The Pocketbook for Physiotherapists Gitesh Amrohit
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PharmacologyCHAPTER 1

  • Drug classes in alphabetical order
  • Prescription abbreviations
2
Drug classes in alphabetical order
 
ACETAZOLAMIDE
Type: Diuretics.
Uses: Glaucoma, epilepsy, acute mountain sickness, periodic paralysis, urinary tract infection.
Side effects: Hypokalemia, drowsiness, acidosis, abdominal discomfort.
 
ACETYLCYSTEINE
Type: Mucolytic.
Uses: Reduces the viscosity of secretions, antidote for paracetamol overdose.
Side effects: Bronchoconstriction, nausea, vomiting.
 
ACICLOVIR
Type: Antiviral.
Uses: Herpes simplex and varicella zoster infection.
Side effects: Very rare.
 
ADENOSINE
Class: Antiarrhythmic.
Uses: Tachycardias.
Side effects: Nausea, bronchospasm, dyspnea, chest pain, facial flush.3
 
ADRENALINE/EPINEPHRINE
Type: Sympathomimetic agent.
Uses: During cardiopulmonary resuscitation to stimulate heart activity and raise low blood pressure, anaphylactic shock, glaucoma, in eye surgery.
Side effects: Dry mouth, anxiety, restlessness, palpitations, tremor, blurred vision, headache, hypertension, tachycardias.
 
ALBENDAZOLE
Type: Anthelmintics.
Uses: Filariasis, hydatid disease, trichinosis, tape- worms.
Side effects: Diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain.
 
ALENDRONATE
Type: Bisphosphonate.
Uses: Postmenopausal osteoporosis, corticosteroids induced osteoporosis, Paget's disease.
Side effects: Gastrointestinal upset, esophageal irritation and ulceration.
 
ALFENTANIL
Type: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: Respiratory depressant, during surgery.4
Side effects: Drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, dry mouth.
 
ALLOPURINOL
Type: Antigout.
Uses: Gout, kidney stones.
Side effects: Nausea, itching, rash.
 
AMIODARONE
Type: Antiarrhythmic.
Uses: Ventricular and supraventricular tachycardias.
Side effects: Liver damage, reversible corneal depositions, thyroid disorders.
 
AMINOPHYLINE
Type: Bronchodilator.
Uses: Acute severe asthma, reversible airway obstruction.
Side effects: Nausea, headache, insomnia, arrhythmias, convulsions, palpitations, tachycardias.
 
AMITRIPTYLINE
Type: Tricyclic antidepressant.
Uses: Depression, nocturnal enuresis in children.5
Side effects: Sweating, dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, fainting, palpitations, gastrointestinal upset.
 
AMLODIPINE
Type: Ca++ channel blocker.
Uses: Congestive heart failure, angina.
Side effects: Ankle edema, flushing, palpitation, headache, hypotension, gastrointestinal upset.
 
AMOXICILLIN
Please refer Ampicillin.
 
AMPICILLIN
Class: Antibiotic.
Uses: Urinary tract infection, respiratory tract infection, meningitis, gonorrhea, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, bacterial endocarditis, septicemias, cholecystitis.
Side effects: Diarrhea, rashes, lymphatic leukemia.
 
ALPRAZOLAM
Type: Benzodiazepines.
Uses: Anxiety, depression.
Side effects: Sedation, light headedness, vertigo, confusion, psychomotor and cognitive impairment.6
 
ALENDRONATE
Type: Bisphosphonate.
Uses: Postmenopausal osteoporosis, corticosteroids induced osteoporosis, Paget's disease.
Side effects: Esophageal irritations and ulceration, gastrointestinal upset, increased bony pain especially in Paget's disease.
 
ASPIRIN
Type: NSAIDs and antipyretic.
Uses: As analgesic, antipyretic, acute rheumatic fever, RA, OA, postmyocardial infarction and post-stroke.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, rhinorrhea.
 
ATENOLOL
Type: B-antiadrenergic.
Uses: Arrhythmias, angina, hypertension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure.
Side effects: Cold hand and feet, bradycardia, hypotension, fatigue.
 
ATRACURIUM
Type: Nondepolarizing muscle relaxant.
Uses: As a muscle relaxant.
Side effects: Hypotension, flushing, skin rashes.7
 
ATROPINE
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: Corneal ulcers, peptic ulcers, pulmonary embolism, preanesthetic medication, bradycardia, motion sickness.
Side effects: Dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing and talking, blurring of near vision, constipation, flushing, dry skin.
 
AZATHIOPRINE
Type: Immunosuppressant.
Uses: Autoimmune and collagen disease including rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, loss of hair, loss of appetite, bone marrow suppression.
 
BACLOFEN
Type: Skeletal muscle relaxant.
Uses: For reducing spasticity.
Side effects: Nausea, urinary disturbances, drowsiness.
 
BECLOMETHASONE
Type: Corticosteroid.
Uses: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, in vasomotor symptoms.8
Side effects: Nasal discomfort, irritation, horse voice, cough, nosebleed, sore throat.
 
BENDROFLUMETHIAZIDE/BENDROFLUAZIDE
Type: Thiazide diuretic.
Uses: Hypertension, cardiac failure, resistant edema, for reducing urinary calcium excretion.
Side effects: Hypokalemia, dehydration, postural hypotension, gout, hyperglycemia.
 
BUDESONIDE
Type: Corticosteroid.
Uses: Asthma, COPD.
Side effects: Nasal discomfort, cough, sore throat.
 
CALCITONIN
Type: Hormone.
Uses: Hypercalcemia, bone pain, osteoporosis.
Side effects: Vomiting, nausea.
 
CAPTOPRIL
Type: ACE inhibitor.
Uses: Hypertension, congestive heart failure, post- myocardial infarction, diabetic nephropathy.
Side effects: Persistent dry cough, rashes, loss of taste sensation, reduces kidney function, postural hypotension.9
 
CARBAMAZEPINE
Type: Antiepileptic.
Uses: Partial and tonic–clonic seizures, trigeminal neuralgia.
Side effects: Drowsiness, epigastric pain, nausea, confusion, blurred vision.
 
CELECOXIB
Type: NSAID.
Uses: Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis.
Side effects: Fluid retention, dizziness, hypertension, headache, itching, insomnia.
 
CHLORAMPHENICOL
Type: Broad spectrum antibiotics.
Uses: Enteric fever, anerobic infections, intraocular infections, H. influenzae, meningitis.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gray baby syndrome, bone marrow depression.
 
CHLORPROMAZINE
Type: Antipsychotic.
Uses: Schizophrenia, mania, organic brain syndrome, alcoholic hallucinosis.
Side effects: Dry mouth, blurring vision, constipation, parkinsonian symptoms, dystonic, 10jaundice, akathisia, malignant neuroleptic syndrome symptoms.
 
CHLOROQUINE
Type: Antimalarial drug.
Uses: Malaria.
Side effects: Hypotension, vision loss, hearing deficit, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, itching.
 
CICLOSPORIN
Type: Immunosuppressant.
Uses: Used to prevent rejection of organ and tissue transplantation. Rheumatoid arthritis, severe resistant psoriasis, severe dermatitis when other treatments have failed.
Side effects: Nephrotoxicity, hypertension, increased body hair, nausea, tremors, swelling of gums.
 
CIPROFLOXACIN
Type: Prototype antibacterial.
Uses: UTI, gonorrhea, bacterial gastroenteritis, typhoid, gynecological disease, tuberculosis, meningitis, respiratory infections.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, bad taste dizziness, headache, rashes, urticaria.11
 
CLOFAZIMINE
Please refer Dapsone.
 
CLOMIPRAMINE
Type: Tricyclic antidepressant.
Uses: Depression.
Side effects: Sweating, drowsiness, dryness of mouth, blurring of vision, dizziness, fainting, palpitations, gastrointestinal upset.
 
CLONIDINE
Type: Alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist.
Uses: Migraine, menopausal flushing, hypertension.
Side effects: Dryness of mouth, gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, rashes, sedation, depression, bradycardia, retention of fluid, nocturnal unrest.
 
CODEINE PHOSPHATE
Please refer Morphine.
 
DAPSONE
Type: Antileprotic drug.
Uses: Leprosy.
12Side effects: Hemolytic anemia, gastric intolerance, rashes, headache, lepra reactions, nausea, vomiting.
 
DEXAMETHASONE
Please refer Prednisolone.
 
DIAZEPAM
Type: Benzodiazepines.
Uses: Anxiety, sleep disturbances, alcoholism and as muscle relaxants.
Side effects: Unsteadiness, drowsiness, dizziness, confusion in elderly. Dependence develops with prolonged use.
 
DICLOFENAC
Type: NSAIDs and antipyretic.
Uses: Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, post-traumatic and postoperative inflammatory conditions.
Side effects: Epigastric pain, nausea, rashes, headache, dizziness.
 
DIDANOSINE
Please refer Zalcitabine.13
 
DIGOXIN
Type: Cardiac glycoside.
Uses: Heart failure, supraventricular arrhythmias.
Side effects: Nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, visual disturbances, headache, tiredness, palpitations.
 
DIHYDROCODEINE/DF 118
Please refer Morphine.
 
DILTIAZEM
Please refer Amlodipine.
 
DOBUTAMINE
Type: Inotropic sympathomimetic.
Uses: Heart failure.
Side effects: Tachycardias.
 
DONEPEZIL
Type: Anticholinesterase.
Uses: Dementia especially due to Alzheimer's disease.
Side effects: Insomnia, muscle cramps, fatigue, gastrointestinal upset. 14
 
DOPAMINE
Type: Inotropic sympathomimetic.
Uses: Shock, heart failure.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, peripheral vasoconstriction, hypotension, hypertension tachycardia.
 
DORNASE ALFA
Type: Mucolytic.
Uses: Used by inhalation in cystic fibrosis to facilitate expectoration.
Side effects: Laryngitis, pharyngitis, pain in chest.
 
DOSULEPIN/DOTHIEPIN
Please refer Clomipramine.
 
DOXAPRAM
Type: Respiratory stimulant.
Uses: COPD with type-II respiratory failure.
Side effects: Hypertension, cerebral edema, hyperthyroidism, dizziness, sweating, confusion, seizures, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, perineal warmth.
 
DOXYCYCLINE
Please refer Tetracyclines. 15
 
ENALAPRIL
Type: ACE inhibitor.
Uses: Hypertension, chronic heart failure.
Side effects: Rashes, dry cough, loss of taste, postural hypotension, dizziness, headache, reduce kidney function.
 
EFAVIRENZ
Please refer Zalcitabine.
 
ERYTHROMYCIN
Type: Macrolide antibiotic.
Uses: Inflammation, diphtheria, syphilis, gonorrhea.
Side effects: Gastrointestinal discomfort, rashes, fever.
 
ETIDRONATE
Type: Bisphosphonate.
Uses: Postmenopausal osteoporosis, corticosteroid induced osteoporosis, Paget's disease, bone metastases in breast cancer.
Side effects: Ulceration and esophageal irritation, gastrointestinal upset, increased bony pain in Paget's disease.16
 
FENTANYL
Type: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: Mainly used to depress respiration in patients needing prolonged assisted ventilation.
Side effects: Drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, dry mouth.
 
FERROUS SULPHATE
Type: Iron salt.
Uses: Iron deficiency anemia.
Side effects: Constipation, epigastric discomfort, darkening of feces.
 
FLUCLOXACILLIN
Please refer Penicillin.
 
FUROSEMIDE/FRUSEMIDE
Type: Loop diuretic.
Uses: For reducing acute pulmonary edema secondary to left ventricular failure.
Side effects: Hypokalemia, postural hypotension, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, gout, dizziness, nausea.
 
GABAPENTIN
Type: Anticonvulsant. 17
Uses: Epileptic seizures, neuropathic pain, trigeminal neuralgia.
Side effects: Dizziness, drowsiness, ataxia, nystagmus, tremor, diplopia, gastrointestinal upset, peripheral edema, amnesia, paresthesia.
 
GATIFLOXACIN
Please refer Ciprofloxacin.
 
GENTAMICIN
Type: Aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Uses: Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella infections, respiratory infection's meningitis.
Side effects: Vestibular disturbances, auditory loss, nausea, vomiting.
 
GLICLAZIDE
Type: Sulphonylurea.
Uses: Type-II diabetes mellitus.
Side effects: Hypoglycemia, weight gain.
 
HALOPERIDOL
Type: Antipsychotic.
Uses: Used for controlling violent and dangerously impulsive behavior associated with psychotic disorders like as schizophrenia, dementia and mania.
18Side effects: Acute dystonia, akathisia, drowsiness, postural hypotension, parkinsonism.
 
HEPARIN
Type: Anticoagulant.
Uses: Pulmonary embolism, DVT.
Side effects: Thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage.
 
HYDROCORTISONE
Please refer Prednisolone.
 
IBUPROFEN
Class: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory/NSAID.
Uses: For reducing pain, stiffness, swelling. Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue injuries, headache, dental pain, operative pain.
Side effects: Indigestion, heart burn.
 
INSULIN
Type: Peptide hormone.
Uses: Insulin dependent and maturity onset diabetes mellitus.
Side effects: Irritation over injection site, hypoglycemia, weakness, weight gain, sweating.19
 
INTERFERON
Type: Antiviral and anticancer.
Uses: Leukemia, multiple sclerosis, granulomatous disease.
Side effects: Lethargy, chills, myalgia, fatigue, rashes, fever, headache, anorexia, irritation.
 
IPRATROPIUM
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: COPD.
Side effects: Dry mouth and throat.
 
ISONIAZID
Type: Antitubercular drug.
Uses: Tuberculosis.
Side effects: Paresthesia, numbness, convulsions, mental disturbances, hepatitis.
 
ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE
Type: Organic nitrate.
Uses: Congestive heart failure, angina.
Side effects: Throbbing headache, flushing, sweating, palpitation, dizziness, fainting.20
 
KETAMINE
Type: Intravenous anesthetic.
Uses: As anesthetics agent (not use in head and neck surgery).
Side effects: Tachycardia, hallucinations, increased blood pressure, increased muscle tone, apnea, hypotension, other transient psychotic sequelae.
 
LACTULOSE
Type: Osmotic laxative.
Uses: Constipation, hepatic encephalopathy.
Side effects: Diarrhea, stomach cramps, flatulence, belching.
 
LEVODOPA/L-DOPA
Type: Dopamine precursor.
Uses: Parkinson's disease.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, postural hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, alteration in taste sensation, behavioral changes, abnormal movements, abdominal pain, dizziness, discoloration of urine and other body fluids.
 
LIGNOCAINE/LIDOCAINE
Type: Na+ channel blocker.
Uses: As anesthetic and antiarrhythmic.
Side effects: Dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting.21
 
LIQUID PARAFFIN
Type: Laxatives.
Uses: Constipation, before surgery night.
Side effects: Dehydration, lipid pneumonia.
 
LISINOPRIL
Type: ACE inhibitor.
Uses: Hypertension, congestive heart failure, following myocardial infarction.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, cough, taste alteration, hypotension.
 
MANNITOL
Type: Osmotic diuretic.
Uses: Glaucoma, head injury, stroke.
Side effects: Nausea, diarrhea, headache, fever.
 
MELOXIAM
Type: NSAID.
Uses: Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis.
Side effects: Headache, gastrointestinal upset, dizziness, vertigo, rashes.
 
METFORMIN
Type: Biguanide.22
Uses: Type-II diabetes mellitus.
Side effects: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
 
METHOTREXATE
Type: Cytotoxic and immunosuppressive.
Uses: Leukemia, lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis.
Side effects: Diarrhea, bone marrow suppression, vomiting, inflammation.
 
METHYLDOPA
Type: Antihypertensive.
Uses: High blood pressure.
Side effects: Sedation, lethargy, disturbed mental capacity, impotence, postural hypotension.
 
METRONIDAZOLE
Type: Antiamebic.
Uses: Giardiasis, amebiasis, trichomonas vaginitis, enterocolitis, gingivitis bacterial infections.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, headache, glossitis, rashes, dizziness.
 
MIDAZOLAM
Type: Benzodiazepine.
23Uses: Anxiety, mainly used during small procedures under local anesthetic and in ITU units for those on ventilator support.
Side effects: Hypotension, apnea, drowsiness, headache, confusion, ataxia, amnesia, muscular weakness.
 
MORPHINE
Type: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: Ventricular failure, pain.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, respiratory depression, dry mouth.
 
NAPROXEN
Type: NSAID.
Uses: Rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders in acute stage, gout, menstrual cramps.
Side effects: Gastrointestinal upset.
 
NORFLOXACIN
Please refer Ciprofloxacin.
 
OMEPRAZOLE
Type: Proton pumps inhibitor.
Uses/Side effects: Please refer Ranitidine.24
 
ONDANSETRON
Type: Serotonin antagonist.
Uses: Used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with anticancer drug therapy, radiotherapy and following surgery.
Side effects: Headache, constipation.
 
ORPHENADRINE
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: For reducing rigidity and tremor in younger patients with parkinsonism.
Side effects: Dry mouth, dry skin, constipation, blurred vision, retention of urine.
 
OXYBUTININ
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: Urinary frequency, urgency and incontinence, nocturnal enuresis, neurogenic bladder instability.
Side effects: Dry mouth, dry eye, gastrointestinal upset, difficulty in micturation, skin reaction, blurring of vision.
 
OXYTETRACYCLINE
Please refer Tetracycline. 25
 
PANCURONIUM
Please refer Vecuronium.
 
PARACETAMOL
Type: Nonopioid analgesic.
Uses: Pain, fever.
Side effects: Very rare. Overdose is dangerous causing liver failure.
 
PENICILLIN-G
Type: Benzyl penicillin.
Uses: Streptococcal, pneumococcal, meningococcal infections, gonorrhea, syphilis, diphtheria.
Side effects: Pain at inj. Site, nausea, rash, itching, urticaria, shock, exfoliative dermatitis.
 
PETHIDINE
Type: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: Severe pain, pain during labor, anxiety, during anesthesia.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness, confusion.
 
PHENYTOIN
Type: Anticonvulsant.
Uses: Epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia.
26Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache, dizziness, ache, increased body hair.
 
PIROXICAM
Type: NSAID.
Uses: Rheumatoid arthritis, acute gout, osteoarthritis, acute musculoskeletal disorders.
Side effects: Gastrointestinal upset.
 
PREDNISOLONE
Type: Corticosteroid.
Uses: Adrenal insufficiency, adrenogenital, syndrome, arthritides, collagen disease, asthma, lung and eye disease, malignancies, intestinal and skin disease.
Side effects: Peptic ulcer, indigestion, acne, osteoporosis, glaucoma, growth retardation, fetal abnormalities, muscular weakness, Cushing's habitus, fragile skin, psychiatric disturbances.
 
PROPRANOLOL
Type: Na+ channel blocker.
Uses: Sinus tachycardia, atrial and nodal ESs.
Side effects: Dizziness, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, cold peripheries, bronchoconstriction, bradycardia, heart failure, hypotension, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbances.27
 
QUININE
Type: Antimalarial.
Uses: Malaria. Also used to prevent nocturnal leg cramps.
Side effects: Tinnitus, headache, blurred vision, confusion, gastrointestinal upset, rashes, blood disorders.
 
RAMIPRIL
Type: ACE inhibitor.
Uses: Hypertension, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, cough, dry mouth, taste disturbance.
 
RANITIDINE
Type: H2 blocker.
Uses: Duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastritis, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, GERD.
Side effects: Nausea, loose stool, muscle and joint pain, dizziness, abdominal pain.
 
RIFAMPICIN
Type: Antitubercular.
Uses: Tuberculosis, leprosy, meningitis, osteomyelitis.
28Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, malaise, bone pain, purpura, breathlessness.
 
SALBUTAMOL
Type: β2-agonist.
Uses: Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
Side effects: Weakness, tremors, drowsiness, nervousness, tension. Anxiety, restlessness.
 
SALCATONIN
Please refer Calcitonin.
 
SENNA
Type: Stimulant laxative.
Uses/Side effects: Please refer Lactulose.
 
STREPTOKINASE
Type: Fibrinolytic agent.
Uses: Pulmonary embolism, thrombosed arteriovenous shunts.
Side effects: Excessive bleeding, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions.
 
STREPTOMYCIN
Type: Aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Uses: Tuberculosis, plague, bacterial endocarditis, tularemia.
29Side effects: Vestibular disturbances, auditory loss paresthesia.
 
SULFASALAZINE
Type: Aminosalicylate.
Uses: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, headache, joint pain, abdominal discomfort, anorexia.
 
TETRACYCLINE
Type: Alpha-adrenoceptor agonist.
Uses: For reducing spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis or spinal card injury.
Side effects: Lethargy, fatigue, dry mouth, gastrointestinal upset, hypotension.
 
THEOPHYLLINE
Type: Methylxanthine.
Uses: Asthma, bronchitis, emphysema.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, palpitations.
 
TIMOLOL
Type: Beta blocker.
Uses: Hypertension, angina, prophylaxis of myocardial infarction.
Side effects: Please refer Propranolol.30
 
TINIDAZOLE
Please refer Metronidazole.
 
TIZANIDINE
Type: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: For treating moderate to severe pain.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, tiredness, drowsiness, dependence.
 
TOLTERODINE
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: Mainly used to treat urinary frequency, urgency and incontinence. Also used for reducing unstable contraction of the bladder.
Side effects: Headache, gastrointestinal upset, dry eye, dryness of mouth.
 
TRAMADOL
Type: Opioid analgesic.
Uses: For treating moderate to severe pain.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, tiredness, drowsiness, dependence.
 
TRAZODONE
Type: Antidepressant.
31Uses: Depression, anxiety.
Side effects: Drowsiness.
 
TRIHEXYPHENIDYL/BENZHEXOL
Type: Antimuscarinic.
Uses: For reducing rigidity and tremor in young patients with Parkinsonism.
Side effects: Blurring of vision, urine retention, constipation, dry skin, dryness of mouth.
 
VANCOMYCIN
Type: Glycopeptide antibiotic.
Uses: MRSA infections, endocarditis, gastrointestinal infection.
Side effects: Disorder of the blood, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity.
 
VECURONIUM
Type: Muscles relaxants.
Uses: During general anesthesia, convulsions, trauma, tetanus, status epilepticus.
Side effects: Respiratory failure, muscle soreness, hypotension.
 
VERAPAMIL
Type: Calcium channel blocker.
32Uses: Hypertension, supraventricular dysrhythmias.
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, ankle swelling.
 
WARFARIN
Please refer Heparin.
 
ZALCITABINE
Type: Antiretroviral NRTI.
Uses: For prevention of AIDS (commonly used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs).
Side effects: Peripheral neuropathy, headache, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, fatigue, liver damage, oral and esophageal ulcer, blood disorder, rashes, breathlessness, pancreatitis.
 
ZIDOVUDINE
Type: Antiretroviral NRTI.
Uses: Mainly used to prevent maternal-fetal HIV transmission.
Side effects: Peripheral neuropathy, headache, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, fatigue, liver damage, oral and esophageal ulcer, blood disorder, rashes, breathlessness, pancreatitis, itching, chest pain, taste disturbance, anemia, increase frequency of urine, influenza like symptoms.33
 
LIST OF PHARMACOLOGY ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviation
Meaning
ac
Before bed
ad lib
As desired
bd
Twice daily
cap
Capsule
IM
Intramuscular
IV
Intravenous
LA
Local anesthetic
liq
Liquid
OC
Oral contraceptive
od
Once daily
om
In the morning
on
At night
opv
Oral poliomyelitis vaccine
ORS
Oral rehydration salt
ORT
Oral rehydration therapy
pc
After food
prn
When required
qid
Four times a day
qqh
Every four hours
si
Sublingual
sos
As required
stat
Immediately
susp
Suspension
syr
Syrup
tab
Tablet
tds
Three times a day.
34