Atlas of Forensic Pathology B Suresh Kumar Shetty, Prateek Rastogi, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Tanuj Kanchan, YP Raghavendra Babu
Chapter Notes

Save Clear

“Those who have dissected or inspected many bodies have at least learned to doubt, while those who are ignorant of anatomy and do not take the trouble to attend to it, are in no doubt at all.”
—Giovanni Morgagni
The Father of Morbid Anatomy
B Suresh Kumar Shetty MBBS MD PGCTM Professor and Head Prateek Rastogi MBBS MD PGDMLE PGDCFS Dip Cyber Law PGCMNCPA PGCTM Associate Professor Tanuj Kanchan MBBS DFM MD Associate Professor Jagadish Rao Padubidri MBBS MD DNB PGDCFS PGCTM Dip Cyber Law MNAMS Associate Professor YP Raghavendra Babu MBBS MD Associate Professor Department of Forensic Medicine and toxicology Kasturba Medical College (A constituent college of Manipal University) Mangalore, Karnataka, India Forewords K Ramnarayan G Pradeep Kumar DS Badkur
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Phone: +91-11-43574357
Fax: +91-11-43574314
Overseas Offices
J.P. Medical Ltd
83 Victoria Street, London
Phone: +44-2031708910
Fax: +02-03-0086180
Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc
City of Knowledge, Bld. 237, Clayton
Panama City, Panama
Phone: +1 507-301-0496
Fax: +1 507-301-0499
Jaypee Medical Inc
The Bourse
111 South Independence Mall East
Suite 835, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA
Phone: +1 267-519-9789
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
17/1-B Babar Road, Block-B, Shaymali
Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207
Mobile: +08801912003485
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal
Phone: +977-9741283608
© 2014, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at:
Atlas of Forensic Pathology
First Edition: 2014
Printed at
I am delighted to write this message for the Atlas of Forensic Pathology authored by Dr B Suresh Kumar Shetty, Dr Prateek Rastogi, Dr Tanuj Kanchan, Dr Jagadish Rao Padubidri and Dr YP Raghavendra Babu. Pictures are invaluable in capturing the interest of the reader. The clarity of the photographs and the full spectrum of the lesions provide a learning opportunity for the neophyte as well as to the specialist. The authors are not only well qualified, but also they have a commitment and experience in teaching Forensic Medicine for several years, in addition to having commendable research publications. Let me extend my warmest felicitations to all the authors and wish them many more publications in the years to come.
K Ramnarayan mbbs md
Manipal University
Manipal, Karnataka, India
Healthcare and law enforcement professionals that include the police and the legal fraternity have the unique opportunity to make a difference in the lives of the public by providing justice to the victims of assault, be it trauma, sexual or otherwise. It is the duty of the forensic pathologist to diagnose the various objectives of a medicolegal autopsy, assimilate the medical evidence, and present it in a manner that could be clearly understood by the legal and judicial fraternity that would enable them to deliver justice. A forensic pathologist's job does not end with an autopsy, but foresee issues that could arise, weeks, months, years or even decades after the crime has occurred; hence, a complete understanding of the subject is very essential.
As forensic pathology has progressed over the century from less evidence based to more evidence based, so have the literature and textbooks have improved over the years. Atlas of Forensic Pathology is such an example of an accomplishment with numerous photographs, brief but adequate description that would enable the health care, legal and police professionals achieve their goals of providing justice to the society.
The authors have designed the atlas keeping in mind the practical requirements and the needs of the doctors practicing forensic medicine, the lawmakers, and the law enforcing agencies. Every segment of the forensic pathology requirements of the body has been kept in mind while designing the core content of this atlas. The pictures speak volumes of the emphasis on various practical aspects in the practice of the forensic medicine that has been dealt with excellently through illustrations. I would like to compliment the various contributors of this manual for their commitment and efforts to make the challenging practice of forensic medicine much easier.
This manual, though the authors claim to have designed for undergraduates and general practitioners, I strongly feel that it is a very useful book for the postgraduates pursuing MD in Forensic Medicine, police officers and to the legal fraternity.
I strongly recommend this book to be an integral part of learning the art and science of forensic medicine to both the undergraduates and postgraduates of forensic medicine. Not only students, every practitioner of forensic medicine should possess a copy of this manual for ready reference.
G Pradeep Kumar md
Department of Forensic Medicine
Kasturba Medical College
Manipal University
Manipal, Karnataka, India
The Atlas of Forensic Pathology written by Dr B Suresh Kumar Shetty and his team of forensic experts comprising of Dr Prateek Rastogi, Dr Tanuj Kanchan, Dr Jagadish Rao Padubidri and Dr YP Raghavendra Babu all Associate Professors in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (Manipal University) is an “objective atlas” on this subject and this idea is in fact very much open to questions. The atlas presents a picture of intense subject like Forensic Medicine to a lucid one. On close observation, one may find that these observations, by the editors of this atlas are exceptional. Each individual picture in this atlas is apt and is picked without any bend because the editors would not have selected them otherwise. Details in the form of captions turn out to contain great significance and relevance to the topics. The uncommon conditions made in the various visual inventories reveal things that usually remain invisible or difficult to see in one's career. In contrast to often propagandist tenor of books, this atlas shows a complex reality that lies beyond simplistic and blinding pictorial images.
At the best, I hope that this pluralistic representation can contribute more among the undergraduates, postgraduates, forensic experts, lawyers and police officials. This potent series of alternative copyright-free images can serve as an inspiring freely available tool, which can be used to answer critical questions which are apparently objective.
DS Badkur mbbs md dfm llb fiafm
Former President
Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine
It is our pleasure to place before you the Atlas of Forensic Pathology, the maiden venture from Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Kasturba Medical College, (A constituent college of Manipal University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Forensic Pathology is one of the major portions of broad specialty of Forensic Medicine comprising mainly of traumatology and thanatology. This atlas has been designed to incorporate a wide range of pictures from topics such as postmortem changes, mechanical injuries, firearm injuries, thermal injuries, road traffic accidents, regional injuries, mechanical asphyxia, transportation injuries, etc.
We hope that it will be useful to practitioners of forensic medicine, casualty medical officers, police persons, undergraduate and postgraduate students of forensic medicine.
B Suresh Kumar Shetty
Prateek Rastogi
Tanuj Kanchan
Jagadish Rao Padubidri
YP Raghavendra Babu
We are grateful to Dr Ramdas M Pai, Chancellor, Manipal University; Dr HS Ballal, Pro-Chancellor, Manipal University; Dr K Ramnarayan, Vice-Chancellor, Manipal University; Dr Surendra V Shetty, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Manipal University (Mangalore Campus), and Dr M Venkatraya Prabhu, Dean, Kasturba Medical College (KMC) (a constituent college of Manipal University), Mangalore, for their constant encouragement and guidance.
Dr G Pradeep Kumar, Professor and Dean, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, and Dr Vikram Palimar, Professor and Head, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, for their enriching support.
We like to pen down special thanks to former Heads of our department Late Dr KM Saralaya and Late Dr Anand Menon, for their motivating words in coming out with this book.
We wish to thank Professors and Heads of Department of Forensic Medicine of all neighboring colleges in and around Mangalore, for their valuable feedback and suggestions.
We wish to express our solemn sentiments and sincere thanks to all our colleagues of KMC, Manipal, friends, undergraduates and postgraduate students, and non-teaching staffs of KMC, Mangalore and Manipal.
We wholeheartedly thank Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director) and Mr Tarun Duneja (Director-Publishing) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for publishing the book in the same format as wanted well in time.
We acknowledge the wonderful work done by Ms Sunita Katla (Publishing Manager), Ms Samina Khan (PA to Director-Publishing), Mr KK Raman (Production Manager), Mr Rajesh Sharma (Production Coordinator), Ms Seema Dogra (Cover Designer), Mr Sumit (Graphic Designer), Mr Kapil Dev Sharma (DTP Operator) and Mr Sarvesh Kumar Singh (Proofreader) of M/s Jaypee Brothers' typesetting unit, New Delhi, India.
Our sincere thanks to Mr Venugopal V and Mr Vasudev H of M/s Jaypee Brothers' Bengaluru Branch, for taking this book to every corner of Karnataka.