Fundamentals of Electrotherapy and Biomedical Physics Ashish Kakkad
Absorption 69
Active components 1
Alternating current 25
Ammeter 11
Amplitude 26
Artificial magnets 57
Atomic theory of magnetism 59
Attenuation 70
Attenuation coefficient 71
Autotransformer 88
Bias voltage 35
Biogas 29
Biphasic pulsed current 25
Capacitance 95
Capacitive reactance 100
in parallel 99
in series 98
Causes for pain 104
Causes of electric shock 48
hazard 34
Characteristics of electric lines of force 4
Capacitor 95
charging 99
discharging 99
inventor of 95
types of 97
Choke coil 38
Classification of current according to frequency 27
Classification of electrode 42
Comparison between electricity and magnetism 61
Components of pain 102
Conductors 16
Continuous alternating current 27
Cosine law 72
Coulomb's inverse-square law 9
Coulomb's law 9
Counter irritation 107
Current electricity 24
Cylindrical conductors 97
Decay time 26
Dermatomal rule 105
Descending pain suppression system 106
Diamagnetism 57
Dielectric 95
Diode 35
Direct current 25
Disposable cell 34
Earth shock 52
Earthing 31
Eddy current 82
Electric cell 34
Electric charge 2
Electric conductance 7
Electric current 3
Electric field 3
Electric field of capacitor 96
Electric potential energy 8
Electric resistance 5
Electric shock 48
first aid 51
medical uses 51
prevention 51
self-care 51
signs and symptoms 49
torture by 51
treatment 51
types of 48
Electric tension 4
Electrical energy 8
Electrical potential difference 4
Electrical power 8
Electricity generation 27
Electricity transmission and distribution 29
Electricity types 24
Electrochemical cells 34
Electrode gel 45
characteristics of 46
Electrodes 42
Electrolytic cells 34
Electromagnetic induction
inventor of 79
Electromagnetic spectrum 64
history of 65
types of 66
Electromagnets 58
Electromotive force 4
Electronics 1
Electrostatic potential energy 8
Energy loss from transformer 89
Equatorial line 57
Even ratio transformer 87
Extinction 70
Extrinsic semiconductor 17
Factors affecting attenuation 70
Factors affecting pain perception 103
Factors affecting skin resistance 41
Factors for electromagnetic induction 79
Factors in lethality of electric shock 50
Faraday's law 81
Fast pain 102
Ferromagnetism 57
Field effect transistors 92
Fixed capacitor 97
Forward bias 36
Foucault current 82
Frequency 27
Frequency 64
Fuel cells 34
Full-wave rectification 38
Fuse 21
Galvanic cell 34
Galvanic skin response 41
Geometric length 56
Geothermal energy 29
Grothus law 72
Grotthus Draper law 72
Grouping of capacitors 98
Grouping of resistance 6
Half-wave rectification 37
History of transistor 91
Hydropower 28
Inductive reactance 81
Insulators 16
Intensity 26
Interpulse interval 26
Interrupted alternating current 25
Intrinsic semiconductor 17
Inverse square law 69
Inverter 37
Joule's effect 9
Joule–Lenz law 9
Joule's law 9
Junction field effect transistor 92
Junction transistors 92
Lambert-Cosine law 72
Lateral spinothalamic tract 104
Law of refraction 68
Lenz's law 82
Macroshock 48
Magnet 56
shapes 59
types of 58
Magnetic effect of electric current 59
Magnetic flux 79
Magnetic length 57
Magnetic meridian 57
Magnitude 26
Mains supply 30
Metal electrode 43
Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor 92
Microshock 49
Molecular theory of magnetism 59
Monophasic pulsed current 25
Mutual induction 80
Natural magnets 57
NPN transistor 92
N-type semiconductor 18
Nuclear power 28
Ohm's law 6
Pathway of pain 103
Pain regulation 105
Pain-gate theory 106
Parallel plate capacitors 97
Paramagnetism 57
Parameters of electrodes 44
Passive components 1
Permanent magnets 58
Phase 25
Phase duration 26
Photoelectric cells 34
Photovoltaic cells 34
Placebo 107
PNP transistor 92
Potential difference 4
Potential drop 4
Potentiometer 11
Power plugs and sockets 20
Precautions against earth shock 53
Primary cell 34
Properties of a magnet 60
Properties of magnetic lines of force 60
Psychogalvanic reflex 41
P-type semiconductor 17
Pulsatile alternating current 25
Pulse 25
Pulse duration 26
Pulsed alternating current 27
Rechargeable cells 34
Reciprocal engines 29
Rectifier 37
Referred pain 105
Reflection 67
Refraction 67
Renewable energy 28
Resistance in parallel 7
Resistance in series 6
Reverse bias 36
variable resistance 10
Rise time 26
Rubber electrodes 42
Secondary cell 34
Self induction 80
Self-adhesive electrodes 44
Semiconductors 16
Series rheostat 10
Severity of shock 49
Shunt rheostat 11
Skin resistance 41
Slow pain 102
Snell–Descartes law 68
Snell's law 68
Solar cells 34
Solar power 28
Spherical conductors 97
Static electricity 24
Static transformer 86
Step down transformer 87
Step up transformer 87
Storage cell 34
Switches 21
Temporary magnets 58
Thermal power 28
Thermionic valves 35
Tidal wave energy 29
construction of 86
principle of 86
uses 86
history of 91
types of 92
uses 91
Triode 37
Uninterrupted alternating current 25
Uses of eddy current 83
Uses of electromagnetic waves 73
Uses of variable capacitor 98
Vacuum electrodes 44
Variable capacitor 98
Variable transformer 88
Velocity 65
Voltage 4
Voltaic cell 34
Voltmeter 12
Waveform 26
Wavelength 64
Wind power 28
Chapter Notes

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Fundamentals of Electrotherapy and Biomedical Physics
Fundamentals of Electrotherapy and Biomedical Physics
Ashish Kakkad MPT (Neurological Conditions) MIAP Assistant Professor Shri KK Sheth Physiotherapy College Rajkot, Gujarat, India
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Fundamentals of Electrotherapy and Biomedical Physics
First Edition: 2014
Printed at
My parents and my teachers
Fundamentals of Electrotherapy and Biomedical Physics aims to provide basic concepts of electrotherapy to the students. Exercise therapy and electrotherapy are two important components of physiotherapy treatments. By this book, the aim is to provide study materials which will help the students to go into details about all the instruments they are using. Most of the universities have a subject in the first year of bachelor of physiotherapy that teaches about fundamentals of electrotherapy. But, there is no specific book for that. So, by this book, effort is to made to solve the demand of students for the basics of electrotherapy.
The first chapter gives fundamental concepts of circuit, electric charge, electric current, voltage, resistance, etc. to form strong base of further studies for their higher standard in college. Chapter 2 contains ideas about conductors, insulators, and semiconductors, including their examples and uses. Chapter 3 provides the material and detailed knowledge about the construction, mechanism, and types of switches, plugs, sockets and fuses. Chapter 4 explains from how electricity is generated to its use in our home for home appliances, including its generation, distribution, transmission and usage in detail. Chapter 5 contains sources of direct current ranging from simple primary or secondary cell to thermionic valve and choke coil. Chapter 6 will help to form the base of ultrasound and other electric modalities by clearing doubts about skin resistance, conducting medium, and different types of electrodes. Chapter 7 will guide the students how to manage if electric shock or earth shock occurs in physiotherapy department, as causes, types, prevention and treatment of electric shock, and earth shock are explained. Chapter 8 clears the concepts of magnet, magnetic field, and other properties exhibited by magnet. Chapter 9 explains in details about introduction about electromagnetic spectrum and its governing laws such as reflection, refraction, attenuation, cosine law, inverse square law which will help students to fix the placement of different electrotherapeutic instruments for best result. This will also provide base for infrared and ultraviolet rays for future standards of college. This chapter also provides uses of different types of rays used in day-to-day life. Chapter 10 explains about electromagnetic induction in detail that is must to know before understanding the transformer. Chapter 11 elaborates transformer with its types such as step-up, step-down, etc. for good understanding of voltage regulations. Chapter 12 explains the details for transistor with its types and mechanism of work. Chapter 13 provides base for understanding about capacitor, including its construction, types and uses which will help the reader learn shortwave diathermy easily for getting maximum output from machine. Chapter 14 gives detailed knowledge about pain and its regulation so that the reader will be able to understand that whatever electrotherapy modality he/she is using for pain relief that works on which level and mechanism.
The effort is also made to provide all study materials with references from different books of electrotherapy. To get recent advances of all covered topics reference websites are also mentioned at the end of the chapter.
For freshers, most of the time, they have reading materials; but, they are confused how to face this in examinations. To solve this to level best, effort is made to provide multiple choice questions (MCQs) with answers.
All the readers are requested to provide their suggestions regarding this book so that next time precaution can be taken. Feel free to contact on The author hopes to get best response from the readers.
Ashish Kakkad