\
bone, 1112
metastatic, lung, 101
soft tissue, 100f
Schiff's reagent, 15
Scott's tap water, 11
Section cutting, 910
Sediment, urine, 29
Sequestrum, 110
Silver impregnation, 15
actinomycosis, 878
basal cell carcinoma, 98
capillary haemangioma, 1034
epidermoid carcinoma, 913
melanoma, 97
naevus, 967
papilloma, 91
squamous cell carcinoma, 913
cytologic, 3640
peripheral blood, 518
Specific gravity, urine, 223
Spermatozoa, 35f
lardaceous, 75
miliary tuberculosis, 856
sago, 75
Sputum examination, 38
Squamous cell carcinoma, 913
Squamous cell papilloma, 91
Staining, routine, sections, 11
immunohistochemical, 167
special, 146
Stains for blood film, 523
Strip method for urine, 24f
Sulfosalicylic acid test, 23
Thrombocytopenia, 50
Thrombocytosis, 50
Thrombus artery, 79
Tissue processor, automated, 8
TLC, 478
Toluidine blue, 13
Trichomonas, 35f, 37f
bones, 110
fibrocaseous, 845
FNA in, 40f
intestine, 856
lymph node, 834
lung, 845
spleen, 856
Ziehl-Neelsen stain in, 84f
Tuberculous osteomyelitis, 110
Turbidimetry for proteinuria, 24
Turk's fluid, 47
Ulcer, rodent, 98
Urine, examination, 2135
analysers, 28
bile derivatives, 278
blood, 28
candida in, 35f
casts, 302
chemical examination, 238
colour of, 22
crystals in, 324
epithelial cells, 30
glucosuria, 256
ketonuria, 267
microscopy, 2935
pH of, 22
physical examination, 213
preservatives, 21
proteinuria, 235
pus cells in, 30
RBCs in, 2930
reaction of, 22
specific gravity of, 223
spermatozoa in, 35f
urobilinogen, 27
WBCs in, 30
Urinometer, 22
Vacuum tissue processor, 8f
van Gieson stain, 14f, 15
Virchow, Rudolf, 67
WBC count, 478
DLC, 548
WBC, normal morphology of, 558
Weights and measurements of normal organs, 113t
Westergren's method, 60
Wintrobe method, 602
Wintrobe, MM, 41
Zahn, lines of, 79
Ziehl-Neelsen staining, 84f
Chapter Notes

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The photographs on the cover of the textbook depict images of diseases as follows:
Harsh Mohan MD, FAMS, FICPath, FUICC Professor and Head Department of Pathology Government Medical College Sector-32 A, Chandigarh-160 031 INDIA E mail: Sugandha Mohan BDS E mail:
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Phone: +91-11-43574357
Fax: +91-11-43574314
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Phone: +44-2031708910
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Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc.
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Panama City, Panama
Phone: 507-317-0160
Fax: +50-73-010499
© 2011, Harsh Mohan, Sugandha Mohan
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the publisher.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at:
This book has been published in good faith that the contents provided by the author(s) contained herein are original, and is intended for educational purposes only. While every effort is made to ensure a accuracy of information, the publisher and the author(s) specifically disclaim any damage, liability, or loss incurred, directly or indirectly, from the use or application of any of the contents of this work. If not specifically stated, all figures and tables are courtesy of the authors(s). Where appropriate, the readers should consult with a specialist or contact the manufacturer of the drug or device.
Publisher: Jitendar P Vij
Publishing Director: Tarun Duneja
Editor: Richa Saxena
Cover Design: Seema Dogra, Sumit Kumar
Assistant Editors: Praveen Mohan, Tanya Mohan
Pathology Practical Book for Dental Students
First Edition: 2011
Printed at
There is nothing in the world equal in purity to knowledge, the person who is perfected by yoga, finds it of himself in the self by the course of time.
(The Bhagvatgita: Ch IV, Verse 38)
Students of dentistry in India (and in many other countries) learn pathology in two phases—General Pathology in second year and Oral Pathology in their third year of the course. As an experienced teacher (HM) and as a BDS student until recently (SM), it has been our common observation that BDS students who are studying in shared campuses for BDS and MBBS, get much less attention from their teachers of medical college in general medical subjects than the attention and care they get from their teachers of core dental subjects from their dentistry teachers for various reasons which we are not delving into. Similarly, until a few years back, there were no separate books in general medical subjects taught to dental students. Thus, while there has been a main course book Essential Pathology for Dental Students by the first author for about 15 years, there has not been any separate practical book in pathology for BDS students so far anywhere. This has resulted in lack of uniformity in teaching and training for the reason that it is left to the discretion of teacher and examiner to decide what to teach and evaluate and what to leave out for dental students.
An attempt has been made to bridge this lacuna by bringing out separately the present book, Pathology Practical Book for Dental Students, structured as per requirements prescribed by the Dental Council of India (DCI) in the revised syllabus of Pathology for second year BDS students.
Some highlights of this book are as under:
Updated and well-organised contents: The book is organised systematically into 4 Sections, each section having certain number of practical exercises (in all 25) patterned on the format of practical class of students. These are: Techniques in Pathology (Exercise 14), Clinical Pathology and Basic Cytopathology (Exercise 57), Haematology (Exercise 813) and Histopathology (Exercise 1425).
Hone your diagnostic skills: The book is structured in a way that it aims to hone the practical and diagnostic skills of the learner in pathology in a user-friendly manner. All exercises have listed key features point-wise for easy understanding and reproducibility, leaving out theoretical details for learning from the main course book so as not to lose focus on key diagnostic and practical points.
Brevity with beauty: Brief and point-wise text in each exercise is richly supported by labelled line-drawings with corresponding specimen photograph and microscopic image for conceptual learning. Thus, the book may become a must-take to practical class by the students to learn the subject effectively and to revise the entire matter quickly for their examination and viva.
Wish to learn more? For those students desiring to learn more, the book has many additional exercises over and above those given in the revised syllabus by the DCI in the opening pages of the book.
Although the book is primarily prepared as per DCI recommendations given in the revised syllabus in Pathology for second year students of BDS, it is also expected to be useful for practising clinicians and other students of medicine such as those pursuing course in physiotherapy, pharmacy, nursing, laboratory technology and alternate systems of medicine.6
In preparing this book, we have been helped and supported by various friends and colleagues and our family, which is gratefully acknowledged. A word of special thanks to Ms Agam Verma, MSc (MLT), Senior Laboratory Technician, for liberal and skilful technical assistance and her valuable suggestions in chapters on laboratory technology.
We thank profusely the entire staff of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. for their ever smiling support and cooperation in completion of this book in a relatively short time.
Finally, although sincere effort has been made to be as accurate as possible, element of human error is still likely; we shall humbly request users to continue giving their valuable suggestions and feedback directed at further improvements of its contents.
Government Medical College
Sector-32 A, Chandigarh-160030
Harsh Mohan, md, fams, ficpath, fuicc
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sugandha Mohan, bds
Revised Syllabus in Pathology for BDS Students as per Recommendations of the Dental Council of India
Urine—Abnormal Constituents: Sugar, albumin, ketone bodies.
Urine—Abnormal Constituents: Blood, bile salts, bile pigments.
Haemoglobin (Hb) Estimation
Total WBC Count
Differential WBC Count
Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Bleeding Time and Clotting Time
Histopathology: Tissue processing, staining.
Histopathology Slides: