History of Orthodontics Basavaraj Subhashchandra Phulari
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1History of Orthodontics2
3History of Orthodontics: A glance at an exciting path, the oldest specialty of dentistry has treaded so far…
Basavaraj Subhashchandra PhulariBDS MDS FAGE FRSH Formerly Faculty, Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics Mauras College of Dentistry, Hospital and Oral Research Institute Republic of Mauritius Foreword US Krishna Nayak
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History of Orthodontics (A glance at an exciting path, the oldest specialty of dentistry has treaded so far…)
First Edition: 2013
Printed at
5Dedicated to
My Dear Parents
Subhashchandra and Shivalingamma Phulari
My Brothers
Sangamesh BE (USA), Jagadish BE (USA) and Manjunath BE (USA)
My Beloved Wife
Dr Rashmi GS, Reader (Oral Pathology)
My Sons
Yashas and Vrishank
Humanity is passing through the most exciting period in the history of its existence, because of rapid technological advancement and increase in the research activities, there has been an enormous increase in the information available which has led to better understanding of the respective subjects and areas of specialization.
With the contemporary understanding of orthodontics, it is more apt and important for everyone involved in the subject to be aware of how our forefathers in the subject thought, how the subject evolved in different countries, how new concepts evolved providing a trigger to each and everyone to explore deeper into the subject and make learning more exciting and enjoyable.
Dr Basavaraj Subhashchandra Phulari has made sincere efforts to go into the depth of each topic providing an exhaustive insight. I am convinced that it will be a great learning experience for all the readers.
US Krishna Nayak
Dean Academics, AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences
Karnataka, India
Past President, Indian Orthodontic Society
Past President, Indian Dental Association Head Office
Chairman, 8th Asia-Pacific Orthodontic Congress and 47th IOC
New Delhi, India
Chairman, 17th IOS PG Convention-2013
Editor, Asia Pacific, HEAL TALK-A Journal of Clinical Dentistry
President Elect, International College of Dentists
(India, Sri Lanka and Nepal Section)
Secretary, International College of Continuing Dental Education
(India Section).
Immediate Past Chairman, Pierre Fauchard Academy
(India Section)
Knowledge and understanding of the history of a scientific field can enable future practioners of that field better to anticipate and respond to the challenges of rapid globalization and be better prepared to mold our future.
Exposure to the history of our specialty helps us think, ask question and explore the concepts and enable us to grasp what the subject is about and how it has evolved over the years.
History of Orthodontics is interesting and same time it is complex. This book is an attempt to glance and take a note of important milestones in the exciting journey of this fascinating field. It is hoped that the book would be useful to all the students of the faculty.
Extensive coverage of important events in the history of orthodontics that shaped what it is today. Separate chapters dedicated to eminent inventors of the field—EH Angle, LF Andrew, James McNamara and TM Graber.
Evolution of recent advances in orthodontics such as Invisalign and dental lasers are included. Evolution of orthodontic materials, model analysis, cephalometrics and orthodontic appliances are included. Exhaustive list of references is given for further reading.
Basavaraj Subhashchandra Phulari
10 11Acknowledgments
Writing history of the oldest specialty of dentistry and as fascinating as orthodontics at that, was a herculean task. For writing history of any field, even it requires the author/historian to be present at that specific time and place of the event that has taken place, which is practically not possible.
An event of today becomes history tomorrow. As we unravel and cherish the history of yester-years, a new history would be shaping today. In the light of this practicality, I do agree that none of the chapters in the book is directly written by me. I have drawn generously from the existing literature about the subject in the form of various books, journal articles, research papers and thesis, etc. In many of the chapters, literature about a specific event or person/researcher is kept as it appears in its original literature so as to maintain authenticity and also not to inadvertently twist the history. Many of the illustrations of the orthodontic appliances and photographs of eminent researchers used in this book are facsimiles of the pictures that appear in the existing literature about the subject.
I hereby humbly acknowledge all the authors of various orthodontic books, articles, thesis, seminars, etc., whose works inspired the birth of this project. The list of the literature used for the preparation of this project is given at the end of the book under the heading of suggested reading.
I also gratefully acknowledge all the professors, teachers and postgraduate students of the faculty from various dental institutions in India and abroad who have contributed directly or indirectly to this exhaustive piece of work.
My special thanks to my beloved wife, Dr Rashmi GS, Reader and Postgraduate Guide, Department of Oral Pathology, Manubhai Patel Dental College and Hospital and Oral Research Institute, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, for her valuable critical comments during the preparation of the manuscript, editorial assistance and proofreading.
I take this wonderful opportunity to thank Dr Rajendrasinh Rathore, Chairman of Manubhai Patel Dental College and Hospital and Oral Research Institute, Vadodara, for his inspirational support during this endeavor and throughout my career. I also thank Dr Yashraj Rathore, Trustee, Manubhai Patel Dental College and Hospital and Oral Research Institute, Vadodara, for encouraging me during this project.
I owe a debt of gratitude to Professor (Dr) US Krishna Nayak, Dean Academics, AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, for his continuous encouragement in all my endeavors and for providing foreword to this book.
I am indebted to Dr Anil Shah for all the help and encouragement I have received from him during the formation of the Chapter 7—History of Dental Lasers and their Applications in Orthodontics in the book.
I extend my heartfelt gratitude to Dr Padmaja Ankit Arora for helping me with important references that were required for writing the chapters on TM Graber, James McNamara and Invisalign.
My heartfelt gratitude goes to Dr Poorya Naik, Assistant Professor, College of Dental Sciences, Davengere, Karnataka, Dr Ramesh GC, Assistant Professor, Sharavati Dental College, Shimoga, Karnataka, and Dr Sujay J, Assistant Professor, SJM Dental College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, who have helped immensely in this endeavor. Exceptional efforts made the production of this book possible.
I extend my special thanks to Dr Hina Desai for comments and suggestions regarding chapter on Dr TM Graber's Contribution to Orthodontics.12
I will be failing in my duty if I do not mention the affection and support I have received from Dr Syed Zakaullah, Chairman, Al Badar Dental College and Hospital, Gulbarga, Karnataka, who has always provided that moral boost much needed during compilation of this book.
My heartfelt gratitude goes to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director) and Mr Tarun Duneja (Director-Publishing) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, whose exceptional efforts made the production of this book possible. I gratefully acknowledge the contributions made by the talented professional staff at M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; in particular, I would like to thank Mr Venugopal V, Mr KK Raman and Mr Rajesh Sharma, for their untiring efforts in ensuring that every minute detail is taken care of.
I am indebted to my dear parents for all their love and sacrifices that have made me what I am. I thank my dear sons Yashas and Vrishank for being the constant source of inspiration to set and reach new goals in life.
Most of all, I thank God for all the kindness and mercy showered upon me.