Handbook of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine SK Jindal
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f and t refer to figure and table
A
Abdominal
and miliary tuberculosis 95
tuberculosis 100
Abnormal gas exchange 40
Acid base status 41
Acidosis 41
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 81
Acute
miliary TB 103
respiratory distress syndrome 103
Adenosine deaminase enzyme 60
Adequate sputum disposal, cough hygiene and 85
Administrative measures 84
Adventitious sounds 26
Adverse drug reactions 111
Air contamination, removal of 39
Airway
hyperresponsiveness 35
morphology 13
resistance 35
Algorithm for blood gas analysis 42
Alkalosis 41
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 21
Alterations in gas exchange 37
Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient 40
Ambient temperature and pressure 8
Amoxicillin 82
Amplicor MTB test 63
Amplified MTB direct test 63
Anion gap 43
Antibody detection based diagnosis 63
Antitubercular drugs 72
Applied respiratory physics 1
Arterial blood gas 37
analysis 37, 38
and acid-base balance 37
interpretation 39
sampling 38
Atmospheric pressure 3
Auscultation 26
B
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin 62
vaccine 86, 91
Bactec culture medium 59
Bacteriophage-based tests 63
Basic algorithm for spirometry interpretation 31f
BCG vaccination, efficacy of 92
BD probetec MTB test 63
Bedside measurement of lung functions 27
Behçet disease 27
Bernoulli's principle 6, 6f
Beyond microscopy, diagnosis of TB 63
Blood gas, simple algorithm for 43
Blood-brain barrier 100
Body temperature and pressure saturated 8
Bone and joint tuberculosis 97
Boyle's law 4
Breastfeeding 113
Breath sounds 26
Breathing, control of 36
Bronchodilator responsiveness 32
Bronchogenic carcinoma 20
Broncholiths 54
C
Capping specimen 39
Capreomycin 80
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing 35
Causes of drug resistance 108
inadequate treatment of tuberculosis 108t
Cell wall structure 46
Centers for disease control and prevention 87
Central nervous system tuberculosis 95, 99
Charles' law 5
Chemoprophylaxis 87
Chemoprophylaxis and MDR-TB 90
in children 89
in HIV patient 88
in special situations 89
Chemotherapy of tuberculosis 66
supervision of 70
Chest pain 21
radiology 57
examination of 25
Chingleput trial 92
Chronic
case 69
obstructive pulmonary disease 20, 28
Clarithromycin 82
Clavulanate 82
Clofazimine 81
Clubbed fingers 24f
Clubbing 24
Cobas
amplicor MTB test 63
Taqman test MTB 63
Community-acquired pneumonia 54
Compensated acid base disorders 44
Complications of BCG vaccination 93
Constraints on use of UV lamps 86
Control of
breathing 36
ventilation 18
Cough 20
hygiene and adequate sputum disposal 85
Counseling, pretreatment evaluation and 109
Cryptic miliary TB 104
Cyanosis 24
Cycloserine 80
D
Delta gap 44
Designing an appropriate regimen 110
Detection of latent tuberculosis infection 87
Diagnosis of
antibody detection based 63
beyond microscopy 63
drug-resistant TB 108
latent tuberculosis 63
pulmonary tuberculosis 57
tuberculosis 56, 61
Disease,
Behçet 27
Osler-Weber-Rendu 27
Drugs,
antitubercular 72
group 5 81
Duration of preventive therapy 89
Dyspnea 22
E
Efficacy of BCG vaccination 92
Elastic properties of chest wall and lung-chest 13
Environmental controls 85
Enzyme linked
immunosorbent assay 57
immunospot assay 63
Equation,
Hagen-Poiseuille 8
Henderson-Hasselbalch 41
ESP II culture system 60
Establish
safe radiology procedures for patients 85
separate rooms 85
Ethambutol 67, 78
Ethionamide/prothionamide 79
Evaporation 7
Examination of chest 25
Exercise
hypoxemia 40
testing 34
Expression of gas volumes and pressures 8
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis 60, 95
F
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy 59
Fine needle aspiration cytology 96
Flow of gases 8
Flu syndrome 76
G
Gas
exchange 39
alterations in 37
laws 4
solution and tension 6
Gases, flow of 8
Gastric washings 59
Gastrointestinal tract, tuberculosis of 100
Gay-Lussac's law 5
General
gas law 5
physical examination 23
Genitourinary tuberculosis 95, 102
Grading of activities of antituberculosis 67f
Graham's law 6
Gravity, role of 15
Group 5
drugs 81
H
Hagen-Poiseuille equation 8
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation 41
Henry's law 6
Hepatic tuberculosis 105
High-dose isoniazid 83
HIV and TB 55
Human immunodeficiency virus 75, 93
infection 68
Hypercapnea 41
I
Imipenem/cilastatin 82
Immune
reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 97
responses to tuberculosis 51
Indications and contraindications 28
Infection, route and spread of 47
In-house phage amplification tests 63
Inpatient care facilities 84
Inspection 25
Interferon gamma release assays 57, 63
Interpretation of arterial blood gas 44
Intravascular pressure 16
Isoniazid 67, 73
J
Joint tuberculosis 95
K
Kaposi's sarcoma 27
Klebsiella pneumoniae 21
L
Latent tuberculosis 57
infection, detection of 87
Law,
Gay-Lussac's 5
Graham's 6
Henry's 6
Leprosy 93
Lessons learnt from previous studies 110t
Line zolid 82
Loeffler's syndrome 27
Luciferase reporter phage assay 63
Lymph node tuberculosis 95
Lymphadenopathy 25
M
Management of tuberculosis 66
Matter, state of 1
MB/BACT system 60
Mechanisms of hemoptysis in tuberculosis 54t
Metabolic acidosis 43
Microarray technology 63
Microcolony detection on solid media 59
Microscopic observation of in broth culture 60
Mild hypoxemia 40
Miliary TB 55
tuberculosis 103
Miscellaneous physical findings 25
Mismatching of ventilation and perfusion 18f
Mixed acid-base disorder 44
Moderate hypoxemia 40
Molecular
diagnosis of tuberculosis 61
movement 1
tests for species identification 63
weight of oxygen 2
Molecule and compound 1
Movements of chest wall 25
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 107
Mycetoma in tubercular cavity 54
Mycobacterial cultures 59
genome 48
groups 46
growth indicator tube 59
identification 47
Mycobacterium avium 47, 48
bovis 91
intracellulare 47
tuberculosis 46, 48, 49, 53, 72, 86, 113
infection 49
N
Necrosis of pulmonary venules and capillaries 54
Need-based hospitalization of TB patients 84
Nontuberculosis mycobacteria 62
Normal anionic gap metabolic acidosis 43
Nucleic acid amplification detection based 63t
Nutritional support 112
O
Optimal TB test 64
Osler-Weber-Rendu disease 27
Osmosis 10
Other uses of BCG 93
Oxygen saturation SAO2/SPO2 39
Oxygenation 39
index 41
Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve 40f
P
Palpation 25
Para-aminobenzoic acid 79
Paradoxical response 56
Partial pressure 3
Peak expiratory flow 32
Percussion 26
Pericardial tuberculosis 104
Permeability 10
pH, pCO2 and HCO3 in primary acid base 41t
Physical properties of gases 2
Pitfalls in arterial blood gas interpretation 45
Pleural effusion 97
Pneumonia, community-acquired 54
Polymerase chain reaction 63
Poncet's disease 98
Post-primary pulmonary tuberculosis 53
Post-tubercular bronchiectasis 54
Postvaccination reactions 92
Pott's
disease 97
paraplegia 98
Pregnancy 113
Pressure saturated, body temperature and 8
Pretreatment evaluation and counseling 109
Prevention of tuberculosis 84
Primary acid-base abnormality, types of 43
Pulmonary
circulation 15
driving pressure 16
function testing 28
mechanics 36
tuberculosis 53, 54
diagnosis of 57
Pulse oximetry 39
Purified protein derivative 57, 62, 88
Pyrazinamide 67, 77
Q
Quantiferon-TB gold 63, 87
Quinolones 78
R
Radial artery 38
Radiology, chest 57
Rasmussen's aneurysm 54
Rationale for recommended treatment regimens 69
Removal of air contamination 39
Resective thoracic surgery 112
Respiratory function and mechanics 11
Result of sputum smear 67
Revised national tuberculosis control program 90, 95, 96, 115
Reynold's number 9
Rifampicin 67, 75
Role of gravity 15
Route and spread of infection 47
Routine laboratory testing 56
Rupture of Rasmussen's aneurysm 54
S
Scar carcinoma 54
Secondary prophylaxis 89
Serum electrolyte measurement 39
Severe hypoxemia 40
Severity of disease 67
Simple algorithm for blood gas 43
Site of tubercular disease 67
Skin tuberculosis 103
Solubility 10
Spinal tuberculosis 97
Spirometry 28
Sputum
collection area 86
induction 59
microscopy 59
Standard or normal temperature and pressure 8
State of matter 1
Static lung volumes 33
Streptomyces griseus 76
Streptomycin 67, 76
Suitability for intermittent use 66
Superior vena cava 23
Supervision of chemotherapy 70
Syndrome,
acquired immunodeficiency 81
acute respiratory distress 103
immune reconstitution inflammatory 97
Loeffler's 27
Systemic examination 27
T
TB
diagnosis in HIV+ individuals 62t-HIV
coinfection 113t
patients, need-based hospitalization of 84
test, optimal 64
Temperature and heat 4
Tertiary prevention 90
Test,
amplicor MTB 63
amplified MTB direct 63
BD probetec MTB 63
Cobas amplicor MTB 63
Tests
for drug-resistance 63
bacteriophage-based 63
Thiacetazone 67, 81
Total and alveolar ventilation 14
Transmural pressure 16
Transporting blood sample for analysis 39
Treatment
after interruption or return 69
failure 68
of bone and joint tuberculosis 99
strategy 109
Tuberculin skin test 57, 63, 87
Tuberculosis 22
abdominal and miliary 95
and air travel 114
causes of inadequate treatment of 108t
chemotherapy of 66
diagnosis of 56
in elderly 55
molecular diagnosis of 61
of gastrointestinal tract 100
osteomyelitis 99
Prevention of 84
Tuberculous meningitis 95
Turbulence 9
Turbulent flow 8f
Types of primary acid-base abnormality 43
U
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation 85, 86
Upper respiratory tract symptoms 22
V
Vaccination 91
Vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin 86, 91
Vaccines 86, 91
Vapor 7
pressure 7
Various
lung volumes and capacities 30f
stages in pathogenesis 50
Ventilation 11, 12
control of 18-perfusion 37
relationships 18
Vitamin D 113
Vocal resonance 27
Volume 2
W
Wright meter 33
×
Chapter Notes

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1Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
2Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
Editor-in-Chief SK Jindal MD FNCCP FAMS FCCP Professor and Head Department of Pulmonary Medicine Professor-in-Charge Telemedicine Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India Associate Editors PS Shankar Suhail Raoof Dheeraj Gupta Ashutosh N Aggarwal Ritesh Agarwal
3
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This book has been published in good faith that the contents provided by the contributors contained herein are original, and is intended for educational purposes only. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy of information, the publisher and the editors specifically disclaim any damage, liability, or loss incurred, directly or indirectly, from the use or application of any of the contents of this work. If not specifically stated, all figures and tables are courtesy of the editors. Where appropriate, the readers should consult with a specialist or contact the manufacturer of the drug or device.
Handbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
First Edition: 2012
9789350257074
Printed at
4Dedicated to
The memory of my dear parents who toiled to see a doctor, and a teacher in me
5Contributors 14Preface
“The physician ought to know literature…. To be able to understand or to explain what he reads”
–Isidore of Seville (570-636)
The specialty of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine has quickly grown in size and expanded in scope in a short span of time. So also has increased the need of a wider availability of reliable, authoritative and multidimensional educational resources in the subject. Today's pulmonologists are required to know a lot more about systemic illnesses and sister-specialties, besides the primary diseases of the lungs. Pulmonary critical care and invasive interventions have also become essential in pulmonary practice.
It is less than a year when the Textbook of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine edited by ourselves was first published. Since then, there has been a growing demand to come with an abridged version for convenience and easy readability. This handbook is an effort in that direction to enable the busy and ever on-the-run students and practitioners to quickly go through the contents. Needless to say that the postgraduates as well as the students need to consult the textbook for a more comprehensive and in-depth knowledge of the subject.
For purposes of brevity, it was not possible to include all the chapters in the handbook. For the same reason, the bibliography as well as a large number of figures and tables of the original chapters were excluded from the handbook. The handbook, however, not just serves the purpose of quick browsing of the contents but also provides an opportunity to read the carefully dissected factual information of the subjects. I do hope that the readers will find it useful and informative.
SK Jindal