Food & Nutrition for Nurses Ruma Singh
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2Introduction

History of NutritionChapter 1

CHAPTER OUTLINE
  • ▶ Introduction
  • ▶ Landmarks of Nutrition
  • ▶ Other Discoveries
  • ▶ Fill-Ups
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INTRODUCTION
The beginning of the science of nutrition goes back to the late eighteenth century with the discovery of the respiratory gases and especially the studies on the nature and the quantification of energy metabolism by Lavoisier, a French man often referred to as the Father of the Science of Nutrition. The discovery of nutrients and their functions by several pioneers were done during the 19th century. The newer knowledge of nutrition is based on the experiments and observations. The studies were conducted on the chemical nature of plant foods and animal tissues, and observations were made on respiration and energy output in animal and human subjects. Early studies were conducted on protein nutrition. Vitamins were discovered by feeding purified diets to animals. Further studies were done to treat certain diseases by changing diets.
 
LANDMARKS OF NUTRITION
 
Landmarks in the Fields of Food and Nutrition
1742–1786
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Sheels described tartaric, citric and lactic acid.
1747
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Marggraf discovered milk sugar.
1753
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Lind used limes to prevent scurvy in British sailors.
1770–1774
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Priestly discovered oxygen and showed that it was produced by plants and consumed by animals.
1773
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Rouelle isolated urea from urine.
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1770–1794
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Lavoisier discovered that organic compounds were oxidized in the body to CO2 and water producing heat.
1783
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Spallanzani proposed that gastric digestion of proteins is a chemical process.
1789
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A. Fr. De Fourcroy identified proteins and fats in plants and animal tissues.
1806
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Prout discovered malt sugar and glucose.
1806
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Vauquelin and Roiquet first isolated an amino acid, asparagine.
1807
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Bardsley reported that cod liver oil was effective against osteomalacia.
1811
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Courtois discovered iodine while preparing saltpeter from seaweed for Napoleon's army.
1814
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Chevreul described that fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol.
1815
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Kirschoff studied acid hydrolysis of starch.
1818
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Beccaria prepared and studied gluten of wheat.
1820
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Prout made the elementary analysis of protein.
1820
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Coindet used iodides for the treatment of goiter.
1822
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Bracconnot hydrolyzed proteins with acids.
1824
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Schutter used cod liver oil for the treatment of rickets.
1828
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Wöhler synthesized the first organic compound, urea.
1833
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Payen and Persoz purified the enzyme diastase (amylase) from wheat.
1838
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Schleiden and Schwann theorized that the basic unit of life was the cell.
1842
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Leibig suggested that it was not carbon and hydrogen which were oxidized by carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
1862
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Carl Voit determined the energy requirements of man using a human respirator calorimeter.
1862
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Sachs showed that photosynthesis results in the production of starch.
1864
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Hoppe-Seyler crystallized a protein, hemoglobin.
1867
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Huber purified nicotinic acid.
1877
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Kühne proposed the term enzyme.
1873-1878
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Claude Bernard discovered glucose in blood and glycogen in liver.
1890
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Lam suggested that sunlight was effective in treating rickets.
1897
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Eijkman discovered that addition of rice polishing extract cured polyneuritis in chicken fed on polished rice.
1899
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Atwater determined the energy requirements of human beings using a human respirator calorimeter and found physiological calorific value of 1 g carbohydrate is 4 kcal, 1 g of fat is 9 kcal and 1 g of protein is 4 kcal.
1902
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Fischer and Hofmeister showed that proteins are polypeptides.
1905
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Harden and young isolated the first coenzyme (NAD).
1905
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Knoop reported details of oxidation of fatty acids.
1906
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Eijkman showed that a water-soluble extract from rice polishings can cure beriberi.
1906-Hopkins 1912-Osborne and Mendel
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They showed that zein (protein in maize) fed to mice did not grow as it was deficient in lysine and tryptophan and good growth occurred when these amino acids were added to zein diet.
1917
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McCollum and Simmonds demonstrated that xerophthalmia was especially due to lack of fat-soluble vitamin.
1917–1918
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Marine confirmed that iodine deficiency caused goiter.
1922
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McCollum proved that cod liver oil contains two vitamins (A and D) and showed that vitamin D deficiency causes rickets.
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1927
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Windaus showed that ergosterol is a vitamin D precursor.
1928
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Euler isolated carotene.
1930
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Moore showed that carotene is converted to vitamin A in animal tissues.
1935
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Cicely Williams demonstrated that kwashiorkor in children is a disease cause by protein deficiency and can be cured by feeding milk.
1936
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Evans, Emerson and Emerson isolated pure vitamin E from wheat germ oil.
1937
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Krebs reported details of the tricarboxilic acid cycle (Krebs cycle or TCA cycle).
1938
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Karrer, Fritzsche, Ringer, and Solomon reported the structure and synthesis of vitamin E
Source : Swaminathan Volume I and Whitney
 
OTHER DISCOVERIES
Other discoveries and findings in the field of nutrition are mentioned below.
A Dutch chemist, Mulder, in 1838 described a particular organic substance (protein) that is undoubtedly the most important of all known substance in the organic kingdom. Without which life appears impossible on this planet. Berzelius simultaneously suggested this nitrogen-containing substance be called protein, a Greek word meaning to “take the first place.”
The term vitamins was first coined in1912 by Funk, a Polish chemist, who believed that the water-soluble anti beriberi substance he was describing was a “vital amine.”
In 1913 McCollum and Davis of University of Wisconsin and Osborn and Mendel of Yale University independently discovered that rats fed on purified diets with lard as the only source of fat failed to grow and developed sore eyes. When they were fed butter fat and egg yolk, growth resumed and soreness of the eyes corrected. The organic complex present in these foods was called fat-soluble A by McCollum, which was essential for normal growth. A few years later Steenbock of University of Wisconsin demonstrated that the yellow pigments present in plants, the carotene, had vitamin A activity.
During World War I, Hess and Unger noted the effect of cod liver oil in protecting black children in New York city against rickets. Then in 1919 Mellanby found that the skeletal structure of puppies was influenced by some fat-soluble substance in food.
In 1924 Steenbock and Hess independently found that foods that were exposed to ultraviolet rays had antirachitic properties. Pure vitamin D was isolated in crystalline form in 1930 and was called calciferol.
Evans and Bishop showed that absence of vitamin E or antifertility factor led to irreparable damage of the germinal epithelium in male rats.
Dr. Dam of Copenhagen first suggested the existence of vitamin K and in 1935 he found that a “Koagulation Vitamin” was essential to prevent fatal hemorrhages in chicks by promoting normal blood clotting.
Scurvy was described as early as 1500 B.C. by the Egyptians. The isolation and chemical nature of vitamin C was accompanied by Dr. Charles G. King and his co-workers at the University of Pittsburg and by Dr. Szent-Gyorgyi of Hungary in the early 1930s.
During the years 1878­83 Takaki, a Japanese medical officer, studied the high incidence of the disease, beriberi, among men working for Japanese Navy.
In 1912 Funk coined the term ‘vitamine’ for the substance which he found to be effective in preventing beriberi. McCollum and Davis called it water-soluble B that cured beriberi.
Crystalline thiamin was isolated from rice bran in 1926. In 1936 Dr. R.R. Williams identified the structure and synthesis of thiamin.
In 1735, a Spanish physician, Casal, described a disease, mal de la rosa which is now known as Pellagra which is an Italian word meaning “rough skin.”6
In 1926 Goldberger and Lillie described dermatitis in rats which was recognized several years later to be characteristic of vitamin B6 deficiency.
Dr. R. J. Williams in 1938 isolated pantothenic acid and it was synthesized by other investigators in 1940. The name for this vitamin derived from the Greek word panthos, which means “everywhere,” because it is universally distributed.
A factor essential for the growth of yeast was described in 1920s and was names bios. A decade after that, Dr. Helen Parsons and her co-workers and others conducted a study on rats that were fed a diet including raw egg whites. The animals developed loss of hair around eyes, rapid weight loss, paralysis of hind legs and eventually cyanosis and death. The symptoms disappeared when cooked egg white was fed to these animals.
Until 1920s pernicious anemia was considered a fatal disease. Then Minot and Murphy announced that large amounts of liver could control the anemia and prevent neurologic changes.
Folic acid was named in 1941 by Mitchell and his associates. Because of its prevalence in leaves, folium in Latin, for leaf the name was given.
 
FILL-UPS
  1. Who was referred to as the Father of the Science of Nutrition ………………………………………………?
  2. Who discovered milk sugar ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  3. Who is the founder of glucose in blood and glycogen in liver ………………………………………………?
  4. Who demonstrated that kwashiorkor in children is a disease caused by protein deficiency and can be cured by feeding milk ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  5. Who described protein ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  6. The term vitamin first came in existence in 1912 by ……………………………………………………………………………
  7. ‘Fat-soluble A’ was discovered by ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  8. Who suggested the existence of vitamin K ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  9. Who gave the name ‘vitamine’ to the substances found effective in preventing beriberi ………………………………………………?
  10. The disease ‘Pellagra’ was described by ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  11. Who isolated pantothenic acid ………………………………………………………………………………………………?
  12. Folic acid was named by ………………………………………………………………………………………………?