Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine: Pneumonias Surinder K Jindal, Randeep Guleria
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1World Clinics: Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: Pneumonias2
3World Clinics: Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: Pneumonias
Editor-in-Chief Surinder K Jindal MD FCCP Guest Editor Randeep Guleria MD DM
July 2012 Volume 1 Number 1
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Cover images: (Left) Sputum smear stained with Ziehl-Neelson stain showing acid-fast bacilli. Courtesy: Ravindran Chetambath, Jyothi Edakalavan. (Middle) High resolution computed tomography scan demonstrating tree-in-bud appearance, a feature of endobronchial spread of tuberculosis. Courtesy: Ravindran Chetambath, Jyothi Edakalavan. (Right) Transbronchial biopsy (H-E×100) showing organizing pneumonia. Courtesy: fotiosg Drakopanagiotakis, Filia Diamantea, Vlasis Polychronopoulos
WORLD CLINICS Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: Pneumonias
July 2012, Volume 1, Number 1
ISSN: 2319-1260
9789350901762
Printed in India
5Contributors
Editor-in-Chief
Guest Editor
Contributing Authors
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11Editorial
Surinder K Jindal md fccp Editor-in-Chief
We are glad to introduce the World Clinics in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine with the inaugural issue on Pneumonia. The World Clinics series, introduced recently by M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, is a new addition in the existing medical literature. It aims to address the global audience in different specialties and subspecialties of medicine. The series in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine is designed to highlight subjects of importance not only for the pulmonary physicians but also for the internists, intensivists, and others engaged in the allied subjects. We intend to adopt a simple and practical approach to different topics for benefit of the both, students and teachers, in pulmonary sciences on one hand and clinical practitioners on the other.
We have attempted to provide an international perspective to the World Clinics by inviting authors from different countries, most of them are deeply engaged in academic work on the subject. Each article is planned as a conglomerate of basic and advanced information primarily from a clinician's point of view. The present World Clinics series has been composed and edited by us on behalf of the Academy of Pulmonary Sciences (India) that aims to advance and maintain high standards of excellence in education, medical practice, and research in pulmonary sciences. This is one of the several different steps that the Academy has undertaken.
“Pneumonia” has been chosen as the subject for this issue, because of its overwhelming importance in medical practice of all specialties. Recognized since the time of Hippocrates, pneumonia remains the primary pulmonary illness in humans. It occurs in all age groups from neonates to the elderly. Not infrequently, it is a cause of serious consequences, sometimes leading to sepsis, respiratory failure, and death.
Pneumonia acquired in the community settings differs from the one acquired in the hospitals in various aspects, such as the microbial etiology, diagnostic algorithm, and therapeutic approach. The response to therapy and prognosis are also different in different types of pneumonias. Pneumonia can also be classified 12on the etiological basis, whether caused by microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or rarely parasites), chemical agents, or immunological injuries. Different articles in this issue allude to some of these aspects.
The next issue of the World Clinics series on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is already there in the pipeline, ready to be released by the end of the year. We shall continue with this endeavor with other topics in the next year. Meanwhile, we hope that you will very much like the first issue.
We also welcome your suggestions and comments.
Surinder K Jindal md fccp
Professor and Head
Department of Pulmonary Medicine
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Sector-12, Chandigarh 160 012, India
13Abbreviations ABLC
Amphotericin B lipid complex
ACAPS
Australian Community-acquired Pneumonia Study
A-DROP
Age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, and low blood pressure
AFB
Acid-fast bacilli
AM
Alveolar macrophage
APACHE II
Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II
ARDS
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
ATS
American Thoracic Society
BAL
Bronchoalveolar lavage
BOOP
Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia
BP
Blood pressure
BT
Body temperature
BTS
British Thoracic Society
BUN
Blood urea nitrogen
CA-MRSA
Community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
CAP
Community-acquired pneumonia
CC
Creatinine clearance
CCPA
Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis
CI
Confidence interval
CMV
Cytomegalovirus
CNPA
Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis
COP
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia
COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPIS
Clinical pulmonary infection score
CRB-65
Confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, 65 years of age and older
CRP
C-reactive protein
CT
Computed tomography
CURB-65
Confusion, urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure, 65 years of age and older.
CXR
Chest radiograph
DBP
Diastolic blood pressure
DC
Dendritic cell
DFA
Direct fluorescent antibody
DHPS
Dihydropteroate synthase
DLCO
Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
EBV
Epstein-Bar virus
ELISA
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMV
Equine morbillivirus
EORTC
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer
ESR
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FiO2
Fractional concentration of inspired oxygen
FOCUS
ceFtarOline Community-acquired pneUmonia trial vS ceftriaxone in hospitalized patients
GM
Galactomannan
γGT
γ-glutamyl transpeptidase
HA-MRSA
Hospital-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
HAP
Hospital-acquired pneumonia
HCAP
Healthcare-acquired pneumonia
HeV
Hendra virus
HPS
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
HR
Heart rate
HRCT
High-resolution computed tomography
HSV
Herpes simplex virus
ICU
Intensive care unit
IDSA
Infectious Disease Society of America14
Ig
Immunoglobulin
IL
Interleukin
IPA
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
IPF
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IQR
Interquartile range
KOH
Potassium hydroxide
LAMB
Liposomal amphotericin B
LRTI
Lower respiratory tract infection
MCP
Monocyte chemotactic protein
MDR
Multidrug resistant
MIC
Minimum inhibitory concentration
MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MSG
Major surface glycoprotein
mtLSU
Mitochondrial large subunit
NAA
Nucleic acid amplification
NAAT
Nucleic acid amplification test
NNT
Number needed to treat
NPA
Nasopharyngeal aspirate
NPS
Nasopharyngeal swab
NS
Nasal swab
OP
Organizing pneumonia
OPS
Oropharyngeal swab
PAMP
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns
PaO2
Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
PBS
Protected brush specimen
PBW
Predicted body weight
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction
PCT
Procalcitonin
PEEP
Positive end-expiratory pressure
PERCH
Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health
PJP
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
PPE
Parapneumonic effusion
PPV
Polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine
PRR
Pathogen recognition receptor
PSI
Pneumonia severity index
qPCR
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction
REA-ICU
Risk of early admission to intensive care unit
RR
Respiratory rate
RSV
Respiratory syncytial virus
RT
Reverse transcriptase
SARS
Severe acute respiratory syndrome
SBP
Systolic blood pressure
SCCmec
Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec
SMART-COP
Systolic blood pressure, multilobar chest radiography involvement, albumin, respiratory rate, tachycardia, confusion, oxygenation, and arterial pH
SMRT-CO
Systolic blood pressure, multilobar chest radiography involvement, respiratory rate, tachycardia, confusion, and oxygenation
SMX
Sulfamethoxazole
SNV
Sin nombre virus
SOP
Secondary organizing pneumonia
SP
Surfactant protein
SpO2
Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry
TMP
Trimethoprim
TNA
Transthoracic needle aspiration
UIP
Usual interstitial pneumonia
URTI
Upper respiratory tract infection
VAP
Ventilator-associated pneumonia
VAT
Video-assisted thoracoscopy
VGCV
Valganciclovir
VICTOR
A Study of Valcyte (Valganciclovir po) Compared to Ganciclovir iv in Patients With Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease Who Are Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
WBC
White blood cell
ZN
Ziehl-Neelsen