Modern Textbook of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Putul Mahanta
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Editor Putul Mahanta MD FIAMLE Associate Professor Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Tezpur Medical College Tezpur, Assam, India Forewords UC Sarma PC Sarmah Anil Aggrawal RK Gorea
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Modern Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
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5Dedicated to
My late father Karuna Kar Mahanta, who brought me into this world, and to my late brother Bipul Mahanta, who was my source of inspiration,
My mother Rajya Priya Mahanta and elder brother Lakheswar Mahanta, who made me a doctor,
My father-in-law, late (Prof) Birendra Nath Das, for his encouragement to do something new in life, lastly, to my wife Manmi and my two kids Jacinth and Adriana for their sustained support and cooperation.
The book edited by Putul Mahanta entitled Modern Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology is an excellent book. The book contains 52 chapters, and eminent contributors have contributed a lot. The book also contains excellent colorful figures for easy understanding and self-learning. There was a long-felt need for a good textbook of this standard. The book deals with application of the principles and knowledge of medicine for the purpose of law, both civil and criminal. The common people believe that doctors are meant for treating patients. In addition to patient care, doctors are having the responsibilities to help the law enforcement authorities in handling legal matters. For this, medical students are to study Forensic Medicine as well as Toxicology. A doctor plays vital role in judgment delivery process as an important witness.
I hope, this book will fulfill long-felt need of both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as teachers in the subject of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.
UC Sarma mbbs (gau) md (bhu) msc in epidemiology (london university) pg training in epidemiology (london university)
Vice Chancellor, Srimanta Sankaradeva University of Health Sciences
Narakasur Hilltop, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, India
Former Director of Medical Education, Assam
The usage of Forensic/Legal Medicine (term used in Western Countries)of medical science is by the law enforcement authorities for investigating criminal cases to identify criminals, thereby maintaining the law and order in the society. Every branch of medical science needs to be utilized for bringing out the truth and proving actual crime beyond reasonable doubt. In fact, forensic medicine serves as the link between the society and legal system.
Since time immemorial, forensic medicine has been developing to reach the present stage. In modern-day society, criminals use more sophisticated tools to commit crimes unlike the olden days’ crimes committed by crude method. Apart from dealing with diseases, doctors often have to help the crime investigating authorities by providing information gathered during the treatment of victim and/or assailant and, at times have to depose in the Honorable Court about the case. Therefore, forensic medicine has been incorporated as a compulsory subject in the MBBS course.
Until Modi's Medical Judicature and Toxicology came out in 1920, books of forensic medicine written by foreign writers were followed in India. Subsequently, Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (1973) written by Dr KS Narayan Reddy has served the purpose. At present, many standard books by Indian authors are available in the market. However, with more than 38 years of experience in the subject, I believe that it is not possible to include all possible types of medicolegal cases in one book.
That is why, I feel immense pleasure for writing this Foreword. Dr Putul Mahanta, who has been one of my beloved students and now active and dedicated teacher of the specialty of forensic medicine, has taken pain to include maximum problems in the subject. I congratulate him.
I hope, this book will provide knowledge and information on forensic medicine and toxicology to the medical students, doctors, lawyers, investigators and law enforcement authorities, apart from fulfilling the mission of the author.
PC Sarmah dfm md (forensic medicine and toxicology) llb ficfmt fiafm
Professor and Head
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences
Gangtok, Sikkim, India
Formerly Head
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
Gauhati Medical College
Guwahati, Assam, India
Forensic Medicine is a vast and ever-challenging subject. It is a unique subject, where undergraduates, postgraduates and faculty alike have to keep pace with developments not only in medicine but also in law. Recent changes in Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994, Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 and several other laws have been so wide ranging that an informed commentary is necessary on them.
Similarly, on medicine front, a number of new technologies, especially covering DNA sciences, are coming up almost on a monthly basis. So much so that there are about 20 journals, are indexed by PubMed, dedicated to forensic medicine and toxicology alone. Moreover, even all of them combined are not able to include all information, with the result that much research relevant to forensic medicine are being published in journals dedicated to other specialties. One can imagine the daunting task a postgraduate student faces in keeping pace with these latest developments.
I have always felt that this country has lacked a genuine postgraduate book in forensic medicine, which provides the latest information in law and medicine to the overburdened postgraduate student. Thankfully, Dr Putul Mahanta, a senior faculty and a highly dedicated person in our profession, has taken up this challenge and has come out with just the right type of book that was always in my mind. Dr Mahanta, whom I know for more than a decade, has worked in foreign country on an advisory basis. He regularly updates himself with the latest knowledge in forensic medicine and toxicology by reading the latest journals and has put together all the latest materials in his book.
I have gone through the contents of this book and I am quite satisfied that it contains all relevant chapters. Dr Mahanta has taken care to put on board a number of medical and legal luminaries from across the country, so that the book could be enriched by their combined experience. I wholeheartedly recommend this book to all undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers and faculty members of forensic medicine. I wish Dr Mahanta good luck in his endeavor.
Anil Aggrawal md
Director and Professor
Department of Forensic Medicine
Maulana Azad Medical College
New Delhi, India
It gives me immense pleasure in writing the foreword of the Modern Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology edited by Dr Putul Mahanta. Dr Mahanta is known for his dedication to the field of forensic medicine, and I am overwhelmed at the hard work done by him in bringing out this book. He has been successful in inviting many renowned personalities of forensic medicine in India to write in this book and review the chapters.
I wish him all success in his endeavor and hope this book will prove very useful to undergraduate as well as postgraduate students of Forensic Medicine.
RK Gorea bsc md phd dnb
College of Medicine
Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University
Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia
Chief Adviser Indo-Pacific Academy of Forensic Odontology
President, Indo-Pacific Academy of Forensic Nursing Science
President, Society for Prevention of Injuries and Corporal Punishment
While I was pursuing my postgraduation, I felt the want of a good textbook on forensic medicine and toxicology with beautiful photographs, colorful illustrations, tables, flow charts and the valid references for faster and better comprehension. The problem prevailed when I joined the faculty as a member.
While I was abroad, I have seen many foreign books on our profession that have been written elaborately, explained with beautiful illustrations and flushed with plenty of high-resolution photographs. They also cite the references, which are essential for the readers to understand the source of the text.
Thus, the idea of writing a book, shaped in my mind, a decade ago.
This book has been aimed to cover the needs of undergraduate as well as the postgraduate students by following the whole curriculum as per Medical Council of India (MCI). I hope it would be useful not only for the students and the doctors working in rural hospitals who deal in the maximum number of medicolegal cases, but also for the faculty of our fraternity, besides students pursuing careers in Dentistry, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic professions.
The book contains 52 chapters along with a number of useful proforma as Annexures. A good number of new topics such as forensic osteology; forensic odontology; human rights, custodial torture and deaths; crime scene investigation and techniques in museum, have increased the depth and width of the book. All the text illustrations are updated with recent advancement on forensic medicine.
Special emphasis has been given to the upcoming concepts such as biomedical waste management, human experimentation, DNA profiling and related issues.
I sincerely hope this book will serve the intent and help the readers to learn the subject. All the positive critiques will be my strength for further improvement of this book.
Putul Mahanta
Writing any book is a mammoth job. It would not have been possible to write this book without the help and support of the distinguished people around me.
As many as 35 experts, both national and international, have contributed materials of the book, including some illustrations. I sincerely hope that these contributions will definitely benefit the readers. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof PC Sarmah, Prof RK Gorea, Prof Anil Aggrawal, Prof Sanjoy Das, Prof CB Jani, Prof TK Bose, Prof Mukesh Yadav, Prof R Chaliha, Prof HK Mahanta and Prof Manjula Bai KH.
Prof SI Barbhuiyan, Prof BC Roy Medhi, Prof Kailash Bhatta, Prof KC Das, Prof Rupak Gogoi, Dr Dilip Goswami and Dr PK Thakuria were my constant source of inspiration.
Dr Adarsh Kumar, Dr AJ Patowary, Dr Vijayanath V, Dr Prabir Kr Dev, Dr Gunajit Das, Dr Deepanjali Medhi, Dr Vijayamahantesh SN, Dr Asad U Khan, Dr Anil Garg, Dr Akash Deep Aggarwal, Dr Anku Moni Saikia, Dr Deepjyoti Kalita, Dr Kaustav Bairagi, Dr Chaithra V, Dr Sunit Kr Joshi, Dr Imran Sabri, Dr YN Singha, Dr Yogender Malik, Dr Anurupa Choudhury, Dr Pooja M Puri, Dr Madhab Ch Rajbongshi, Dr Shouvanik Adhya, Dr P Malik, and Dr Raktim Pratim Tamuli deserve my deepest gratitude for providing meliorate text materials, illustrations and photographs.
I especially thank Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys, pioneer of DNA fingerprinting, for allowing me to publish his First DNA fingerprints.
Detailed chapter reviews were accredited to help me establish the necessary changes required for the book, and I am extremely grateful to Prof Ajoy Kr Gupta of KPC Medical College, West Bengal, Prof NK Hazarika, Prof KL Talukdar and Prof Joydev Sarma, from Gauhati Medical College for reviewing Medical Law, Ethics and Medical Negligence; Food Poisoning, the Forensic Osteology chapters respectively.
I had to implore and borrow some of the photographs that appear in this book from my colleagues, and I am grateful to them for their support. They are acknowledged on the respective pages. I am extremely grateful to my colleagues Dr MK Singha, Dr Kanika K Barua, Dr SJ Deka, Dr Richa Pandey, Dr NM Kakati, Dr NK Das, Dr Arnab Pratim Baruah, Dr Nayan Moni Pathak, Dr Mrinal Haloi, Dr Arpan Mazumder, Dr (Mrs) Renuka Rongpharpi and Dr Dhritiman Nath for proofreading.
Dr Khanindra Mohan Soud, Dr SMI Kabir, Dr Mamata Devi Haloi, Dr Manoj Kr Baishya, Dr Ved Prakash Gupta, Dr Biswadeep Paul, Dr Arup Kr Das, Dr Gautam Nath, Dr Braja Gopal Das, Dr Aditya Madhab Baruah, Dr Debarshee Chakraborty, Dr Noor Jahan Ahmed, Dr Sainjalee Halflongbar, Dr Dipankar Thakuria, Dr Arunav Borah and Dr Smritimala Sarmah deserve special thanks for their persistent support and encouragement.
I am especially grateful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director) and Mr Tarun Duneja (Director-Publishing) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for their expertise in the shaping, collation and illustration 28of this book. I would like to pen down my extreme gratitude to Mr Himangshu Lahkar for his valued technical support.
Since the preparation of this book, my wife Manmi Das Mahanta has reviewed the legal aspects of various chapters and typed some of the texts with our son Jacinth throughout the year. Any large endeavor of this type cannot be completed without the support of family, and my family is of no exception. My wife, son and daughter Adriana deserve special mention. I thank them for their tolerance of my absences, physically and emotionally.