3D/4D Ultrasound in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility Narendra Malhotra, Kuldeep Singh
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1Step by Step® 3D/4D Ultrasound in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility2
3Step by Step® 3D/4D Ultrasound in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility
Second Edition
Kuldeep Singh MBBS FAUI FICMCH FICMU Consultant Ultrasonologist Special Interest in Obstetric Sonology in Detailed Anomaly Scanning and Color Doppler for Management and Gynecological Scanning Dr Kuldeep's Ultrasound and Color Doppler Clinic D-80, East of Kailash, New Delhi, India Phones: 011-26441720, 26233342; Mobile: 9811196613 singhdrkuldeep@rediffmail.com Narendra Malhotra MD FICOG FICMCH Ian Donald Diploma Professor, Dubrovnik International University, FOGSI's Representative to FIGO President, FOGSI (2008) Dean, Indian College of Ultrasound (2008) Director, Ian Donald School of Ultrasound Practicing Obstetrician and Gynecologist Special Interest in High-risk Obstetrics Ultrasound, Laparoscopy and Infertility ART and Genetics Malhotra Nursing and Maternity Home (P) Ltd (India) 84, MG Road, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India Recognized Center for Training FOGSI-ICOG IFUMB-ICMU, Ian Donald School, Croatia SSR Foundation Phones: 0562-2260275, 2260276, 2260277; Mobile: 9837033335 drnarendra@malhotrahospitals.com www.malhotrahospital.com
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Step by Step® 3D/4D Ultrasound in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility
First Edition: 2007
Second Edition: 2013
Printed at
5Preface to the Second Edition
The advancement in technology today has revolutionized ultrasound imaging. The 20th and the 21st centuries will be remembered in history for medical advances and ultrasound imaging will feature as the find of the century. While 2D gray scale imaging has revolutionized diagnosis and anatomical imaging, color has added more physiological information of an organ and disease perfusion, and 3D and 4D have added a new dimension to imaging.
The 3D and 4D imaging have also seen a revolution and it is now possible to do virtual fetoscopy noninvasively with the newer 4D machines by directing focussed lights. Also, the study of fetal neural behavior has opened a new chapter in fetal brain development.
It is now possible to see, noninvasively in 3D and also quantify volume and blood flows. With 4D (live 3D), it is possible to evaluate fetal well-being and fetal anatomy and anomaly.
The innovations in computer technology and advancements will continue to happen in the next century.
Kuldeep Singh
Narendra Malhotra6
7Preface to the First Edition
3D and 4D ultrasound has opened a new dimension of imaging and like all new technologies it has sparked off the debate of “whether 4D or not” and of course and debate on “reassuring scan how reassuring”. Like all new technologies take time to get accepted, so is it with 3D and 4D. The advantages are numerous, quick scanning, virtual patient, sculpture like images, live fetal expression, etc.
Our aim to present this 6th step by step book in our ultrasound series is to open the doors of 3D and 4D to the practicing gynecologists and obstetricians. We obstetricians are unique in the way that we deal with two patients at the same time, hence, we need all the technological help of new modalities and a new dimension 4D to deal with our other patient: the fetus.
We hope you all will like and enjoy this effort of ours.
Kuldeep Singh
Narendra Malhotra8
Thanks to our parents, elders, teachers, siblings, daughters, sons and friends for their help in the mammoth project of the 6 step by step books on ultrasound over the year. We have enjoyed writing this series and it is heartening to note that the series is well accepted world over and even translated in Chinese and Spanish languages.
Our thanks to Professor Struat Campbell and Professor Asim Kurjak for teaching us the science and art of 3D/4D scanning.
Thanks to Jaideep and Nishu for bearing our odd timings and for the support. Our children Neharika, Keshav, Jaanvi and Ramanjeet God bless you.
Thanks to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director), Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing), Mr KK Raman (Production Manager) and other staff of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for bringing out this wonderful collection.