Learning and Teaching Nursing B Sankaranarayanan, B Sindhu
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Basis of Nursing EducationCHAPTER 1

Chapter Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
  1. Explain the concept of education.
  2. Define education.
  3. Explain education as a process.
  4. Identify the components of educative process.
  5. List down the characteristics of educative process.
  6. Explain the functions of education.
  7. Recognize the aims of education.
  8. Identify the types of education.
  9. Realize the current trends in education.
  10. Define nursing education.
  11. Explain the aims of nursing education.
  12. Outline the evolution of nursing education in the world.
  13. Outline the evolution of nursing education in India.
  14. Realize the current trends in nursing education.2
Quest for knowledge is an innate quality of human beings which makes them distinct from all other creations by God. This everlasting affinity towards knowledge fuelled all inventions ranging from fire in the prehistoric period to the cloning in the modern times. Ancient man recognized the need of organising the knowledge for utilizing it to the maximum extent possible. This attempt to organize the knowledge has led to the development of education system. As time passed, there occurred a tremendous increase in the human needs, many of them arised from the man's desire to tame the nature for a better living. Increase in human needs demanded a more organized and specific knowledge for supporting special ventures. This led to the refining of the organized knowledge and ultimately resulted in the formation of separate branches of knowledge, which are specialized in particular areas of human activity. This specialization eventually gave birth to professions. Today, a perfect combination of services rendered by various professions makes this planet a better place to live. In this chapter, we will discuss the basis of general education and nursing education.
The word education is derived from the latin word ‘educare’ which means to ‘lead out’. This derivation connotes ‘growth from the within’. Thus, the root meaning of education can be given as making manifest the inherent potentials in a child. (The words child and student are used interchangeably throughout this book). The term education is derived from the latin word ‘educere’ meaning to ‘bringup’, to ‘train” or to ‘mould’. According to this derivation, education is the bringing up of the child in a desirable manner. Some educationists believe that the word education has been derived from the two words ‘e’ and ‘duco’, ‘e’ means ‘out off’ and ‘duco’ means ‘to lead’. ‘Pedagogy’ is another term which is commonly used for mentioning education. This word is derived from two greek words, namely ‘pedo’ (child) and logos (discussion) which means “science of instruction for the purpose of leading the pupils”.
The idea of education is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil in some subjects but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which he may successfully face the future. In the narrow or technical sense, education stands for deliberate instruction or training providing to the child by the society through its various institutions during a particular time in order to modify his behavior. Broadly speaking, education refers to any act or experience that is intended to modify the behavior of an individual. Education is the product of experience. It is a dynamic complex process through which the experience of the race, i.e., knowledge, skills and attitudes are transmitted to the members of the community. Every society has to fulfill diversified needs in order to achieve progress and education is regarded as one of the best ways to fulfill these needs. Education is a purposeful process aimed at the development of human beings. It is concerned with directing the child in the matter of bringing out his hidden talents. In short, education is the act or process of acquiring and imparting knowledge, is crucial to the development of a learner with a view to his or her participation in the transformation of the world for a better tomorrow.
Life involves a constant and continuous modification of experience. Ideas change, attitudes and skills undergo an alteration. Education is the process of helping the child to adjust with this changing world. Such an adjustment is not a ‘somehow’ one but a ‘superior adjustment’. The best type of education is that which guides the immature child to live his life richly and abundantly, at the same time to contribute to social betterment. By means of education the child is subjected to certain experiences that are intended to modify his behavior in order to bring about proper adjustment with the changing environment. In fact, education is the basis of life. For leading a purposeful and ideal life education is needed.3
According to Pestalozzi, “education is the natural, harmonious and progressive development of man's innate powers”. By virtue of birth itself man is endowed with hidden potentials or powers. This powers may be classified as physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual powers. Education has to serve as a means for developing these powers in a harmonious manner. The term ‘natural’ denotes the need for considering the natural ability of the child while providing education, i.e., education has to consider the developmental needs of the child. The word ‘progressive’ indicates not only the steady increase in the development but also the development in the desirable direction.
As per John Dewey, “education is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities”. This definition signifies the role of education in managing one's own immediate surroundings or environment in a productive manner. Moreover, this definition emphasise the need for poviding rich and varied educational programs in order to develop different capacities of the student population. John Dewey recommends appropriate changes or innovations in the education system for preparing the youngsters to grab opportunities arising out of societal changes so that they can fulfill their possibilities in an admiring manner.
According to Mahatma Gandhi, “education is the all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and spirit”. Gandhiji believes that children are bestowed with tremendous vitality and curiosity to learn. They have within them the springs of youth, joy and vigour. ‘Drawing out’ the best from children by motivating or stimulating is the duty of the education rather than simply ‘pouring in’ information in a ready-made form. He also states that education is a process of developing three H's, i.e., head, heart and hand. By stating the development of head, heart and hand, He means the development of intellectual, spiritual and physical faculties of the child. All-round development is achieved through the proper and harmonious development of intellectual, spiritual and physical faculties. The best in man is related to three aspects, namely body, mind and spirit. All aspects should be given fair consideration because best in man is an end result of the harmonious development of these aspects. The practice of giving more attention to the intellectual ability or memory power rather than focusing on the all-round development by the present education system is cited as one of the reasons for the unrest prevailing among our youth. This problem would not have been of any significance, had we incorporated values of education envisaged by Gandhiji in our system of education properly.
Education is considered as a process as well as a product. From the above said definitions and meaning, it is clear that education is a process through which a child attains knowledge, skills, attitudes and other abilities required for leading a productive life in the society. As a product, education is the aggregate of what is acquired through learning, i.e., the knowledge, skills, ideas and values. Educative process mainly depends on the inherent potentials of the child. It is hoped that through the educative process teacher can bring out the hidden talents in the child by way of creating a conducive environment. Based on factors involved in the educative process, it can be viewed as a bipolar process, tripolar process or a multipolar process
Education as a Bipolar Process
Some educators view education as a bipolar process and believe that education is an end result of the interaction between the educator or teacher and the educant or student. Teacher imparts knowledge 4to the student with an intention to change latter's behavior. Educationists like Adams and Ross believe that education is essentially a bipolar process and recommends close cooperation and better understanding between the teacher and student for achieving the aims of education. Teacher should always consider the level of students. Even though teacher-student interaction is a vital component of the educative process, we cannot ignore the influence of social environment and technological advancements on the education system. In this sense, it is difficult to view education as a bipolar process.
Education as a Tripolar Process
A considerable proportion of educationists believe that education is a tripolar process involving the interaction between the student, the teacher and the social environment. John Dewey believed that education is essentially a tripolar process. This view motivated educationists to consider the societal changes and social environment while constructing the curriculum. Tripolar process justifies the bilateral relationship between the society and education. Without undermining the contributions of the tripolar approach for the progress of education in the past, we have to say that it is incompetent to address the current issues in the educative process as it ignores the role of media and technology in the field of education.
Education as a Multipolar Process
In order to cope with the fast changing and competitive nature of the world, one has to take up the responsibility for his or her own education. This new self-learning concept of education is influenced by several factors along with the teacher, student and the social environment. Easy access to knowledge due to the technological advancements and the increased acceptance of non-formal and informal types of education (see types of education) has reduced the importance of the teacher and school when compared to the past. Different from the past, present day education is flexible, more student centered, focused on creativity than mere spoon-feeding by the teachers and depend heavily on technological advancements. In the present context, it is difficult to predict precisely what all factors will influence the education in what all ways. From the above said points, it is evident that the educative process is neither a bipolar process nor a tripolar process but a multipolar process only.
Education is now interpreted not as referring to an initial period of training of youth, but to a continual and lifelong process. It is not something that concerns itself with certain aims or philosophies nor does its responsibility end with devising some classroom techniques for the teacher. Education today aims at elevating itself to the level of a complex and comphrehensive science with broader objectives. It now attempts to relate itself not merely to pedagogy but is concieved as Andragogy, which according to Pierre Furter, is the science of training man throughout his life span.
From analysing the concept of education and the multipolar approach we can easily make out the below mentioned components and characteristics of the educative process. Components of educative process are knowledge, application of skills, understanding, comprehension, expression, appreciation, teaching, learning, initiation, instruction, training and indoctrination.5
Among the components, knowledge enjoys a dominant position. Directly or indirectly all other components are involved in the transmission of knowledge. Education has its own ways and means to impart knowledge either in the ready-made form or motivating the child to hunt for knowledge by utilizing his inherent potentials.
Characteristics can be Stated as Follows:
  1. Education is a purposeful activity: Irrespective of its formal, informal or non-formal nature, education is carried out with a purpose. The purpose may vary according to the needs of the child or demands by the society. Considering the alarming increase in the educational expenditure, educationists have to design cost-effective ways for achieving the purposes of education.
  2. Education is a deliberate process: Education is a process of deliberately guiding the development of pupils by the communication and manipulation of knowledge, which in its wake fosters needed skills and attitudes. We can also say that education is a deliberate process of transmitting all the resources and achievements of a complex society to the coming generations.
  3. Education is a planned activity based on objectives: This characteristic is somewhat similar to the first one. By and large education is a planned activity based on predetermined objectives. This is the most important feature of educative process. Unfortunately, this is the most neglected aspect also. Proper planning with short-term and long-term objectives are essential for developing a viable and fruitful education system. This characteristic highlights the need for a vision regarding the education so that it can contribute substantially for the national development. In order to react promptly to social changes and technological advancements in an effective manner, flexibility should be maintained while formulating objectives.
  4. Educative process is influenced by the society, social changes and technological advancements: Education and society are maintaining a bilateral relationship. Societal changes can influence education, at the same time education leads to social changes also. Success of any education system lies in understanding this reciprocative relationship between education and society. Technology of education is being developed not only with the aim of making education more widely available but also for improving the quality of education. Developments in technology will bring about changes and shifts in educational goals, which in turn stimulate the emergence of newer techniques.
Philosophers and educationists propose the following functions of education:
  1. To complete the socialisation process: The main social objective of education is to complete the socialization process. With the emergence of nuclear families, the role of school and other institutions in the socialization process has increased considerably. The school trains the child to develop honesty, consideration for others and ability to distinguish between right and wrong. Socialization process also enables the child to cooperate with others and to grow as a good citizen by respecting the laws framed by the society. Socialization is achieved through textbooks and learning experiences intended to develop social skills.
  2. To transmit the cultural heritage: All societies are proud to uphold or highlight their cultural heritage and ascertain that the culture is preserved and transmitted through social organizations to future generations. All types of education and all agencies of education have to carry out the function of cultural transmission in an earnest way by teaching the elements of culture like literature, history, art, philosophy, etc.6
  3. Formation of social personality: Personality of individual members in a society shares some common features of the culture. Along with the process of transmitting culture, education also contributes to the formation of social personality. Formation of social personality helps man to adjust with his environment and flourish himself in cooperation with others.
  4. Reformation of attitude: In the developmental process, child may have incorporated some undesirable attitudes, beliefs and disbelief, loyalties, prejudices, jealousy, hatred, etc. It is the duty of the education to reform the undesirable attitudes and other negative aspects by means of removing the wrong beliefs, illogical prejudices and unreasoned loyalties from the child's mind. A collective effort by the school and home will bring out spectacular results in the matter of reforming attitudes.
  5. Education for occupational placement-an instrument of livelihood: Nowadays, this is regarded as the first and foremost function of education by a large section of people. This function is related to the practical aim of eduation and receiving more attention due to the diversified needs of the society. Education should prepare students not only to foresee the future occupational position but also enable them to attain it in an impressive way. The relevance of this function is evident from the importance we are giving to vocational training.
  6. Conferring of status: It is understood that an individual's status in the society is determined by the amount and type or kind of education he has received. In the current situation, the kind of knowledge one is gaining is important than the amount. For example, a graduate nurse or a diploma nurse can flourish anywhere in the world compared to a person holding PhD in a traditional subject.
  7. Education encourages the spirit of competition: Healthy competition is essential for the growth of a democratic society. Healthy competition can be manifested in the form of quality products and services. From the school level itself students should realize the need for engaging in healthy competition in order to lead a better life. Unfortunately, our present education system is fostering unhealthy competition
  8. Education trains in skills that are required by the economy: Economy and education always enjoy a bilateral relationship. For example, the number of well functioning hospitals is directly related to the number of qualified and competent nurses passing out from the nursing institutes. More patients will be admitted to a hospital which is providing quality nursing care. This will lead to more money transactions and ultimately results in the economical development of the nearby areas of the hospital.
  9. Fosters participant democracy: In participant democracy, ordinary citizen is aware about his rights and duties and participates actively in the democratic process. Literacy is essential to nurture participant democracy and literacy is the product of education. Thus, education fosters participant democracy.
  10. Education imparts values: Education help the students to realize the role of values in leading a good life as a social being. Through various activities education imparts values, such as co-operation, team spirit, obedience, etc.
  11. Education act as an integrative force: Education act as an integrative force in society by communicating values that unite different sections of the society. By and large students learn social skills from the educational institutions. In India, through education we are teaching the concept of ‘unity in diversity’ as a part of developing this integrative force.
  12. Values and orientation which are specific to certain professions are also provided by education: This function deals mainly with the professional education. For example, in nursing institutes, nursing students are educated in a particular way to meet the health needs of the society.7
Direction is important than speed. Aims of education is concerned with providing the much needed direction for the educative process. The aims stands for the goals, targets or broader purposes that may be fulfilled through the process of education.
Factors determining educational aims are philosophy of life, elements of human nature, religious factors, political ideologies, socioeconomic factors and problems, cultural factors, knowledge explosion and scientific and technological advancements.
The main aim of education was interpreted to be the preservation of knowledge. But in the modern society, knowledge in every subject is cumulative so that as each year passes there is more to be learnt. One of the main tasks of education in the modern society is to keep pace with this knowledge explosion. In such a society, knowledge cannot be received passively. It is something that has to be actively discovered. Education should focus on the nurturing of curiosity, stimulation of creativity, development of proper attitudes and values and the building of essential skills such as independent study and capacity to think and judge for oneself. Herbert Spencer makes the aim of education more specific by stating that the education is a preparation for “complete living”. Let us see the aims of education in detail.
  1. Utilitarian aim: Utilitarian aim is concerned with providing knowledge and skill required by the child for leading his day to day life. Fulfillment of this aim will enable him to make use of the knowledge and skill in a fruitful manner. This aim makes the educative process a purposeful one and depicts the relationship between education and life. To enhance or update the knowledge, students should be given enough opportunities for widening and deepening their knowledge through exploration. They should also be motivated to think and answer the why, what, how and when of their each learning activity. Encouraging students to express ideas in their own words will help them to acquire more knowledge.
  2. Vocational aim: Education should prepare the child to earn his livelihood so that he can lead a productive life in the society. Dignity of labor and respect to the labor have to be developed or inculcated by means of education.
  3. Social aim: Every individual is considered as a productive member of the society. Through education the individual child should be provided with the required assistance to become a useful member of the society, irrespective of the socioeconomic status. Keeping this aim in mind, educationists have to help learners to develop a healthy, purposeful, productive, exploratory and controlling adjustment with the environment. Society is the result of the interrelations of individuals. It consists of big and small groups and there are subgroups within each group. Education helps the child to understand this interrelations of individuals and the possibilities of various groups. Peaceful existence of society is determined by a phenomenon of balancing and counter-balancing between various social forces. By creating a social order, education ensures the effective functioning of this phenomenon and prepare students to safeguard the peaceful existence of the society. Education not only helps in the formation of social norms and their implementation but also trains the learner to follow them. Effective utilization of social resources is essential for the progress of the society and education equip the learners to harness the social resources in an ecofriendly as well as people friendly manner. By way of education, students realize the importance of social values like justice, fair play, healthy competition, harmony, etc. In short, education instil a sense of obligation and loyalty towards the community and its needs. By means of social aim, education gives direction in the development of the society.
  4. Intellectual aim: Intelligence is essential for acquiring knowledge, thinking, reasoning, judgment and generalisation. Education provides enough opportunities to develop the innate intellectual 8capacity of the students. Development of intelligence through education will enable the child to lead an independent life with confidence.
  5. Citizenship: Education enable the children to grow as productive citizens by following the social and moral standards set by the society. Education should motivate the child to perform his duties and responsibilities as a citizen, for the welfare of the society. All countries in general and democratic countries in particular have to uphold this aim of education.
  6. Physical health and well being: Education prepare the child to lead a healthy life through providing the knowledge required for a healthy living and helping him to develop a positive attitude towards health. Education should also help the child to develop a health conscience and respect towards his or her own health.
  7. Character development: According to Mahatma Gandhi, the end of all knowledge must be the building up of character. Education assists the child to develop certain human values, attitudes and habits which are essential for building a desirable character. Many educationists share the view of Mahatma Gandhi and regard character development as the supreme aim of education.
  8. Moral development: Moral values like honesty, truthfulness, justice, goodness, purity, courage, reverence, dutifulness, punctuality, self-confidence, discrimination between good and bad, observation of rules, belief in systematic organisation, etc. are inculcated through education. These qualities contributes to the development of morality and sound character.
  9. Cultural development: By undergoing education child becomes cultured and civilized. Cultural development is manifested through the development of an esthetic sense and respect for others’ culture.
  10. Education for leisure: Leisure is the time meant for enjoyment and recreation. Leisure plays an important role in recharging our depleted energy levels. Leisure time should be utilized in such a way that the individual as well as the society should benefit from it. Education prepares the child to use his leisure time for doing something useful.
  11. Self-realization: What we are is God's gift to us and what we become is our gift to God. Child is born with tremendous potentials and education should help the child to become what he has to become by assisting to realize his potentials and then equiping him to utilize the identified potentials to the maximum extent possible. Self-realization also helps the child to realize his strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats so that he can exert a good control over his life by strengthening the weakness.
  12. Mental and emotional development: In this fast changing world, good mental health is a must to cope with the changing lifestyles and societal needs. Education should train the child by giving adequate opportunities for mental and emotional development. Nowadays, lot of research is taking place to gather more information regarding the role of emotional development on education and life. Research studies conducted by Holman in 1998 shows that emotional development is very important for attaining success in life. His study reveals that more individuals with higher intelligence quotient and lower emotional quotient (EQ) have failed to reach higher positions in life corresponding to their IQ when compared to individuals with normal IQ and high EQ. Individuals with normal IQ and high EQ have managed to reach higher positions which usually demands a very high IQ and leading a very satisfied and happy life. Based on his study, Golman suggests that instead of IQ, EQ should be considered as the parameter of achievements in life. According to him, placing challenges in front of a person with lower EQ is just like serving a delicious diet to a person who is not having the appetite. Of course, more research is needed before replacing IQ with EQ. Recent studies also shows that emotional development is essential to conduct proper self-appraisal, control unhealthy emotions, develop an aim in life, attain 9emotional maturity, etc. In fact, emotional development is a must for leading a happy and content life. It is earnestly hoped that this aim will receive more attention in the coming years.
  13. Autonomous development: Percynunn believes that main aim of education is autonomous development of the individual. An individual child has to develop in total by seeking assistance and direction extended by the education. Total or all-round development enables the child to adjust with the life situations and include development of personality, character, leadership, maturity, mental health, physique and intelligence. Percynunn recommends formal education for the autonomous development. She believes that activity oriented curriculum enriched with varied learning activities, teaching methods, facilities for guidance and counseling, discipline and proper direction will contribute to the autonomous development of the child.
  14. Self-education aim: As education is considered as a lifelong process, it should prepare the child to adopt a proactive role towards the learning process (see learning). Education has to properly harness the natural curiosity and urge present in the child while imparting knowledge. This aim is gaining importance in this era of knowledge explosion where students are expected to take a leading role in the teaching-learning process than the teacher. Teachers should make sure that students are learning as a result of the internal motivation rather than a reaction to the compulsion exerted by others.
  15. International understanding: Education is a universal process and it helps in creating universal understanding. The progress we achieved in the field of education is the result of the combined efforts of people from different countries, the scholars of all periods, the followers of all religions and members of all the races. Education is the common heritage of mankind and it is not an exclusive property of any particular nation, race or community. All educationists, irrespective of their caste, colour and creed worked devotedly towards the development of education. The man-made boundaries or restrictions cannot check the free flow of information and co-operation among educationists. As the world has reduced to a global village due to the advancements in the information technology, the aim of international understanding has conquered new dimensions.
  16. Harmonious development: Ultimately the overall aim of education is to ensure harmonious development through the achievement of the above mentioned aims. Harmonious development will enable the child to deal effectively with the problems and uncertainities of life.
Education can be classified into formal, informal and nonformal types.
Formal Education
Formal education is based on certain rules, customs and procedures. It involves a direct face to face interaction with the teacher and rendered through educational institutions in a preplanned and organized manner. Formal education is conducted for a prescribed period of time and is based on a well defined curriculum. It is very systematic in nature and given by specially qualified personnel.
Informal Education
Informal education is not systematically planned and has the following characteristics: (a) no formal agencies like school or college is involved and provided by informal agencies, such as home, family or community; (b) no prescribed schedule or well defined curriculum and takes place mainly as a result of experiences gaining from day to day life or interactions with others; (c) no specially qualified personnel 10to teach or no evaluation system like examinations and conferring of certificates; and (d) emphasis is on habits, ideals, attitudes, and skills.
Nonformal Education
Nonformal education adopts a midway between formal and informal types of education. The characteristics of nonformal education are: (a) very flexible without rigid rules, regulations and fixed stages or time frame; (b) systematically planned, organized and implemented; (c) integrated with the life and work of the learners; and (d) designed to meet the learning needs of different categories in the society.
According to K.L. Kumar, nonformal education is based on the following concepts, such as (a) equality of opportunity, (b) students’ desire of learning and progress, (c) faith in the dignity of an individual, (d) freedom of time, place and pace of learning, (e) ability to learn at any age in life, (g) autonomy of style and technique of learning, and (h) facility to acquire knowledge in new areas.
Depending on the means of communication and state of art in educational technology, K.L. Kumar classifies non-formal education into (a) correspondence education; (b) distance education; (c) open learning/open program; (d) continuing education program; and (e) telelecturing/teleconferencing.
Agency of education is the medium through which education is carried out. Educational institutions are commonly referred as agencies of education. Educational agencies fall into any one of the four types, namely formal, informal, active and passive agencies. Formal agencies are mainly concerned with providing formal education, for example, schools, colleges, etc. As name indicates, informal agencies are providing informal education, for example, home, family, play groups, etc. Active agencies facilitate human interaction through a two-way communication process, for example, family, school, religious organizations, etc. Passive agencies lacks the provision for interaction while transferring information, for example, television, newspapers, etc.
According to FJ Brown, educational agencies can be classified as formal institutions, group organizations, commercial agencies and noncommercial agencies. Formal institutions and group organizations are synonymous with formal and informal agencies of the first classification. Commercial agencies are profit oriented ones, like press, cinema, etc. Noncommercial agencies are service oriented ones such as governmental organisations, voluntary agencies, etc.
Current Trends in Education
The changes that are occurring in the social and cultural life of the society as a result of the impact of advancements in the science based technology are broadly described as modernisation. Since education is a multipolar process, it is influenced by the modernisation in different ways. Due to gobalisation and liberalisation, changes occuring in other parts of the world will also influence the education pattern of a country. Even though certain aspects in the new trends are painful to those who view education as a noble process, they are irresistible in the current context. Let us see some of the current trends in education.
  1. Pedocentric: Student is the focus of present day education system. The interest is shifted from the subject matter to the student and the teaching-learning process is largely directed by the nature and needs of the learner. This basic shift in emphasis from the subject of instruction to the nature and needs of the learner is based on the mathetic principle. The term mathetics is derived from the Greek word mathein which means to learn. Mathetics is the science of behavior 11of the pupil undergoing the process of learning. Mathetics is in contrast to pedagogy whose main interest is in the behavior of the teacher while instructing pupils. The teacher today does not consider the child as a vessel waiting to be filled up with facts; nor as a pliable plastic material which can be transformed into any shape enabling him to project his ideas on it. The modern teacher considers each child as akin to a plant and helps the child to grow according to his abilities and aptitudes. Teacher helps the child to learn. Progressive educationists like Rousseay, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Montessori, John Dewey and others have contributed to the development of a child centered education. As a result, education has become more interested in the ‘whole child’, all the thoughts, feelings and actions of the individual pupil, in his mental and social development rather than presenting some information to him in a ready-made form. In accordance with this trend, student is motivated to participate actively in the teaching-learning process. This way of teaching by eliciting maximum student participation is called participatory approach in teaching.
  2. Teacher's role: The shift in emphasis from the teacher to the pupil in the process of education and the carrying out of instructional activities with the realization of specific and clear-cut learning outcomes has inevitably led to a reassessment of teacher's role in the classroom. The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominant figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupils has practically disappeared. Modern education transformed the teacher's role from a dictator to a friend of students. Teacher of today is considered as a facilitator of learning, whose main duty is to prepare students for learning by enabling them to actively participate in the teaching-learning process rather than simply spoon-feeding. The less the pupils rely upon the teacher, the better: a successful teacher must enable his pupils to do without him. The changing role of the teacher in education has been the result of a plurality of intertwining influences like philosophical, psychological, social, technological and educational. Psychological studies have clearly revealed the influence of classroom climate and atmosphere in the creation of a fertile learning environment. In the creation of such an environment, the nature of teacher-pupil relationship, teacher's personal attitude towards his students, his professional philosophy and life values plays an important role. As said earlier, teacher of the past functioned as an authoritarian figure. But with the changing goals of education and newer psychological discoveries related to effective learning, such a style of teacher functioning is not only unproductive but even detrimental to learning. The classic study of Lewin, Lippift and white has demonstrated the long term benefits of a democratic classroom set up as compared to the authoritarian or laissezfaire teacher behavior. There have been criticisms of this study but other investigations have also indicated the importance of the emotional component in learning and have generally tended to support the view that a warm, humane and responsive teacher attitude has a stimulating effect on the pupil learning. Even though the role of teachers have changed, we cannot ignore them because the future of education directly depends upon the quality of the intermediary inventive minds of teachers and their ability to invent and innovate.
  3. Activity centered: Modern education is activity centered. We are currently giving more emphasis to learning by doing. Curriculum of today is organised in terms of the tasks to be performed and goals to be reached rather than in terms of lessons to be learned. This will provide knowledge and skills essential for leading a good life. Teachers have to motivate the children to do experiments, search out facts for themselves and undertake projects.
  4. Creative education: One of the most significant trends in today's school is the encouragement of creativity. Human advances comes through original thought and intervention. Creative education is a good medium to develop original thought and intervention.12
  5. More community participation: Considering the reciprocative relationship between education and society, this is an expected trend. Education is seeking more community participation for solving its problems. The presence of parent-teacher association in all most every educational institute is a good example for the community participation. Parents’ participation can also be elicited through socialised projects and programs. The result is that parents and the teachers meet in small and large groups to discuss their common problems. Funding of various projects in the technical institutes by the industrial sector is also an example of this trend.
  6. More reliance on technology: Technology exerts great influence on education as a tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology has increased its user friendly nature considerably. cost-effectiveness of technology based educational programs is good when compared to the cost of traditional programs. Education system is preferring technology not because it simplifies the teaching-learning process, but because technology empowers new solutions. Technology will help the teachers to solve the emerging educational problems created by factors like growing school population, heterogeneity of pupils in schools, divergent and even confusing needs of learners, rapid development of new information, expanding curriculum and the social changes arising from modernisation. Developments in educational technology bring about changes and shifts in educational goals which in turn stimulate the emergence of newer techniques. Technology of education is being developed with the aim not only of making education more widely available but also of improving the quality of education. As stated earlier, the nature of emerging techniques of education has been influenced by modern psychology. The facility for online education through information technology enabled services has redefined the concept of non-formal education. With the wide spread use of computers in education, computer assisted learning and computer assisted instruction are becoming common even in the lower levels of education. Nowadays, universities are changing to virtual universities by fully utilizing the technological advancements for imparting knowledge.
  7. Increased acceptance of nonformal type of education: Universities and other elite educational organizations has come out from glass towers for providing nonformal education through study centers and regional centers. Some of them are generating more revenues through providing nonformal education than the formal education. As said earlier, information technology enabled services has redefined the concept of nonformal education. Different from the past, various forms of nonformal education like correspondence education, distance education, etc. are gaining acceptance among the youth.
  8. Restructuring traditional programs: In order to meet the challenges of globalisation, education system is restructuring the traditional programs by integrating and correlating various subjects, for example, traditional B.Sc botany program has converted to applied botany in many institutes by way of integrating some aspects of biotechnology.
  9. Increased opportunities for higher studies: In the present situation, a talented student can do higher studies irrespective of the economic status. Doors of all elite universities in the world are kept open for the talented young people and flexible educational loans are available for meeting the expenses of education.
  10. Methods of appraisal: Because of multiple educational goals, a comprehensive system of evaluation is being evolved. The child's progress is judged by the comparison of his own work and achievements. Latest methods of evaluation are based on a vision of learning and well defined 13performance indicators. In addition to the cognitive abilities, other abilities are also evaluated in a more objective manner.
  11. Innovation in teaching and learning: Lot of innovations are taking place in teaching and learning on a regular basis. These innovations will help in the intellectual development, personal development and career development of the youth.
  12. Educational quality assurance: Present day education system is more concerned about quality, cost-effectiveness and accountability. Educational quality assurance is a process of monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational provison and to institute remedial measures as and when needed.
  13. Emergence of individual as a teaching unit: Class as a unit of teaching is disappearing. As a result of the advancements in instructional planning and evaluation of learning, teachers realise the existence of widely different backgrounds, differences in student abilities and interests. Hence the teachers of today realise the need for presenting learning experience to suit individual difference existing among pupils by using the media and methods generated by educational technology. In short, advancements in educational technology motivated the teachers to view education as an individual activity rather than a classroom activity.
  14. Commercialization of education and presence of foreign universities: Due to misappropriation of funds and scarcity of resources, government is finding it difficult to meet the educational demands of the society, thereby denying opportunity for education to a vast majority of people. This has motivated the government to concentrate more on the basic education. Now, government is withdrawing slowly from providing higher education and allowing private sector to play a major role, subjected to certain social control measures. If the government implement the social control measures properly, this approach would bring spectacular changes in an otherwise gloomy educational scenario. Foreign universities are now attracting Indian students by offering job oriented programs. Since Indian universities are still continuing the age old programs and very much reluctant to change according to the new trends in the international level, India has become a gold mine for the foreign universities.
Nursing education is a professional education which is consciously and systematically planned and implemented through instruction and discipline and aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, spiritual and aesthetic powers or abilities of the student in order to render professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health and illness, in a variety of settings, in the best or highest possible manner.
Aims of Nursing Education
  1. Harmonious development: Nursing education aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual and aesthetic powers or abilities of the student. Harmonious development is essential for achieving the qualities required for leading a successful professional and personal life. In short, nursing education aims to prepare students as good human beings with qualities of a professional nurse.
  2. Inculcating the right attitude: Right attitude towards nursing forms the basis of nursing career. Right attitude helps to adjust with the student life and motivate to achieve excellence in the upcoming 14professional life. Nursing education offers a variety of learning experiences with an aim to inculcate proper attitude among students.
  3. Knowledge and skill aim: Nursing education provide the much needed knowledge and skill required to practice the profession in a successful manner. Technological advancements in the field of education helps nurse educators to fulfill this aim in a meticulous way.
  4. Emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach: High-tech-high-touch approach in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of the technological advancements in the field of patient care. Nurse educators have to motivate the students to maintain the human element of nursing while rendering care with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
  5. Prepare students to take up a proactive role in learning: The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominant figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupils has practically disappeared. To a certain extent this is applicable to nursing education also. Nurse educator of today is considered as a facilitator of learning, whose main duty is to prepare students to adopt a proactive role in learning so that they will actively participate in the teaching-learning process.
  6. Professional development: Nursing education prepares the student to render professional nursing care in the best or highest possible manner. Nurse educators can fulfill the professional aspirations of the students by way of providing guidance, arranging adequate learning experiences and serving as role models. The need of professional development in this era of competition and knowledge explosion should be explained properly to the students. Easy access to information, availability of staff development programs and increased opportunities for higher education will help nurses to maintain the professional development.
  7. Assist to build a promising career: Nursing profession offers a variety of career opportunities. Helping students to realize their potentials and interests will enable them to build a promising career.
  8. Social aim: Nursing education prepares the student to become a useful member in the society. This will in turn help them to interact effectively with the people and render dedicated care without any discrimination
  9. Citizenship: Nursing education should motivate the student to perform his or her duties as a citizen for the welfare of the fellow human beings.
  10. To prepare global nurses: Globalisation and liberalisation has created world wide opprotunities for professional nurses ever than before. Today, a competent nurse with good knowledge in English can easily build a career in other nations. Considering the high demand of Indian nurses in the international context, we can add one more aim, namely preparation of global nurses.
  11. Leadership aim: Since nursing profession is experiencing a shortage of eminent leaders, leadership aim is very important. Nursing education has to nurture leadership abilities among students.
The history of nursing education can be summarised as follows:
  • 1839 - Nurse society of philadelphia formed under Joseph Warrington.
  • 1862 - Florence Nightingale established school of nursing at St Thomas Hospital, London
  • 1874 - Miss Melinda Ann Richards become America's first trained nurse.
  • 1885 - Japanese school of nursing at Kyoto by Linda Richards.
  • 1905 - 105 hospital based nursing schools all over the world.
  • 1909 - First collegiate program at university of Minnesota
  • 1914 - College of nursing started at London15
  • 1917 - Curriculum committee of national league of nursing education was formed
  • 1920 - 180 nursing schools all over the world. First doctoral program at Colombia university leading to Edn in nursing
  • 1923 - First major study report of committee for the study of nursing education namely Goldmark report published in USA.
  • 1927 - Revision of curriculum - addition of sociology and public health.
  • 1934 - PhD and EdD in nursing started at New York university.
  • 1937 - Curriculum by national league of ward teaching.
  • 1938 - 45 universities all over the world having nursing programs.
  • 1954 - Ph.D in nursing at university of Ittusburgh
  • 1960 - The first doctorate in nursing science started at Boston university.
  • 1980 - Nursing diagnosis evolved as a separate component of nursing practice.
  • 1980 onwards - Nursing education flourished all over the world.
We can summarize the history of nursing education in India as follows:
  • 1871 - School of nursing started in general hospital, Madras.
  • 1886 - School of nursing in a fullfledged form was started in JJ hospital, Bombay.
  • 1892 - Many hospitals in Bombay started nursing associations which were intended to provide additional facilities for the training of local nurses.
  • 1908 - TNAI established.
  • 1909 - Bombay presidency nursing association was formed.
  • 1910 - United board of examination for nurses was organized.
  • 1913 - South India Board was organized.
  • 1926 - First nurses registration act passed in Madras
  • 1935 - Madras and Bombay nursing councils were established
  • 1942 - ANM program started
  • 1943 - School of Nursing at RAK college, New Delhi.
  • 1943 - Diploma program in nursing administration started in New Delhi
  • 1946 - Four-year BSc nursing program started in RAK College and CMC, Vellore
  • 1947 - INC act was passed
  • 1949 - INC was established
  • 1959 - MSc Nursing started in RAK College
  • 1963 - Post-basic BSc program started in various institutions
  • 1968 - MSc nursing at CMC, Vellore
  • 1972 - Basic degree program started in Kerala
  • 1985 - MSc nursing started in CMC, Ludhiana
  • 1985 - IGNOU established
  • 1986 - Curriculum change for GNM program from three and a half years to three years
  • 1986 - MPhil program started in RAK, Delhi
  • 1987 - MSc Nursing started in Kerala
  • 1987 - Separate directorate of nursing was created in Karnataka State
  • 1988 - MSc Nursing at Nimhans
  • 1992 - PhD in RAK college, New Delhi.
  • 1992 - Post-basic program started under IGNOU
  • 1994 - MSc nursing at Mahe, Manipal16
  • 1994 - Basic BSc program under school of Medical education in Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam
  • 1996 - MPhil and PhD at Mahe, Manipal
  • 2001 - PhD at NIMHANS
  • 2002 onwards - Nursing Education flourished in an unprecedented manner throughout India.
A profession is a dynamic integration of various faculties of knowledge. Since nursing education is a professional education, it is dynamic by its own nature and thereby giving rise to trends. Let us see some of the current trends in nursing education.
  1. Curriculum changes: Flexible curriculum designs are evolving to facilitate diversity of educational opportunity and overcome barriers of distance and time. These curricula are often competency based, focused on outcome and emphasise student participation and responsibility for learning.
  2. Innovations in teaching and learning: In nursing education, lot of innovatons are taking place in the areas of teaching and learning. Invariably, these innovations lead to intellectual development, personal development and career development.
  3. Educational quality assurance: Educational quality assurance is a process for monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational provision and to institute remedial measures as and when needed. In India, nursing education is flourishing in an unprecedented manner, naturally this will lead to dilution in the quality of nursing education in the absence of proper quality control measures. Motivated by this situation, accrediting bodies and nurse educators are expressing deep concern regarding the quality of nursing education. It is high time to prepare a quality index of nursing institutions all over the country by categorising them into different grades based on the infrastructure and faculty profile.
  4. More reliance on technology: Technology exerts greater influence on nursing education as a tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology has increased its user friendly nature considerably.
  5. Emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach: High-tech-high-touch approach in nursing care was devised to preserve the human component of nursing care without undermining the advantages of technological advancements in the field of patient care. Present day nursing education is preparing the students to maintain the human element of nursing while caring the patients with the help of sophisticated gadgets.
  6. Preparation of global nurses: Nursing education is all set to reap benefits created by globalization and liberalization by way of preparing global nurses. Many institutions are preparing students with a global perspective through providing learning experiences to enrich students’ knowledge in English along with the attainment of other objectives.
  7. Transnational acceptance: Nursing educational programs in one nation is widely accepted by other nations. In fact, this transnational acceptance is the main reason for the development of nursing education in the countries like India.
  8. Ensuring a promising career: Unlike many other professional education programs, nursing education ensures a promising career either in India or abroad. A study conducted by Johnson and Johnson reveals that nursing education will maintain this status at least for the coming ten years.
  9. Emergence of new specialities: In par with the developments in the medical and allied fields, nursing education is also offering new specialities to meet the needs of the community.17
  10. Increased opportunities for higher studies: Different from the past many institutions are offering programs such as post certificate B.Sc nursing, M.Sc nursing, M.Phil and Ph.D. An eligible candidate can easily pursue higher education without much time lag.
  11. Diminishing government role: Shortage of funds coupled with certain policy decisions has prevented the government from investing further in the field of nursing education. Now, the private sector is playing a dominant role for the development of nursing education.
  12. Uniformity and standardization: Various universities and nursing boards are conducting nursing programs in a different manner. Even though efforts are on the way to bring about the much needed uniformity and standardization, nothing significant has been achieved so far.
  13. Coping with the impact of globalization: As a result of the impact of globalization, the status of nursing shifted from that of a caring profession to a rewarding profession. Very few students are trying to inculcate the traditional values of nursing profession during their student period. Majority consider nursing education only as a means for securing a rewarding career. Nursing education sector is trying hard to cope with this worrisome impact of globalization.
  14. Enhanced student status: In the past, students joining for nursing educational programs were viewed as student nurses rather than nursing students. Increased career opportunities offered by the nursing as well as the tremendous increase in the number of nursing institutions prompted society and other health care professions to consider nursing students as nursing students.
Education is a purposeful process aimed at the development of human beings. It is concerned with directing the child in the matter of bringing out his hidden talents. Educative process is best considered as a multipolar process. Components of educative process are knowledge, application of skills, understanding, comprehension, expression, appreciation, teaching, learning, initiation, instruction, training and indoctrination. Education is a planned activity and based on objectives. Educative process is influenced by the society, social changes and technological advancements.
Completing the socialisation process, transmission of cultural heritage, formation of social personality, reformation of attitude, occupational placement, conferring of status, encouraging the spirit of competition, training the skills that are required by the economy, fostering participant democracy and imparting values are some of the functions of education. Aims of education is concerned with providing the much needed direction for the educative process. Aims of education include utilitarian aim, social aim, intellectual aim, citizenship, physical health and well being, character development, moral development, cultural development, mental and emotional development, autonomous development, self-education aim, international understanding and harmonious development.
Formal education, informal education and nonformal education are the types of education. Agencies of education can be classified mainly into formal, informal, active and passive agencies. Modern education is child centered and teacher is considered as a facilitator of learning. Modernization has given rise to many trends in education.
Nursing education is a professional education meant to prepare professional nurses. Aims of nursing education are harmonious development, inculcating right attitude, knowledge and skill aim, emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach, professional development, leadership development, social aim, citizenship and assisting to build a promising career. Nursing education enjoys a rich tradition. Goldmark report published in 1923 contributed considerably to the development of nursing education. Recent trends in nursing education include curriculum changes, innovations in teaching and learning, quality assurance, reliance on technology, emphasis on high-tech-high-touch approach, uniformity and 18standardisation, preparation of global nurses, transnational acceptance, high chance of a promising career, emergence of new specialities, preference to short-term clinical programs, increased opportunities for higher studies and potential shortage of nurse educators.
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