Fluoride & Fluorosis Ashish Sharma
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1FLUORIDE AND FLUOROSIS2
3FLUORIDE AND FLUOROSIS: (A RESEARCH REVIEW)
Ashish Sharma BDS PGDPHM Lecturer Department of Public Health Dentistry AMC Dental College Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Foreword Parthasarathi Ganguly
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This book has been published in good faith that the contents provided by the author contained herein are original, and is intended for educational purposes only. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy of information, the publisher and the author specifically disclaim any damage, liability, or loss incurred, directly or indirectly, from the use or application of any of the contents of this work. If not specifically stated, all figures and tables are courtesy of the author. Where appropriate, the readers should consult with a specialist or contact the manufacturer of the drug or device.
Fluoride and Fluorosis: A Research Review
First Edition: 2014
9789350908556
Printed at
5Foreword
It gives me immense pleasure to know that Dr Ashish Sharma has taken up the endeavor to present his research work in the form of a book. Fluorosis is a significant public health problem affecting millions of people. It has a great adverse effect on the economy of the family, community and country as a whole as it produces partial to total disability. Moreover, with the development of technology, more groundwater is used for drinking and agriculture, and it aggravates the problem of fluorosis. Unfortunately, the attention, knowledge and capacity of the policy makers, program managers, and clinicians are found to be grossly inadequate to deal with such a huge problem.
Dr Ashish had done his research quite elaborately to find out how successful the fluorosis mitigation efforts in the community are. He has put on significant efforts with extensive field work for his research. This book Fluoride and Fluorosis: A Research Review is not a textbook but based on his research project findings. Hence, it may have some shortcomings but still a comprehensive effort to elucidate the problem in fluorosis and will be a good reading for the program managers, social workers, primary care physicians and any other person who wish to get a glance of this important but neglected public health problem.
Parthasarathi Ganguly
mbbs md (preventive and social medicine)
Professor
Indian Institute of Public Health-Gandhinagar (IIPHG)
Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
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7Message
This book provides an insight into the detrimental effects of presence of fluoride in water. The preventive and therapeutic measures have been recommended, which would be essential to educate and inform the affected mass; so as to uplift their overall health and lead a normal life.
Dinyar B Doctor
bds mds (orthodontia)
Former Dean and Head
Department of Orthodontia
AMC Dental College
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
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9Message
As an academician and an active clinician, I can tell without any doubt that a very important subject is completely neglected by most of the authors of the dentistry and that is the subject of my friend, i.e. Fluoride and Fluorosis: A Research Review.
Although fluorosis is such an endemic problem that not much literature exists about it. The genesis of this book is to cater to the lacunae existing in the undergraduate textbooks, which were meant for the postgraduate students. Keeping this as the mission objective, the author has presented a wonderful research and review in a simple and reader-friendly manner. I would appreciate his sincereness and hard working efforts about this neglected subject.
I would definitely recommend it as a must-read book for all dental students and practising dentists.
Anjali Kothari
bds mds (conservative dentistry and endodontics)
Head
Department of Conservative,
Endodontics and Esthetic Dentistry
AMC Dental College
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
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11Preface
This book is a research review and compilation of authentic facts regarding dental and skeletal fluorosis. It also throws light on what is fluorosis actually, its causative factors and how to detect it clinically and radiologically based on certain parameters. The purpose of this research study was to assess the prevalence of fluorosis and comparing it with previous studies to know the effects of mitigation measures taken to curb fluorosis.
This book throws an insight into the actual picture of fluorosis and ways to detect the fluorosis afflicted people based on proven indices and obvious detectable clinical and radiological parameters. This book will be useful to those who want to further carry out research on fluorosis and the ways to detect the fluorosis afflicted people. This book is an initiative to probe and research into the gravity of the problem of fluorosis and provide critical inputs to them who want to carry out researches to detect fluorosis and furthermore to devise innovative methods to curb it. This book is useful for the undergraduate medical students, public health experts, public health managers, health economists, NGOs, postgraduate (PG) medical students pursuing PG courses in Public Health, and national and international agencies working to eradicate fluorosis. This book also throws a glimpse on the socioeconomic aspect of people with relation to fluorosis.
This book can be an ideal notebook for the medical/dental students who want to understand dental and skeletal fluorosis in clear and simple manner with its explicit contents and noteworthy pictures, tables and diagrams. Simultaneously, this book will be very much handy to those who want to know the methods and concepts to conduct further research on fluorosis.
It is different from other books in terms of relevant and actual description of concept of fluorosis with actual diagrams, colored pictures, tables, figures, charts, graphs and actual data. It is unique in its appearance as diverging from theoretical concept of fluorosis to the research methodological concept of fluorosis enabling to cover the interest of the vast masses of people ranging from students to researchers and professionals up to national and international agencies.
Hence, I am very much grateful to the almighty who gave me strength and courage to publish this book based on actual fieldwork to understand the concept of fluorosis.
Ashish Sharma
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13Acknowledgments
I take this opportunity with much pleasure to thank all the people, who have helped me through the course of my journey towards producing this review of mine research work. I sincerely thank Dr Parthasarathi Ganguly, Professor, Indian Institute of Public Health-Gandhinagar (IIPHG), for his guidance, help and motivation.
Apart from the subject of my research, I had learnt a lot from him, which I am sure, will be useful in my future career. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr Rajnarayan Indu and Dr Sunderrajan Krishnan of Indian Natural Resource Economics and Management (INREM) Foundation (Carewater), for great help with the research design and methodology. I am also grateful to Dr Deepak Saxena, Assistant Professor, IIPHG, Ahmedabad, who encouraged me to do study on fluorosis.
Special thanks go to Dr AK Susheela, Executive Director of the Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation in India, Professor of Anatomy (Histocytochemistry) and Chief of the Fluoride and Fluorosis Research Laboratories, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, for giving me the tips of doing research study on fluorosis.
I wish to thank my parents, Suresh Chandra Sharma and Sumitra Sharma, whose love, teachings and support have brought me this far. Finally, this thesis would not have been possible without the confidence, endurance and support of my wife Priyanka Sharma, who has always been a source of inspiration and encouragement. I wish to thank my brother Dr Vivek Sharma and my sister Preeti Sharma, and my brother-in-law Dheerendra Upadhyay, for their affection, understanding and patience.