Experimental Pharmacology for Undergraduates & Postgraduates J Sujatha Devi
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1Experimental Pharmacology for Undergraduates and Postgraduates
2Experimental Pharmacology for Undergraduates and Postgraduates
J Sujatha Devi MBBS DGO MD (Pharmacology) Professor Department of Pharmacology Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences Puducherry, India Retired Professor Institute of Pharmacology Madras Medical College Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Foreword S Parvathavarthini
3
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This book has been published in good faith that the contents provided by the author contained herein are original, and is intended for educational purposes only. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy of information, the publisher and the author specifically disclaim any damage, liability, or loss incurred, directly or indirectly, from the use or application of any of the contents of this work. If not specifically stated, all figures and tables are courtesy of the author. Where appropriate, the readers should consult with a specialist or contact the manufacturer of the drug or device.
Experimental Pharmacology for Undergraduates and Postgraduates
First Edition: 2013
9789350259948
Printed at
4Dedicated to
The memory of Mrs J Dhanalakshmi Hanumantha Rao, my mother, who introduced me to the world of medicine and my father Mr J Hanumantha Rao for being a great support.
5Foreword
Pharmacology is one of the fast growing branches of medical science. A thorough understanding of the basic information is a must for the students. It could be strengthened by doing practicals, systematically which will produce a clear impression in the mind of students. There is a long-felt need for a book to guide undergraduates and postgraduates in pharmacology practicals.
Dr J Sujatha Devi is known to me from her postgraduation days. She is very much interested in teaching pharmacology, and has taken great efforts to bring out this book. There are two parts, Part A for the undergraduates and Part B for the postgraduates separately. Each part is further subdivided into several divisions. All important practical topics have been nicely covered. The commonly used statistical methods are well discussed. Practical-oriented important topics have been discussed in detail. The generous display of graphs and photographs of equipments provide added attraction.
I am sure this book will be of great use to the students of Pharmacology.
S Parvathavarthini
Officer on Special Duty (DME) (Retd)
Director and Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Madras Medical College
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
6Preface
This book is designed to provide a complete, current and readable pharmacology practical procedures for medical, pharmacy undergraduate and postgraduate students.
From my experience as a professor, I felt the need of an examination-oriented practical book for students should be published. As a result of my ambition, I have designed this book with answers for most of the questions and doubts of the students in the simplest form.
Overwhelming response from the students and encouraging words from my colleagues made me to take sincere steps to write this book.
I hope this book will be helpful to the MBBS, B Pharm, MD, and M Pharm students who want to understand the practicals and charts in a short time and to prepare for oral and practical examinations easily.
The final judgment regarding the utility of the book is left to the students.
Constructive criticism and suggestions will be appreciated and followed in the next edition.
J Sujatha Devi
7Acknowledgments
I would like to thank:
11Introduction
Pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on living organisms. It includes the biological actions of chemicals and the mechanism of action. We should be able to describe and quantify both the desirable and undesirable effects in laboratory animals and such observations can be extrapolated to the human beings. Experimental pharmacology thus helps in understanding the nature of drug action in therapeutic form and in toxicological aspects. The experiments can be carried out in intact animal or in isolated tissues.
In whole animal experiments (e.g. dog, mice, rabbit, etc.), the effect of drugs on the organs are influenced by many factors such as blood supply, metabolism, distribution, nervous control, hormonal influences, bioavailability, etc.
In isolated preparations, the direct mechanism of action of drug can be studied. Moreover, this is cheap and can be studied for different drugs on different types of tissues by sacrificing one animal.
Laboratory animals can be bred and maintained in the laboratory under suitable conditions. The common laboratory animals are mice, rat, guinea pig, frog, dog and rabbit.
All animals as a rule should be handled in humane method. Animals should be in no case suffer from pain. The health of the animals should be maintained. When they are sacrificed, the approach should be euthanasia (painless death).
The Prevention of Cruelty to Animal's Act of 1960 provided for the constitution of a committee to oversee the conduct of experimentation of animals. The CPCSEA (Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals) was established under that provision. The Experiments on Animals (Control and Supervision) Amendment Rules (1998) and the Breeding of the Experimental Animals (Control and Supervision) Rules (1998) gave power to the CPCSEA to make rules in relation to the conduct of experiments on animals, the power to authorize any of its officers to inspect any place (at any time), and the power to prohibit a person or any institution from carrying out experiments on animals. Mrs Menaka Gandhi, a former minister and an animal right activist of repute, took over as its chairperson and brought out sweep changes in the manner in which animal experiments were being conducted in the country. The guidelines made it clear that all laboratories doing animal work had to be registered with the CPCSEA and had to follow a set of rules. To implement these guidelines, the CPCSEA appointed its nominees, usually people who were animal right's activists themselves or cared about animals.