Essentials of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology Freny R Karjodkar
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table
A
Abberent calcifications in orofacial region, 514
Abrasion cavities in relation to
maxillary canine, 258f
premolars, 258f
Acetic acid, 85
Achondroplasia, 441
definition, 441
management, 441
Acoustic meatus, external, 162
Acquired anomalies, 240
of teeth, 257
abfraction, 259
abrasion, 258
attrition, 257
dental floss injury, 258
dentinal sclerosis, 261
erosion, 259
external resorption, 260
internal resorption, 259
secondary dentin, 261
toothbrush injury, 258
Acquired concrescence, 246
Acquisition configuration, 167
Actinomycotic osteomyelitis, 290
management, 290
Acute
apical
abscess, 274
management, 275
periodontitis, 273, 274
management, 274
dentoalveolar abscess, 275, 336
management, 275
gingivitis, 233
infections of periapical tissues, 273
leukemia, 415
periapical abscess, 275f
radiation syndrome, 33, 34t
signs, general effect of, 32
subperiosteal osteomyelitis, 287
management, 287
suppurative osteomyelitis, 286
ulcerative gingivitis, 233
Adamantinoma, 345
Adamantoblastoma, 345
Addison’s disease, 301
definition, 301
management, 301
Adenoameloblastoma, 352
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, 327, 336, 352, 353f, 363, 374, 496f
classification, 352
definition, 352
management, 353
Adipose tissue origin, 344
Adotomes embryolastiques, 345
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone, 301
Advanced
interproximal caries, 219
occlusal lesion in mandibular molar, 222f
African jaw lymphoma See Burkitt’s lymphoma
Age determination from cementum annulation, 612
Agenesis of condyle, 454, 456f
definition, 454
management, 454
Aggressive ossifying fibroma, 429
Agranulocytic angina, 312
Agranulocytopenia, 312
definition, 312
management, 313
Agranulocytosis, 312
secondary, 312
Alara principle, 35
Albers-Schönberg disease, 268, 437
Aleukemia cell, 415
Alpha thalassemia, 311
Aluminum
chloride, 85
disc, 22
sulfate, 85
Alveolar
artery, posterior superior, 587
bone, determine long axis of, 586
crest, 201
nerve from mandibular foramen to mental foramen, path of inferior, 591f
process
definition, fractures of, 535
fractures of, 526, 535
management, fractures of, 536
ridge
in CBCT cross-sections, 583f
invasive carcinoma of, 397f
Ameloblastic
fibroadenoma, 328, 369f
fibroma, 368, 368f, 369
definition, 368
management, 368
fibro-odontoma, 352, 368, 369
definition, 368
management, 369
odontoma, 369
definition, 369
management, 369
Ameloblastoma, 216, 299, 320, 331, 339, 341, 345, 346, 348f, 349, 353, 361, 368, 370, 384, 386, 391, 418, 431
classification of, 349t
definition, 345
Amelogenesis imperfect, abnormalities in structure, 251
American Joint Committee, 565
Ammonium thiosulfate, 85
Amorphorous calcifications, 436f
Amputation neuroma, 386
Analog imaging modalities, 574
Analysis of intraosseous lesions, 214
Anemia, 313
Aneurysmal bone cyst, 299, 339341, 370, 384, 391, 428, 431
definition, 339
management, 342
Aneurysmal varix, 385
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, 243
Ankylosis, 468
complete, 468
definition, 468
false, 468, 474
management, 471
of right TMJ, 469f
spondylitis, 464
definition, 464
management, 464
Anodontia, 242, 243
Anomalies
developmental, 240
of teeth, developmental, 241
Antaral polyps
axial, 490f
coronal, 490f
sagittal views, 490f
Anterior
alveolar cyst, 337
definition, 337
management, 337
disc displacement
position with complete, 472f
with effusion, 466f
without reduction and crumpled disc, 472f
displacement, 473
loop traced and determined on cone beam computed tomography, 595f
midline oblique lower occlusal technique, 604f
nasal spine, 163, 204, 204f
palatine foramen, 202
Anterolateral portion of left maxilla, 355f
Anteromedial displacement, 473
Anthrolith in sinus, 510f
Antibiotics, 292
Anti-Koch’s therapy, 455f
Antral
loculation, 495
papilloma See Epithelial papilloma
polyp, 490
pseudocyst, 487
Antroliths, 500, 510
calcifications, 489
Antrum of highmore See Maxillary sinus, anatomy of
Apical
ends of teeth cut off, 55f
infection, 304
periodontal cyst, 280, 328
radicular cyst, 495
rarefying osteitis, 413
Apparent micrognathia, 264
Arachnodactyly, 440
Arterial calcification, 506
Arteriosclerosis See Monckerberg’s medial calcinosis
Arteriovenous fistula, 385
definition, 385
management, 386
Arthritic conditions, 458
Arthrography, 448
Arthroscopy, 449
advantages, 449
Arthrosis deformans juvenilis, 456
Articular
eminence, 162
loose bodies, 464
tubercle, 162
Articulate tubercule, 443
Artifacts, 178f, 179f
Aspergillosis, 493
Atherosclerotic plaque
calcified, 506
definition, calcified, 506
management, calcified, 506
Atom, 11
Atomic weight, 11
Auditory
canals, external, 141
meatus, external, 162
Auspitz’s sign, 463
Autoimmune
sialadenitis, 559
definition, 559
management, 560
sialosis, 559
Automatic processor
component parts of, 91f
placement of films in, 91f
Autopsy, digital, 616
AV malformations, calcifications in, 509f
Avulsion, 519f, 520
definition, 520
management, 521
B
Bacterial sialadenitis, 558
Basal cell nevus
bifid rib syndrome, 320
syndrome, 320
definition, 320, 322
management, 322
Basic
in interpreting radiographs, 199, 212
principle of occlusal views, 116
pulse sequences, 152
Beam hardening, 180
Benign
ameloblastoma, 395
autosomal dominant, 438
cementoblastoma, 357, 358, 359f, 377, 381
definition, 358
management, 359
cyst of antrum, 487
giant cell tumor, 304
lymphoepithelial lesion, 559
mixed tumor, 563
mucous cyst, 487
neoplasms, 489
neural tumors, 387
odontogenic
cysts, 494
tumors, 320, 494
tumors, 331, 474, 561
definition, 474, 561
introduction, 343
malignancy, 491
malignant tumors, 474
management, 474, 563
of jaws, 343
classification of, 343, 343t
Benzotriazole, 84
Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 310
Beta thalassemia, 311
Bifid condyle, 456f
Bifid condyle See Double condyle
Bilateral
blockage of Wharton’s duct, 338
condylar fracture, 537f
hypoplasia, case of, 454
TMJ ankylosis, 470f
Binder’s syndrome, 484
Biological tissue
acute exposure, action of, 31
chronic exposure, action of, 31
direct, action of, 29
effect
cellular levels, action of, 30
on cell kinetics, action of, 30
genetic damage, action of, 31
indirect action, action of, 29
long-term effects, action of, 31
short-term effects, action of, 31
stomatic damage, action of, 31
Biology
deterministic effect, 29
radiation effects, 29
stochastic effect, 29
Bisecting angle technique
advantage of, 110
disadvantages of, 110
Bite
film, 72
wing
films, 72
projection, 115f
radiograph of molar region, 115f
technique bony out growths, 116
edentulous spaces, 116
indications film holder and bite wing tab, 114
indications film, 114
indications principles, 114
modifications in, 116
Black
dot in apical area and crowns of teeth partially cut off, 61f
light UV rays, 14
Blast cell leukemia See also Stem cell leukemia
Blood, 143
disorders, 309, 310t
pool, 423f
Blow-out fracture, 500
Blue domed cyst, 324
Blurred image on radiograph, 61f
Body mandible region with expansion of inferior border of mandible, 424f
Boeing’s arthrosis, 456
Bohn’s nodules, 323
Bone, 143, 359
availability of, 583t
cyst, simple, 391, 417
density measurement, 583
dimensions, 580
for implant planning by Chanavaz, classification of, 581t
height available for implant
planning, classification of, 581t
classification of, 581t
disappearing, 442
forming tumors, 513
fracture of, 516
fractured, limitations of radiographic interpretation of, 517
height
assessment of, 582f
determine, 580
lesions, other, 435
loss around implant, complete, 598f
manifested in jaws, diseases of, 419
marrow, 32
marrow syndrome, 34
quality, 147t
determine, 581
remodeling of, 148
scan, 143
scintigraphy, 142f
tissue origin, 344
volume classifies, 583t
width
assessment of, 582f
determine, 580
Bony
ankylosis, 468, 471
growths, 110
landmarks of
mandible and surrounding structures, 163
maxilla and surrounding structures, 162
Botryoid odontogenic cyst, 323
Brain and nervous system cancers, 31
Braking radiation, 25
Branchial cleft cyst, 338
Bremsstrahlung radiation, 25
Brittle bone, 439
disease, 254
Browns tumor, 298, 299
of hyperparathyroidism, 391
B-scans, types of, 144
Buccal bifurcation cyst, 332
definition, 332
management, 332
Burkitt’s lymphoma, 414
definition, 414
management, 415
Bush in winter appearance, 550
C
Café au lait spots See also Skin
Caffey’s disease, 290, 437
Caffey-Silverman syndrome, 437
Calcified mixed odontoma, 370
Calcifying
crown, 357
epithelial odontogenic cyst, 327
definition, 327
management, 328
epithelial odontogenic tumor, 328, 351f, 353, 363, 374
definition, 350
fibrous epulis, 367
odontogenic cyst, 352, 363
Calcinosis, 514
Calcinosis See also Idiopathic calcification
Calcium
metabolism disorders, 305, 306f
definition, 305
pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, 465
Calculi, sialographic appearances of, 551
Caldwell’s projection, 124
Caldwell’s posteroanterior, 483
Caldwell-Luc operation, 491
Callus formation, 437
Cancellous
bone, 201
osteoma, 378, 379
Canine
fossa, 203
region, 604f
Capsular
ligament, 444
pain, 480
Capsulitis, 480
Capsulitis See also Capsular pain
Carbohydrate metabolism, disturbances in, 303
Carcinoma
arising in dental cyst, 396
ex-mixed tumor, 567
ex-pleomorphic adenoma, 567
ex-mixed tumor, 567
ex-odontogenic cyst, 396
maxilla, 400f
of alveolar ridge, 398f
of maxilla, 399f
of right maxilla, 398f
Cardiovascular and central nervous system syndrome, 34
Caries
buccal, 220f
in mandibular
first molar, secondary, 222f
premolar, 222f
occlusal, 220f
proximal, 220f
representation of, 220f
root surface, 220f
secondary, 220f
Carotid
artery, 144
aneursyms, 144
sheath, 144
Carpal ossifications in boys and girls, appearance of, 615f
Cataracts, 31
Cavitary sialectases, 560
CBCT
advantages of, 177
applications in
implant site assessment, 173f
TMJ assessment, 172f
cross-sectional view peri implantitis, 597f
imaging, limitations of, 178
in implant planning, applications of, 580
system of
large field of view, 169f
small field of view, 168f
CCD See Cleidocranial dysplasia
CCD sensor, 193f
Cell
kinetics
death, effect on, 30
mitotic delay, effect on, 30
recovery, effect on, 30
sarcoma
management, primary reticular, 414
primary reticular, 414
types, 415
Cellular levels
cell cytoplasm, 30
chromosomes, 30
nucleus, 30
Cellulitis, 275, 338
axial CT depicting, 276f
management, 276
Cemental caries, 222
Cementifying
and ossifying fibroma in
early stage, 357
late stage, 357
fibroma, 359
Cementoblastoma, 328, 357, 358, 359
Cementoenamel junction, 232
and furcation, 247f
of adjacent teeth, 201
Cementoma, 356, 434
definition, 356
Cemento-ossifying fibroma, 359361, 362, 363
definition, 359
management, 363
Cementosseous dysplasia, 436f
Cementum, 367
Cemeticles, 356
Central giant cell granuloma, 395, 418, 428, 431, 431f
chronic hemorrhagic osteomyelitis, 431
giant cell
reparative granuloma, 431
tumor, 431
myeloid sarcoma, 431
osteoclastoma, 431
Central
hemangioma, 431
malignancy, 402f
mandible, 395
mucoepidermoid
carcinoma, 417
definition, 417
management, 418
tumor, 395
squamous cell carcinoma, 395, 413
trabeculae, loss of, 298
Cephalometeric
radiography 567
advantages, 576
disadvantages, 577
X-ray machine, 137, 139
Cephalometry, 612
Cervical burn out, 62f, 200, 223, 224f
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, 238
Chemical fog, 52
intensification of radiographs, 85
Cherubism, 299, 304, 322, 341, 370, 384, 391, 414, 417, 429, 430f, 437
classification, 430
definition, 429
management, 431
Chin rest, consists of, 156
Chloroma, 415
Chondroblastoma, 378
definition, 378
Chondrocalcinosis, 465
definition, 465
management, 465
Chondrodystrophia
calcificans congenita, 508, 557
fetalis See Achondroplasia
Chondroectodermal dysplasia, 270
definition, 270
Chondrogenic sarcoma See Chondrosarcoma
Chondroma, 377, 434, 476f
definition, 377
management, 378
Chondromasarcoma, 363
Chondrosarcoma, 368, 378, 379, 404, 406, 406f, 411, 428, 434
management, 407
Chronic
adrenal insufficiency of adrenal cortex, 301
alveolar abscess, 278, 278f
management, 279
apical periodontitis, 277, 277f
management, 278
bacterial infections, 559
management, 559
focal sclerosing osteomyelitis, 359
gingivitis, 233
hemorrhagic osteomyelitis, 389
infections of periapical tissues, 277
inflammation of lining of maxillary sinus, 491f
leukemia, 415
mandibular hypomobility, 449
osteitis, 428
osteomyelitis, 285f, 428, 434
angle of mandible and condyle of, 284f
of body of mandible, 284f
sclerosing osteomyelitis, 364, 365, 435
sialadenitis, 558f
signs, general effect of, 32
sinusitis, 486f
subperiosteal osteomyelitis, 289
suppurative osteomyelitis, 288
ulcers, 393
Chronologic age, 606
Cirsoid aneurysm, 385
Civilian type fractures, 535
Clear cell odontogenic
carcinoma See also Clear cell odontogenic tumor
tumor, 397
definition, 397
management, 397
Cleft palate, 265f
Cleidocranial dysostosis, 243f, 266, 267
definition, 266
management, 268
Cleidocranial dysplasia, 266
Coagulation, disorders of, 310
Codman’s
triangle, 409, 411
tumor, 378
Coin test for unsafe light illumination, 87f
Collimation, 80
of beam, 39
Collimators, types of, 80
Complex
composite odontoma, 370
odontoma, 370
Compound
composite odontoma, 370
odontoma, 370
complex and, 373
Compton absorption, 18f
Computed tomography
advantages, 578
disadvantages, 579
Concussion, 517
definition, 517
management, 518
Condenser chamber, 17
Condensing osteitis, 280f, 281, 288, 358
Condylar
hyperplasia, 449, 453f
definition, 449
hypoplasia, 452
definition, 452
management, 454
of left condyle, 453f
movement, 446
tumor, 471
Condyle
level, coronal view, 187f
panoramic radiograph absence of, 456f
Cone beam
computed tomography, 7, 120, 121f, 166, 579
image acquisition, 166f
effect, 180
machines, 167f
related artifacts, 180
Conical PID, 22
Connective tissue origin, 344
Continuous spectrum, 15
Continuous ultrasound, 144
Contralateral orbit, centered over TMJ of interest, 135f
Contrast and density, relationship between, 50
Contrast media, types of, 548t
Conventional tomography, 146, 577
advantages, 577
disadvantages, 578
Cooley’s anemia, 311
Cordless sensor, 193f
Coronal section
fracture of right parasymphysis region, 543f
involvement of sinus and orbits, 528f
Coronoid
fractures, 539
definition, 539
hyperplasia, 457, 457f
definition, 457
management, 458
notch, 163, 164
process, 163, 164
level, coronal view, 187f
tumors, 474
Correct horizontal angulation, 108f
Correct vertical angulations, 107
Cortical hyperostosis, 437, 441
definition, 441
management, 442
Cosmic rays, 14
Crack, infraction of, 521
Cranio-cleido-dysostosis, 266
Craniofacial
disjunction LeFort III, 531
definition, 531
management, 532
dysostosis, 268
definition, 268
fibrous dysplasia, 427, 497
definition, 497
Craniopharyngioma See also Tumors, presence of
Crestal bone, 574
Cretinism, 296
and juvenile myxedema, 296, 297
Crouzon’s
disease, 268
syndrome, 268, 484
Crown
and horizontal root fracture, 521f
and root fractures, 524
definition, 524
management, 524
infraction of, 521
meets roots, 109
Crystalline calcium tungstate, 76
CT angiography, 149
CT scanners
classification of, 148t
mechanical geometry of, 146f
Curvature of palate, 99
Curved planar reformation, 172f
Cushing’s
disease, 301
syndrome, 301
definition, 301
management, 301
Cutaneous abnormalities, 321
Cyclic
neutropenia, 313
definition, 313
management, 313
Cyst, 487
management, 488
Cystic
ameloblastoma, 327
cavities in jaws, 349
compound odontoma, 374
hygroma, 338
lesions, 561
definition, 561
management, 561
odontoma, 370
Cysticerci, 505
Cysticercosis, 505
definition, 505
management, 505
Cysts of
jaws, 315
classification of, 315, 315t
soft tissues of face and neck, 337
D
Dark
flow marks, 67f
radiograph, 63f
Darkroom, 85
Day light method, 92
Deciduous teeth, development of, 607f
Degenerative joint disease, 449, 459, 462
Dens
bone island, 376
evaginatus, 249
in dente, 248
invaginatus, 248
Density of object, 601
Dental
anomalies, 240
classification of, 240t
applications of lasers, 14
caries, 219
comparison, 600
conditions associated with periodontal diseases, 237
crown fracture, 521
definition, 521
management, 522
cyst, 428
cyst See also Periapical cyst
infected, 396
diagnostic radiations, 31
fragments, 616
identification, comparative, 600
implant
fixtures, 617t
on radiographs, identification of, 618
lamina cyst, 323
of newborn, 323
panoramic radiograph, systemic sequence for viewing, 214
radiology in forensic odontology,
role of, 600
root
end cyst, 280
fracture, 522
definition, 522
management, 523
skiagrams, 4
X-ray
film, 73
machine aluminum discs, 21
discsadded filtration, 21
discsinherent filtration, 21
machine, 20
circuit, 24f
control panel, 20
extension arm, 20, 21
lead collimator, 21
position indicating device, 21
tube head, 20
insulating oil, 20
metal housing, 20
seal, 21
occurs in X-ray tube, production of, 25f
production of, 25
tube head, 20f
Dentascan imaging, 149
advantages, 150
indications, 149
limitations, 150
Dentigerous cyst, 316, 320, 322, 323, 325f, 326f, 327, 332, 352, 353, 386, 495
multiple, 431
with mesodents, 334
Dentin dysplasia, 255, 256f
Dentinogenesis
imperfect
abnormalities in structure, 254
types of, 254
imperfecta, 256
Dentinoma, 355
definition, 355
management, 356
Dentoalveolar, 168
abscess, 280f
Dentsply XiVE implant, 617
Deposits of metallic silver, 84
Dermoid cyst, 337
definition, 337
types, 337
lateral variety, 337
management, 338
median variety, 337
Desmoplastic fibroma
central, 367
of bone, 377
definition, 377
management, 377
Detection of periodontal diseases, 230
Detective quantum efficiency, 54
Developing
odontoma, 369
tooth crypt of supernumerary tooth near roots of premolar, 200f
DEXA See Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
Diabetes
insipidus, 301
mellitus, 238, 300
definition, 300
management, 301
Diaphragm collimator, 80, 81f
Diffuse
cementosis, 283
sclerosing osteomyelitis, 289
Digital
detector characteristics, 193
electronic dosimeter, 42, 43f
imaging, 193t
systems, size for, 193
impressions, 268
method, 107
radiography, 192
system, 92
subtraction radiography, 196
technique, 196
volumetric tomography, 166
Digitized processing method, 92
Dilacerated
mandibular premolar root, 248
mesiodens, 248
roots of
mandibular second molar, 248
maxillary premolars, 248
Dilaceration, 241, 247, 248
Dilated
odontoma, 374
odontome, 241, 248
Direct
exposure films, 72
volume rendering, 174
Disc
fully displaced, 444f
partially displaced, 444f
perforations, 474
reduction, 473
Disease
causing bone destruction, 306
of adrenal gland, 293
other, 497
Dislocation, 467
definition, 467
management, 467
Distant metastasis, 567
Distortion, 53, 59f
object-film alignment, 53
of metallic structures, 179f
X-ray beam angulation, 53
DJD See Degenerative joint disease
DNA profiling, 601
Dosimeter placement, 42
Dosimetry, 36
Double
center of rotation, machines, 155f
condyle, 454
definition, 454
management, 456
oblique, 174f
Down’s
syndrome, 238, 300, 440
definition, 440
Drug induced disorders, 476
treatment, 478
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 437
Ductal sialadenitis See Sialodochitis
Duplicating film, 77
Dwarfism, 294, 295
Dystrophic calcification of oral regions, 503
E
Eagle’s syndrome, 511
Ear, 165f
Early acute suppurative osteomyelitis, 286
Early on-set periodontitis, 237
Ecchondroma, 378
Ectodermal dysplasia, 244f, 245f
Edentulous ridge, 113
Effusion, 466
definition, 466
management, 466
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 318
Electric waves, 12
Electromagnetic
radiations, properties of, 12
spectrum, 12
Elevator muscles, 477
Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome, 270
Ely cysts, 460
Empyema, 487
definition, 487
Enamel
caps on all teeth except on third molars, loss of, 255f
drop, 250
nodule, 250, 345
pearl, 250, 252f
Enameloma, 250, 345
Enchondroma, 378
Encroachment into naso palatine canal, complications due to, 590f
Endocrinal disorders, 293
classification of, 293t
Endocrine disease, 300
Endodontia, 168
Endodontics, 112, 181
Endo-perio lesion, 235f
Endothelial myeloma, 411
Enostosis, 374, 376, 379
definition, 376
management, 377
multiple, 435
Eosinophilic granuloma, 238, 303, 304, 411
Epidermoid
carcinoma, 397
cell carcinoma, 396
Epithelial
odontoma, 345
papilloma definition, 491
papilloma, 491
tumors, 562
Epstein’s pearls, 323
Eriodontal abscess, 332
Eripheral fibroma with calcification, 411
Erosion cavity, 223
Eruption
abnormalities in, 251
cyst, 327
definition, 327
embedded, abnormalities in, 251
hematoma, 327
premature eruption, abnormalities in, 251
transposition, abnormalities in, 251
Erythema
dose, 36
multiforme, 313
Erythroblastic anemia, 311
Erythroblastosis fetalis, 309
Esophageal cancer, 31
Established suppurative osteomyelitis, 286
Evaginated odontome, 249
Ewing’s sarcoma, 290, 411, 413
definition, 411, 412
management, 412
Exocrine glands, 545
Exophytic squamous cell carcinoma, 404
Exostosis, 376
definition, 376
management, 376
External
auditory meatus, 162
resorption of tooth, causes of, 218t
Extra-articular See False ankylosis
Extraductal causes, 508
Extraoral
films, 75
radiographic technique, 122
drawbacks, 122
important parametres, 122
indications, 122
required equipment, 123
procedure, 123
radiographs, 199
source of radiation, 154
Extrinsic diseases maxillary sinus, 494
Extrinsic trauma, 449
F
Facial
bones for evidence of trauma, 138
caries on labial aspect of central incisor, 222
clefts, 264
definition, 264
clefts management, 265
hemiatrophy, 265
definition, 265
management, 266
structures, classification of, 516
Failing endosseous implants, radiographic signs associated with, 597t
False cyst, 487
Familial
fibrous dysplasia of jaws, 429
hypophosphatemia, 308
multilocular cystic disease of jaws, 429
multiple
cementomas, 364, 435
polyposis, 379
Father of radiation protection, 5
Fat-soluble vitamins, 303
Faulty radiographs, 55
causes of, 55
Ferric sulfate, 18
Fibroadamantoblastoma, 368
Fibroblasts cell, 32
Fibrocementoma, 356, 434
Fibroinflammatory pseudotumor, 493
Fibroma
cementifying, 428, 434, 435
cementossifying, 435
ossifying, 411, 428, 434, 435, 436f, 498
Fibromatosis, aggressive, 377
Fibromyxoma, 369
Fibro-osseous lesion See also Ossifying fibroma
Fibro-osseous lesions, 216, 282
Fibrosarcoma, 377, 396, 405, 411
definition, 405
management, 405
Fibrosseous
diseases of jaws, 419
classification of, 420t
lesions of
medullary bone origin, 420
periodontal origin, 420
Fibrous ankylosis, 468, 471
Fibrous dysplasia, 290, 328, 339, 357, 363, 374, 378, 379, 407, 411, 419, 420f, 421f, 420-424f, 426f, 431, 434, 437
classification of, 427t
clinical types, 419
definition, 419
lateral cephalogram, 426f
of bone, 343
panoramic view, 426f
Filament circuit, 24
Film
cassettes, 156f
holder, 74, 99
advantages of, 74
bite block, 74
blade type, 74
disadvantages of, 74
positioning indicating device, 74
holding devices, 40
illuminator, 81, 81f
of occlusal views, 116
placement
for molars, 115f
for premolars, 115f
long cone paralleling technique, 100105
short cone bisecting angle technique, 100105
technique, 103
processing
developer solution, 84
solutions, 84
protection and storage, 77
type of, 48
classification
extraoral films, 71
intraoral films, 71
Filter
material, requirements of, 80
type of, 86
Filtration, 79
of beam, 79
Finger holding method, 107
Fixed postmitotic cells, 32
Flat panel detectors, 194
Flexible cassette, 156f
Floor of
mandible level, axial view, 190f
nasal cavity, 204, 204f
Florid
cemeto-osseous dysplasia, 364, 435
osseous dysplasia 364, 365, 435, 435f
definition, 364
management, 365
Flow-rate studies, 554
Fluorescence, 17, 19
Fluorescent materials, 17
Fluoride toxicity See Skeletal fluorosis
Focal
sclerosing osteomyelitis, 288
management, 289
spot
film distance, 38
size of, 51
Follicular
cyst, 352
primordial cyst, developmental, 327
space, calcifications in, 514f
Folliculitis, 292
management, 292
Forensic
application of multisliced computed tomography, limitations of, 618
odontology introduction, 600
Four basic constituents of CBCT, 167
Fracture, 468
after trauma, multiple, 529f
complicated, 521
interpretation of middle third, 524
LeFort I
definition, horizontal, 530
management, horizontal, 530
of central incisior, 522f
of lateral wall of sinus, 498f
of mandible
left angle, 542f
radiographic differential diagnosis of, 542
of right zygomatic bone, 533f
of root, horizontal, 523f
of walls of sinus, 528f
of zygomatic arch, 533f
uncomplicated, 521
Frame rate and speed of rotation, 169
Franceschetti syndrome, 269, 269f
Frankly
osteoblastic type, 411
osteolytic type, 409
Free induction decay, 151
Frickle dosimeter, 18
Frontal
sinus level, axial view, 188f
TM joint projection, 135
Function of picture element, 193
Fusion, 241, 245f
synodontia, 245
G
Gagging, problems of, 112
Gallium, 143
Gamma rays, 14
Gardener’s syndrome, 379
definition, 379
management, 381
Garré’s osteomyelitis, 289, 381
Gas bubble, 508, 557
Gastrointestinal syndrome, 34
Gaucher’s disease, 305, 417
definition, 305
management, 305
Geiger Muller counter, 17
Gelatin matrix, 72
Gemination, 246, 246f
Genetic syndromes, 300
Genial tubercles, 164, 208f, 375f, 592
cone beam computed tomography, 596f
Geometric unsharpness, 50, 51
Gestant odontome, 248
Ghost images, 157, 158
Giant cell
epulis, 388
granuloma, 320, 336, 341, 350, 367, 368, 431
central, 299, 339, 370, 384, 388, 390, 391
definition, central, 389
lesion of
central, 392f
hyperparathyroidism, 384, 429, 431, 434
hyperthyroidism, 341, 370
reparative granuloma, 389
tumor, 388, 389, 391
central, 392
definition, 388
management, 388
of hyperparathyroidism, 392
Giant osteoid osteoma See Osteoblastoma
Gigantiform cementoma, 364, 435
Gigantism, 294
Gingival cyst of adult, 322
definition, 322, 323
management, 323
Gingivitis, 232
acute, 232
chronic, 232
periodontitis, 233
Ginglymoarthrodial type of joint, 443
Glandular odontogenic cyst, 323
Glanzmann’s thromb-asthenia, 310
Glenoid fossa, 162, 443
Globulomaxillary cyst, 316, 322, 335, 335f
definition, 335
management, 336
Glomus tumor, 343
Glossopharyngeal airspace, 164, 165f
Glutaraldehyde, 84
Gonads, disease of, 293
Gorham syndrome, 442
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, 318, 320, 321f
Gorlin’s cyst, 327
Gout, 465
acute gouty arthritis, 465
chronic tophaceous, 465
definition, 465
management, 466
Grainy appearance, 68f
Granular
appearance of bone, 298
cell ameloblastic
fibroma, 368
of tongue, 343
Granulocytopenia, 312
Granulomas See also Periapical cysts
Grave’s disease, 296
Green stick fracture, 542
Grewcock approach, 133
Grid controlled focusing cups, 22
Grids, types of, 78
Growth of dental radiology, 5
H
Hamartoma, 343
Hamular process, 206
Hamulus, 163, 206
Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, 302, 304
Hard
palate, 163
tissue of TMJ, 184f
Harvold’s
analysis, linear measurements in, 614f
standard values, 614t
Head for
lateral of facial bones with tube vertical, position of, 603f
occipitomental routinely taken for sinuses, position of, 605f
Healing
cysts, 316
in fractures, radiographic monitoring of, 544
scar, 280f
Healthy periodontium, 232
Heart, 143
Helical
CT, principles of, 148f
or spiral CT, 148
Hemangioma, 343, 378, 382, 383f, 386, 389, 565
arterial, 384
cavernous, 383
central, 299, 341, 370, 391
hemangioma, 382
definition, 382, 565
management, 565
port-wine stain, 383
Salmon’s patch, 383
strawberry angioma, 383
Hematogenous infections, 273
Hemifacial microstomia, 265
Hemoglobin
Bart disease, 311
H disease, 311
Hemolytic anemia, 312
Hemorrhagic bone cyst, 338
Hereditary
disease of newborn, 309
fibrous dysplasia of jaws, 429
hemorrhagic telangiectasia, 384
opalescent dentin, 254
spherocytosis, 312
definition, 312
management, 312
Herring-bone effect, 60f
Hertzian waves, 12
Heterogenous radiopaque mass in condylar region, 504f
Heterozygous type, 310
High
atomic number, 23
contrast, 63f
density film, 63f
fractures of condylar necks, 136
grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 567
KVP, use of, 39
melting point, 23
voltage circuit, 24
Histiocytosis X, 302, 321, 417
Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 412
definition, 412
management, 413
Homozygous type, 310
Honey comb appearance, 409
Horizontal
angulations, 107, 115
bone loss, 234f
Human disease, 142
Hurler’s syndrome, 305
definition, 305
management, 305
Hutchinson’s teeth, 257
Hydroquinone, 84
Hyoid bone, 164, 508, 557
Hypercementosis, 262, 281, 357, 377
Hypergonadism, 302
Hyperkeratosis, 238
Hyperostosis, 376
on left postalveolar ridge 283f
Hyperparathyroidism, 298, 417
definition, 298
management, 299
multilocular, 299
types, 298
ectopic hyperparathyroidism, 298
primary hyperparathyroidism, 298
secondary hyperparathyroidism, 298
tertiary hyperparathyroidism, 298
unilocular, 299
Hyperpituitarism, 293
definition, 293
management, 294
Hyperplasia, 343
of coronoid process, 266
of maxillary tuberosity, 266
management, 266
Hyperplastic follicle, 327, 368
Hyperthyroidism, 295, 296f
definition, 295
Hypertrophy, 343
of maxillary tuberosity, 266f
Hypervitaminosis A, 307
definition, 307
Hypocalcified type, abnormalities in structure, 253
Hypodontia, 242, 243f
Hypogonadism, 302
menopause, 302
pregnancy, 302
Hypomaturation
hypocalcified type, abnormalities in structure, 254
type, abnormalities in structure, 253
Hypoparathyroidism, 299
definition, 299
management, 300
Hypophosphatasia, 305
definition, 305
management, 306
Hypophosphatemia, 238, 308
Hypophosphatemic rickets, 308
Hypopituitarism, 294
definition, 294
management, 295
Hypoplasia of enamel, 223
Hypoplastic type, abnormalities in structure, 252
Hypothyroidism, 297f
definition, 296
Hypovitaminosis, 437
I
Idiopathic
calcification, 503, 506
histiocytosis, 302
hypercalcemia, 439
Impacted third molars, 171
Implant
placement status, determine post, 594
planning, important anatomical landmarks for, 586t
radiology, 573
Incipient occlusal
caries, 220
lesion, 221
in mandibular molar, 221f
Incisal edges of teeth, 109f
Incisal-occlusal surface, 55
Incisive canal, 163
and canine level, coronal view, 186f
cyst, 333, 334
foramen, 163, 202
fossa, 203, 334
Inconsistent bony margins, 236
Incorrect horizontal angulation, 108f
Indirect
digital imaging, 192
volume rendering, 174
Infantile
cortical hyperostosis, 290, 437, 438
definition, 437
osteomyelitis, 283
Infections
and inflammatory lesions, 273
of periapical tissues, 273
Infective arthritis See Septic arthritis
Inferior
alveolar
canal, 164
nerve, 215
border of mandible, 164, 212f
nasal conchae, 204, 205f
orbital foramen level, axial view, 188f
turbinates, 204f
Inflammatory
collateral dental cyst, 332
disease, 484, 494
hyperplasia, 368
joint
disease, 449
disorders, 461
pseudotumor, 493
Infracranial technique, 134
Infraorbital foramen, 162
Infrared waves, 12
Inherited prognathism, 294
Intensity of illumination, 86
Interaction of X-rays with matter, effect of, 16, 17f
Intermaxillary suture, 203, 203f
Internal
derangements definition, 471
oblique
line, 210
ridge, 164, 210f
resorption, 260f
Interpreting panoramic image, 161
Interproximal
crater, 235
hemisepta, 236
Interstitial
cyst, 487
silver ions, 82
Intra-alveolar
carcinoma, 395
cyst, 335
Intracapsular fractures of TMJ, 136
Intraoral
film, 72
representation of various, 72f
speed, 72
localization techniques indications, 119
method, 119, 120
right angle technique, 120
localization techniques, 119
occlusal films, 72
periapical films, 72
radiographic techniques, 97
radiography
bite wing, 97
occlusal, 97
periapical, 97
types of, 97
source of radiation, 154
X-ray packet, contents of, 73f
Intraosseous carcinoma
primary, 405
secondary, 405
Intrinsic
diseases involving maxillary sinus, 484
tumors, sialographic appearances of, 551
Intruded teeth, 520
Intrusion, 519f
of maxillary central incisor, 519f
Invasive fungal sinusitis, 493
Iodine, 143
Ionization chamber, 17
Ionizing
capability, 19
radiation, physics of, 9
Ions, 11
Irregular destructive lesion, 371f
Isolated fracture, 500
definition, 500
Ivory osteoma, 378, 379
J
Jaw
bones, developmental abnormalities of, 240f
boundaries, determine, 592
classification of, 419t
cyst, 320
developmental disturbances of, 264
jerk reflex, 445
opening reflex, 445
JCA See Juvenile chronic arthritis
Joint
components, union of, 468
growth disorders of, 449
inflammation, 448
like junctions, 511
Jug handle view, 132, 132f
Juvenile
arthrosis, 456
definition, 456
management, 457
chronic arthritis, 462
definition, 462
management, 463
fibrous dysplasia, disseminated, 429
myxedema, 296
ossifying fibroma, 429, 429f
definition, 429
management, 429
periodontitis, 237
rheumatoid arthritis, 462
K
KCOT, types of, 319
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor, 318
Kinetic energy, 25, 83
Klestadt’s cyst, 336
Klinefelter’s syndrome, 300
Kodak film, 193f
Kruger’s general classification, 535
Krypton, 143
L
Lamina dura, 200, 201f
loss of, 329f
Langerhans’
cell, 302
disease, 302
histiocytosis, 238, 287, 302, 332
category of, 302
definition, 302
histiocytosis, 413
Laryngeal cartilage calcifications, 510
definition, 510
management, 510
LASER, 14
Laskin’s four cardinal signs, 477
Latent bone cyst, 270
Lateral
cephalogram, 137, 137f, 433f
soft tissue swelling, 563f
upper right third molar present within maxillary sinus, 498f
dentigerous cyst, 335
fossa, 203
maxillary occlusal views, 500
oblique anterior body of mandible, 128
central ray, 128
film placement, 128
structures shown, 128
oblique posterior body of mandible, 129
central ray, 129
film placement, 129
structures shown, 129
oblique projection
for posterior body of mandible, 129f
of body of mandible, 129f
oblique
ramus of mandible, 130
right side fracture of mandibular ramus, 540f
periodontal abscess, 322
periodontal cyst, 322f, 335
definition, 322
developmental, 322
inflammatory, 322
management, 322
pterygoid plate, 162
radicular cyst, 322
skull
calcification foci in pharynx, 509f
three curved zones, 527f
view of nose fracture of nasal bones, 532f
Le masters technique, 113, 114f
Lead
apron, 41f
artifact, 157, 159f
intensifying screens, 77
Leaded glass housing, 22
LeFort I maxillary fractures, 530f
LeFort II maxillary fractures, 530f
LeFort II/high central midface, 530f
Left
angle fracture, 543f
antrum, simplified line diagrams of, 485f
condylar hyperplasia, 452f
TMJ with infectious destruction of joint, 455f
Lekholm and Zarb classification of bone quality, 584t
Lemmonma, 386
Leong’s premolar, 249
Leontiasis ossea, 439
definition, 439
Lesions of eosinophilic granuloma, 339
Letterer-Siwe disease, 302, 304
Leucosis, 415
Leukemia, 34, 304, 313, 413, 415
acute
lymphoblastic, 415
myelogenous, 415
chronic
lymphocytic, 415
myelogenous, 415
classification 415
acute, 415
chronic, 415
definition, 415
induction, 32
risk of developing, 32
Leukemoid reaction cell, 415
Lifecare endopore implant fixture, 617
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation See LASER
Linear grid, 78
Lingual
canal, 592
foramen, 164, 209f, 592, 596f
accessory, 596f
mandibular bone depression, 270
salivary gland depression, 270
definition, 270
management, 272
Lingula, 164
Lip line, 165
Lipid metabolism, disturbances in, 303
Lipline, 165f
Liposarcoma, 405
Lips and teeth, positioning of, 157
Liver, 143
Lobstein disease, 254, 439
Localized myositis ossificans, 513
Lock jaw, 480
Long axis of tooth and plane of
film, 106f
Long cone technique
advantage of, 100
disadvantages of, 106
Low vapour pressure, 23
Lower
central and lateral incisor, 245f
incisors, attrition of, 258f
molar region, 232f
Ludwig’s angina, 276, 277f
management, 277
Lung, 143
Luteinizing hormone, 295
Luxation, 518
definition, 518
management, 520
Lymph node
calcific submandibular, 508, 557
calcification, 504f
calcified, 504
chaining, 504
definition, calcified, 504
Lymphangiectatic cyst, 487
Lymphangioma, 343, 389
Lymphoepithelial cyst, 338
Lymphoma, 313
neuroblastoma, 416
of bone, 428
Lymphosarcoma, 413
M
Mach band effect, 221
Macrodontia, 244
Macrognathia, 264
definition, 264
management, 264
Magnetic resonance
contrast media, 152
imaging medial section, 472f
Magnification, 53, 60f
formulas, 53
object film distance, 53
occurs, 122
target film distance, 53
use of intensifying screens, 53
Major salivary glands, 545
Malformation, developmental, 343
Malignancies
central, 341
secondary, 402
Malignant
ameloblastoma, 350, 395
definition, 395
management, 395
and benign tumors of salivary gland, 335
changes
in odontogenic cysts, 395
of jaws, 393
fibrous histiocytoma, 405
definition, 405
management, 406
fibroxanthoma See Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
lymphoma, 412, 413
melanoma, 404, 404f
definition, 404
management, 405
mixed tumor, 567
definition, 567
neoplasia, 287
neoplasms, 492
osteoblastic carcinoma, 357
pleomorphic adenoma, 567
salivary gland tumors, 404
schwannoma See Neurofibrosarcoma
tumors, 497, 565
definition, 565
management, 567
of jaws, classification of, 393, 393t
of maxilla, 391
Mandible
angle of, 164
coronoid process, 211
cross-sectional view of, 584f
external oblique ridge, 210
genial tubercles, 208
inferior border of mandible, 211
internal oblique ridge, 210
lingual foramen, 208
mandibular canal, 211
mental
foramen, 209
fossa, 209
ridge, 209
mylohyoid ridge, 210
nutrient canals, 208
submandibular fossa, 211
symphysis, 210
Mandibular
alveolar canal, 164
angle fractures, 540
management, 540
body fractures, 540
definition, 540
management, 542
canal, 164, 211f, 589
destruction of, 398f
different shape of, 591f
condyle, 163, 164
fractures, 536
definition, 536
management, 539
dentition level, axial view, 189f
first molars exhibiting supernumerary root, 250f
foramen, 163, 164
fossa, 162, 211, 443
hypomobility, 480
incisive
canal, 592
nerve, 592
incisors and canines, 99
infected buccal cyst, 281, 331, 332
occlusal, 371f, 278f
premolar
and molars, 99
region, 111
film placement, 111
film, 112
ramus fractures, 540
management, 540
symphyseal, 543f
fracture, 543f
teeth, 109f
calcification of, 610f
third molar, 112
topographic view, 118f
tori, 375f
torus, 111, 375, 375f
Mandibulofacial dysostosis, 269, 269f
definition, 269
management, 270
Manual processing, 87
Marble bone disease, 268, 437
Marfan’s syndrome, 318, 440
definition, 440
management, 440
Marfan-Achard syndrome See Marfan’s syndrome
Marie disease, 266
Marie-Strümpell disease, 464
Marsupialization of dental cysts, 342
Massive osteolysis, 442
definition, 442
Massler sequence of formation of human dentition, 608f
Masticatory muscle
accessory, 445
disorders, 449
Mastoid process, 162
Mature cemental dysplasia, 262
Maturity score, calculations of, 610
Maxilla, 202
cross-sectional view of, 584f
Maxillary
and mandibular
canines, 110
central incisors, 110
lateral incisors, 110
molars, 110
permanent teeth, development of, 607f
posterior teeth, 234f
premolars, 110
third molars, 110
dentition level, axial view, 189f
incisors and canines, 99
left central incisor, 519f
occlusal, 333f
nasopalatine cyst, 333f
projection, 326f
premolars and molars, 99
sinus, 205, 482f, 586
anatomy of, 481
and floor of maxillary sinus, 163
disorders of, 481
failed implant in, 598f
floor, conventional tomogram reveals perforation of, 598f
functions, 481
inferior border of, 492f
lateral border of, 492f
level, axial view, 189f
region, 587f
sinusitis, 485, 495
definition, 485
teeth, 109f
calcification of, 610f
horizontal bone loss in periodontitis affecting, 234f
severe bone loss in periodontitis affecting, 234f
torus, 111, 111f
tube, 162
tuberosity, 162, 206, 207f
Maxillofacial
imaging, views for, 123
surgery, 181, 182f
Maximum intensity projection, 174, 175f, 176f
Mccune-Albright’s syndrome, 419, 422
McQueen dell technique, 134
Medial plate of pterygoid process, 207f
Median
alveolar cyst, 337
anterior maxillary cyst, 333
fissural cyst, 333f
mandibular cyst, 322, 336, 336f
definition, 336
management, 337
palatine cyst, 334
definition, 334
management, 335
suture, 203
Mediterranean anemia, 311
Megadontia, 244
Megagnathia, 264
Melano ameloblastoma, 388
Melanotic
neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, 388
progonoma, 388
Meloblastic fibroma, 384
Melorheostosis, 438
Mental
foramen, 164, 210f, 592
described anterior posteriorly, position of, 595f
level, axial view, 190f
oval horizontal, 593f
vertical, 593f
round, 593f
shapes of, 593f
fossa, 164, 209f
retardation, 31
ridge, 164, 209f
spine, 208
Mesenchymal
cell, 32
chondrosarcoma, 407
definition, 407
management, 407
Mesiodens, 241, 243f
Mesiodistally from premolar to molar, 496f
Mesothelial cyst, 487
Metabolic
bone diseases, 302
diseases, 417, 434
disorders, 416, 465
Metal bellows, 20
Metastaic tumor, 384
Metastasis
from mammary carcinoma, 403f
to left parotid space, computed tomography axial view, 554f
Metastasizing mixed tumor, 567
Metastatic
calcifications, 503, 510
carcinoma, 304, 321, 370, 389, 394, 396, 402, 405, 411, 413, 417
case of, 403f
definition, 402
management, 404
of maxillary sinus, 497
osteoblastic carcinoma, 363
tumors, 341, 391, 396, 402, 428, 431
Methods of processing automatic method, 90
Methylene blue, 18
Metolphenidone, 84
Microdontia and oligodontia, 245f
Micrognathia, 264
definition, 264
management, 264
Mid
orbital level, axial view, 188f
ramus level, coronal view, 187f
Midface fractures, 526
definition, 526
Midline defect in soft palate, 265f
Mikulicz disease, 559
Mild
autosomal recessive, 438
neutropenia, 312
periodontitis, 233
Millimeter radiopaque grids, 575
Mineral metabolism, disturbances in, 303
Mineralization assessment of developing teeth, 611f
Minimum intensity projection, 175, 176f
Minor salivary glands, 545
Misdiagnosed globulomaxillary cyst, 203f
Missing teeth, 242
Moderate
bone loss, 234f
interproximal caries, 219
neutropenia, 312
occlusal
caries, 220
lesion, 221
in mandibular molar, 221f
periodontitis, 233
Molar level, coronal view, 187f
Molecule, 11
Monckerberg’s medial calcinosis, 506
definition, 506
management, 506
Monobath method, 92
advantage, 92
disadvantages, 92
Monostotic fibrous dysplasia, 381, 419
Moon’s molar See also Mulberry molars
Moth-Eaten appearance, 284f
Motion
artifacts, 180
unsharpness, 51
Mounting of radiograph, 83
Moving grid, 78, 79
advantages of, 79
composition, 78
disadvantages of, 79
working, 78
Moving rotational centers, 155
Mucocele, 488
definition, 488
Mucoepidermoid
carcinoma, 417, 497f, 567
definition, 567
cyst, 323
tumor, 418f
Mucopyocele, 488
Mucormycosis, 493
Mucosa of floor of mouth, invasive carcinoma of, 397f
Mucosal polyp, 491f
Mucositis, 484
definition, 484
management, 484
Mucous
membrane, thickened See Mucositis
plugs, 508
retention cyst, 487
Mulberry molars, 257
Multifocal eosinophilic granuloma, 303
Multilocular, 217
ameloblastoma, 347f
cyst, 341, 349
lesion in right maxilla, 366f
Multiplanar
reformation, 170
volume reformations, 175f, 176f
Multiple
enostosis, 364
myeloma, 304, 313, 321
Multipotential connective tissue cells, 32
Multirooted teeth and dilacerated root, 262
Multislice spiral CT, 149
Mural ameloblastoma, 346
Muscles
cells, 32
of mastication, 445
tenderness, 477
tissue origin, 344
Myeloid sarcoma, 389
Myeloma, 416
definition, multiple, 416
management, multiple, 417
multiple, 396, 404, 405, 413, 416, 434
Myelomatosis, 416
Mylohyoid ridge, 164
Myoepithelial sialadenitis, 559
Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome, 476
Myositis ossificans, 508, 513, 557
definition, 513
management, 513
progressive, 513
Myxedema, 297, 298
Myxofibroma, 369
Myxoma See Odontogenic fibroma
Myxoma, 369
N
Nasal
cavity, 163, 203, 587
fossa See Nasal cavity
process of maxilla, 421f
septum, 163, 204, 204f, 587
Nasoalveolar cyst, 335f , 336
definition, 336
management, 336
Nasolabial
cyst, 336
fold, 205
Nasolacrimal canal, 163, 205, 205f, 589f
Nasopalatine canal See Superior foramina of incisive canal
Nasopalatine
canal cyst, 333
definition, 333
management, 334
cyst, 333, 333f, 334
duct cyst, 333
foramen, 163
Nasopharyngeal
airspace, 164, 165f
angiofibroma, 497f
Nasopharynx, parts of, 134
Nasoplalatine canal, 587
Neck region, 509f
Necrotizing sialometaplasia, 313
Negative cathode, 22
Neonatal
fractures, 468
definition, 468
management, 468
lethal type, 255
Neoplasm, 343
Neoplastic conditions, 474
Nerve supply of temporomandibular structures, 445
Neural
lesions, 387
tissue origin, 344
Neurilemmoma, 386
definition, 386
management, 386
Neurinoma, 386
Neurinoma See Neurofibroma
Neurofibroma, 387
definition, 387
management, 387
Neurofibromatosis, 387
definition, 387
management, 388
Neurofibrosarcoma, 412
Neurogenic sarcoma, 405
Neurological abnormalities, 321
Neuroma, 386
definition, 386
management, 387
Neurons, 32
Neuropathic disorders, 476
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma, 320, 431
Nobel biocare implant fixture, 617
Nodal involvement, 567
Nolla’s method, 610f
Nonepithelial tumors, 562
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 412414
definition, 413
management, 413
Noninsulin dependent, 300
Nonodontogenic
cysts, 316, 333
tumors, 343, 374
Nonopaque filling, 223
Nonossifying fibroma, 377
Non-screen films, 75
Non-vital tooth, 280
Noonan’s syndrome, 318
Normal anatomy on intraoral, 199
Nose, 205
ring causing circular ring, 179f
Notched bite-block, 156
Nuclear medicine, 142
Nucleus, 11
Number of rotational centers, 156
Nursing bottle caries, 223
Nutrient canals, 209f
Nutritional
deficiency, 302
secondary, 302
disturbances, classification of, 303t
O
Object film distance, 51
Oblique
line, external, 210
planar reformation, 171f
ridge, external, 164
Occlusal
caries or pit and fissure caries, 221
enamel pearl, 249
mandibular views, 118
maxillary views, 117
plane slightly, 157
radiography, 116, 576
advantages, 576
disadvantages, 576
status, 477
trauma, 237
Occurring radiolucent lesions, commonly, 216t, 217t
Odium sulphite, 84
Odonto-ameloblastoma, 369
Odontogenesis imperfecta, 256
Odontogenic
carcinoma, 395
cysts, 299, 341, 391, 494
secondarily infected, 404
developmental cysts, 317
ectomesenchyme, 368
ectomesenchyme See Odontogenic mesenchymal tumors
epithelial tumors, 345
fibroma, 328, 365, 353
central, 352, 365, 366f
definition, central, 365
fibromyxoma, 369
hamartoma, 370
inflammatory cysts, 328
keratocyst, 317, 318, 339, 350, 384, 395
definition, 317
mesenchymal tumors, 355
myxoma, 320, 339, 341, 350, 367, 368, 369, 371f, 372f, 384, 391, 395, 431
definition, 369
management, 370
posteroanterior, 370f
tumors, 343, 345, 396
mixed, 368
Odontoma, 343, 370, 372f, 373f
complex, 498
intermediate stage, 357
management, 374
Odontome of complex variety, 373f
Odotogenic keratocyst, 316
Oligodontia, 242, 243f
Operculitis, 291
Ophthalmic abnormalities, 321
Optical coherence tomography, 14
Oral
carcinoma, 304
contraceptives, 293
fissures, 264
mucous membrane, 32
nevi, nodular melanoma, 389
Orange peel See Peau d’orange
Orbit, 162
Orbital
blow-out fracture, 544
foramen level, axial view, below inferior, 189f
wall fracture, 528f
Oroantral fistula, 501
with respect to maxillary right molar, 501f
Orofaciodigital
syndrome, 242
volume, measurement of, 184f
Orthodontia, 183f
Orthopantomograph, 155
Osseointegrated implants, evaluation of, 595
Osseous
choristoma See also Osteoma mucosae
deformities in furcations of multirooted teeth, 236
Ossifying
fibroma, 320, 331, 343, 350, 359, 374, 379, 381, 429
initial stage, 328
subperiosteal hematoma, 290
Osstem GS II implant fixture, 617
Osteitis
deformans See Paget’s disease
fibrosa
cystica, 298
generalisata See also Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Osteoarthritis, 459, 459f
definition, 459
Osteoblastic metastatic carcinoma, 358, 378, 428, 434
Osteoblastoma, 381
definition, 381
Osteochondroma, 379, 382, 411, 475f, 476f
definition, 382
Osteoclastoma, 388, 389
Osteogenesis imperfecta, 439
abnormalities in structure, 254
Osteogenic sarcoma, 363, 368, 370, 378, 381, 434
Osteogenic sarcoma See Osteosarcoma
Osteoid, 367
osteoma, 363, 381
definition, 381
management, 381
Osteolysis, progressive, 442
Osteolytic, 413, 415
stage of cementoma, 279
type, 402
Osteoma, 378, 380f, 437, 491
cutis, 512
definition, 512
management, 513
definition, 378, 491
management, 379
mucosae, 512, 513
of mandible, 379f
of right maxillary sinus, 492f
Osteomalacia, 299, 307, 308, 434
Osteomatosis, 379
Osteomyelitis, 283, 285f, 402, 411, 437
advanced, 417
in infants, 287
pathologic fracture with, 285f
with draining sinus, 283f
Osteopetrosis, 268, 365, 437
congenital See Severe autosomal recessive type
definition, 437
management, 439
tarda See Benign autosomal dominant
Osteoporosis, 306, 309, 434, 435, 436f, 437
definition, 435
management, 437
Osteoradionecrosis, 402
Osteoradionecrosis See Radiation osteomyelitis
of mandible, 291f
Osteosarcoma, 287, 290, 379, 402, 405, 407410f, 411, 413, 415, 428
definition, 407
management, 411
Osteosclerosis, 281
fragilis generalisata, 268, 437
Oxalosis See also Gaucher’s disease
P
PA skull, 563f
Paget’s disease, 283, 299, 358, 363, 365, 428, 431, 432f, 433, 433f, 434, 438, 498
definition, 431
management, 434
of bone, 306
or hyperpituitarism, 262
Palatal space abscess, 334
Palatine
tonsillitis, 508
tonsillolith, 557
torus, 374
Palatoglossal airspace, 164, 165f
Palmoplantaris, 238
Pancreatic disease, 300
Pancreatic gland, disease of, 293
Panora, 155
Panoram, 155
Panoramic
complete obliteration of joint space, 470f
elongated styloid processes left and right, 512f
fracture of mandible through left angle, 541f
head of condyle of left TMJ, 467f
in forensic odontology, use of, 616
increased width of sinus epithelium in right maxillary sinus, 485f
radiographs, 511f
between maxillary lateral and canine, 335f
bone loss, 231f
cropped, 457f
dentigerous cyst in relation to lower left third molar, 324f
generalized severe angular bone loss with furcation, 235f
ill-defined radiolucency, 284f
part of, 455f
radiography, 154, 577
advantages, 577
disadvantages, 577
right antral polyp with radiopacity in right maxillary sinus, 490f
view, 371f
mandibular incisors, 270f
X-ray
machines, types of, 155f
unit, 156
Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, 564
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, 238, 402
Para
dihydroxy benzene, 84
molars, 242f
Paradental cyst, 332
definition, 332
management, 333
Parallax unsharpness results, 52f
Paralleling technique, 99
film placement, 99
film position, 99
Parallelism between film and tooth, 99
Paramolars, 241
Paranasal sinuses, 481
Parasymphyseal, right, 542f
Parasymphysis, 542
Parathyroid
gland, disease of, 293
hormone, 298
Parma modification, 134
Parosteal, juxta, 409
Parotid
area, enlargement of, 546
fistula, 508
gland, 545, 550
Parotitis See Bacterial sialadenitis
Parry-Romberg syndrome, 265
Partial ankylosis, 468
Partially calcified odontoma, 328, 352
Pathologic age, 606
Peau d’orange, 427
Penetrating power of X-ray beam, 16
Penetration, 19
Penny test, 87f
Pentadecyl paratolylketon, 3
Periapical
cemental dysplasia, 281, 282, 356, 356f, 357, 359, 363, 374, 377, 381, 428, 434
cementoma, early stage, 331
cyst, 280, 328, 396
management, 281
cystic lesion, 330f
dentoalveolar fracture of anterior mandible, 529f
fibro-osteoma, 356
fibrosarcoma, 356, 434
fibrosteoma, 434
fibrous dysplasia, 356, 434
granuloma, 279, 281, 331
management, 279
idiopathic osteosclerosis, 358, 376
inflammatory lesion, 404
osteofibrosis, 278, 356, 434
radiograph fusiform shape of lower premolar, 255f
radiography, 97, 574
advantages, 574
disadvantages, 575
radiolucency, well-defined, 404f
rarefying osteitis, 279, 357
scar, 279, 281, 331
management, 280
sclerosing osteitis, 359, 377
spherical type of hypercementosis, 363
technique for
mandibular canine, 104f
central and lateral incisors, 103f
molar, 105f
premolar, 104f
third molar, 105f
maxillary canine, 101f
central incisor, 100f
lateral incisor, 101f
molar, 102f
premolar, 102f
third molar, 103f
modifications in, 110
Pericoronal
abscess, 291
infections, 291
odontogenic cyst, 352
Pericoronitis, 291
management, 292
Peridens, 241
Peri-implantitis, 598f
Perineural fibroblastoma, 386
Periodic neutropenia, 313
Periodontal
abscess, 281, 331, 332
dehiscense, 237
diseases, 230, 304
ligament
by malignant neoplasms, invasion of, 440
space, 201
pathologies, 236
therapy, evaluation of, 238
Periodontics, 181
buccolingual bone loss, 182f
Periodontitis, 402
aggressive, 237
Periodontium, systemic or generalized conditions, 233
Perio-endo lesion, 233f
Periosteal, 409
Periostitis, 494
definition, 494
of jaw, 437
Peripheral
ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma, 367
and central squamous cell carcinoma, 428
fibroma with calcification, 367
giant cell granuloma, 388, 389f
definition, 388
management, 389
invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 405
odontogenic fibroma, 367
definition, 367
ossifying fibroma, 367, 367f
squamous cell carcinoma, 396
Permanent dentition See also Residual cyst arising from primary
Perpendicular locating lines, 110
Personal alarm dosimeter, 43f
Perthes’ disease, 460
Phalangioma, 70f
Phantom bone, 442
Phenoxylmethyl penicillin, 292
Phleboliths, 504, 508, 509, 557
definition, 509
Phlegmon, 275
Phosphorescent materials, 17
Photoelectric absorption, 18f
Photon
of lower energy, 18f
starvation, 180
Physiological causes, 293
PID angulations, 107
Pierre Robin syndrome, 440
definition, 440
management, 440
Pigmented ameloblastoma, 388
Pindborgs tumor, 350
Pinguela, 305
Pituitary
cachexia See Simmond’s disease
gland, disease of, 293
Pixels, 574
Plain films sialolith, 547f
Plasma cell
granuloma, 493
myeloma, 416
myeloma See Plasmacytoma
Plasmacytoma, 416, 417
definition, 417
management, 417
Platelet, disorders of, 310
Pleomorphic adenoma, 563f, 564f
Pleomorphic adenoma See Benign mixed tumor
of palate, 562f
of parotid gland, 564f
Plexiform neurofibroma, 334
Plummer Vinson syndrome, 393
Pocket dosimeters, 42f
Poison chemical theory, 29
Polyostotic
craniofacial type, 422
fibrous dyspalsia, 419, 425f, 438
with endocrinopathy, 422
Polyps, 490
and fluid levels in maxillary sinus, 588f
definition, 490
Poor soft tissue contrast, 181
Position indicating device, 21f, 119
Positioning of
midsagittal plane, 157
posteroanterior
cephalogram, 139f
skull projection, 140f
Positive
anode, 23
Chvostek’s sign, 299
electrode, 23
Post auricular or Lindblom technique, 133
Post extraction socket, 391
Posterior to focal trough, 157
Posteroanterior
cephalogram, 139
cephalometric view, 139f
projection, 124, 124f
skull, 140
Water’s, 125
central ray, 125
film placement, 125
position of patient, 125
structures shown, 125
Posterolateral wall of left maxillary sinus, 476f
Postextraction socket, 299, 361
Postmortem material, radiography of, 601
Postoperative maxillary cyst See Surgical ciliated cyst of maxilla
Postprosthetic implant imaging, 574
Postsurgical defect, ossifying, 434
Post-traumatic myositis, 513
Potassium
alum, 85
bromide, 84
carbonate, 84
Potter bucky
diaphram, 52
grid See Moving grid
Pre-eruptive caries, 223
Premature craniostenosis, 268
Premaxillary maxillary cyst, 335
Premolar
level, coronal view, 186f
region, 604f
Preprosthetic implant imaging, 573
Prepubertal periodontitis, 313
Primary
agranulocytosis, 312
epithelial tumor of jaw, 395
intra-alveolar epidermoid carcinoma, 395
intraosseous carcinoma, 395
lymphoma of bone See Cell sarcoma, primary reticular
nutritional deficiencies, 302
Primordial
bone cyst, 299
cyst, 317, 320, 322, 331, 335, 350, 361
definition, 317
dentigerous cyst, 304
management, 317
Processing, 82
film processing, 83
formation of latent image, 82
latent image, 82
tank, 87f
Profile wedge filter, 80
Progeria, 295
definition, 295
management, 295
Progressive
facial hemiatrophy, 265
systemic sclerosis, 439
definition, 439
management, 440
Projection errors, 55
Projection of central ray
intraoral radiography, 102f
long cone technique, 100-102f, 103105
short cone technique, 100-102f, 102-105
Proliferative periostitis, 289
Protection
against primary beam, 37
for environment, 41
for patient, 38
from radiation, 35
from secondary, 38
Protective glasses, 41f
Protein metabolism, disturbances in, 303
Proximal
caries, 219
intrabony defect, 236
Pseudobone cysts, 338
definition, 338
management, 339
Pseudofocused grid, 78, 79f
Pseudoarticulations See Joint like junctions
Pseudocyst, 487
Pseudocyst/benign cyst of antrum, 488f
Pseudogout, 465
Pseudohypoparathyroidism, 299
Pseudohypophosphatasi, 306
Pseudolocular See also Multilocular
Pseudotumor, 493
definition, 493
management, 494
Psoriatic arthritis, 462, 463
definition, 463
management, 463
PSP
based radiography, 192
plate, 193f
Pterygoid plates, 206, 589
left, 590f
right, 590f
Pterygomaxillary fissure, 162
Ptyalism See Sialorrhea, causes of
Pulp stones, 262
Pulpal
hyperemia, 302
sclerosis, 262
Pulpoperiapical lesions, 357
Pyocele, 488
Pyramidal fracture LeFort II, 530
definition, 530
management, 531
Q
Quantitative computed tomography, 437
Quantum mottle, 77
Quasi three-dimensional imaging modalities, 574
R
Radiation
and health physics, 27
biology, 29
bone, general effect of, 33
comprising electromagnetic spectrum,
types of, 12
dosimetry, 36
ears, general effect of, 32, 33
effect on
embryos, 34
fetuses, 34
exposure, 192
general effects of, 32
hematopoietic injury, general effect of, 32
in dental radiology
protection for operator, 37
department, sources of, 37
in utero, dose of, 33
latent period, general effect of, 34
on biological tissues, effect of, 30
oral mucous membrane, general effect of, 33
osteomyelitis, 291
management, 291
otitis media, 33
ovary, general effect of, 33
physics, 11
prodromal syndrome, general effect of, 34
protection, 35
quantities and units, 36t
salivary glands, general effect of, 33
skin
early, general effect of, 32
general effect of, 32
late, general effect of, 32
teeth, general effect of, 33
testicles, general effect of, 33
whole body irradiation, general effect of, 33
Radiation taste buds, general effect of, 33
Radicular cyst, 280, 327, 328, 329f, 330f, 331, 334, 339, 386
definition, 328
infected, 329f
management, 331
with right
central incisor, 496f
lateral incisor, 496f
Radiocurability, 31
Radiodontia, 6
Radiographic
coverage, 54
diagnosis of caries, limitations of, 225
differential diagnosis of dental caries, 223
Radiographs for caries
bitewing, 219
OPG, 219
periapical, 219
Radiography of
maxillary sinuses, 123
paranasal sinuses, 123
Radiolucency over left mandibular alveolar crest region, 284f
Radiolucent, 199
cervical burnout, 224
Radionuclide salivary imaging, 553
Radionuclide-labeled tracers, 143
Radiopaque, 199
artifacts on radiograph, 62f
lamina dura, loss of, 274
radiolucent lesion extending from mesial of first premolar to angle of mandible, mixed, 371f
Radioresponsiveness, 31
Radiosensitivity, 31
of organ
high sensitivity, 32
intermediate sensitivity, 32
low sensitivity, 32
Rampant caries, 222
Ramus, 164
on right side, 456f
Ranula, 338
Rapid processing chemicals, 90
Rarefying osteitis, 416
Raw’ images, 170f
Ray
casting See also Ray sum
sum, 170, 175f
RBC, disorders of, 310
Recoil electron, 83
Reconstruction stage, 170
Reconstructive postmortem dental profiling, 600
Rectangular collimator, 81, 81f
Recurrent caries, 220, 222
Reduced image artifact, 178
Reflecting layer, 76
Refractory rickets, 308
Region of interest, 166
Regional odontodysplasia, 256
Regular film, kodak, 5
Remodeling, 458
definition, 458
management, 459
Renal
osteodystrophy, 309
definition, 309
rickets See Renal osteodystrophy
Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, 384
Reparative giant cell granuloma, 392
Replenish solutions, 88
Replenishment, automatic method, 92
Resemble dysplastic dentine, 367
Residual cyst, 320, 331, 361
arising from primary, 322
definition, 331
management, 331
Resolved acute apical periodontitis, 281
Resorption, external, 261f
Retention
cyst of maxillary sinus, 487
phenomenon, 335
pseudocyst, 487, 491, 495
Retinal anlage tumor, 388
Retrodiscal pain, 480
Reverse towne’s, 136
Reverting postmitotic cells, 32
Rh hump, 309
Rheumatoid
arthritis, 461, 463, 514
definition, 461
management, 462
spondylitis See Marie-Strumpell disease
Rhinolith, 510
definition, 510
management, 510
Rhizopus sinusitis, 493
Rickets, 307, 308
Right maxillary sinus, 421f
Right posterior ramus, 284f
Right submandibular gland, ultrasonography of, 552f
Right-angle technique, 120f
Rigid cassette, 76
Ring dosimeter, 42
Robin anomalad See Pierre Robin syndrome
Roentgen rays, 4
Romberg hemifacial atrophy, 265
Root
canal, 200
lower incisors, 200f
therapy, treatment consists of, 331
fracture, signs of, 522f
of central incisors, 326f
of lower molar or paranasal sinus, 379
of maxillary teeth, 157
surface caries, 220, 222
Rose-Waller’s test, 461
Rotagraph machine, 155
Rotated posteroanterior mandible, 127
Rotating anode, 23
Rotation center, 155
Rotational panoramic radiography, 6
Round cell sarcoma, 411
Rue malignant mixed tumor, 567
S
Safe light illumination, 86
Sagittal
plane of head, 138f
section right TMJ components, 443f
Sainton disease, 266
Salivary
duct carcinoma, 566f
gland, 143, 545
applied diagnostic imaging of, 547
calculus, 506
cancers, 31
causes, 546, 546t
complaint, 546, 546t
defect, developmental, 270
disorders, 545, 555
classification of, 556t
enlargements, differential diagnosis of, 546
hypofunction, causes of, 568
stone, 506
tumors, 344, 555
clinical staging of, 565
scan, 143
stone, 555
Sandwich radiography, 116
Sarcoma, 384
Saucerization type of moderate bone loss in cervical region, 598f
Scale of contrast, 49
Scanner related artifacts, 180
Schour sequence of formation of human dentition, 608f
Schwannoma, 386
Scintillation counter, 17
Scleroderma, 439
Sclerosing
cementum, 356, 434
osteitis, 281, 364, 379, 435
osteomyelitis, 282, 288
Sclerotic
borders, 318f
cemental masses, 364, 435, 438
osteitis, 381
osteogenic sarcoma See Frankly osteoblastic type
Screens
films, 75
high definition, types of, 77
high speed, types of, 77
normal, types of, 77
types of, 77
Secondary caries See also Recurrent caries
Selenium, 143
Self-developing films, 92
advantages, 92
Sensor, 193
Septa in maxillary sinus, 587f
Septic arthritis, 463
definition, 463
management, 464
Serial transplanar reformation, 174f
Serosangious fluid, 320
Severe
autosomal recessive type, 438
neutropenia, 312
nonlethal type, 255
occlusal
caries, 220
lesions, 221
periodontitis, 236
proximal lesions, 221
Shaded surface display, 149
Shadow of malar bone, 113
Shallow palate, 110
cotton rolls, 110
vertical angulation, 110
Shielding gloves, 41f
Short cone technique, 106
Short wave diathermy or microwaves, 12
Shortening
life span, 31
of life span, 34
Sialadenitis, 558f, 560
sialographic appearances of, 551
Sialadenosis
definition, 560
management, 561
Sialodochitis, 559
definition, 559
management, 559
sialographic appearances of, 551
Sialogram normal left parotid gland, tree in winter appearance, 550f
Sialographic appearances, normal, 550
Sialography, 547
interventional, 551
Sialolith, 504, 506, 506f, 509
length of, 552f
of left submandibular duct, 507f, 547f
Sialolithiasis, 555
Sialoliths, 557f
definition, 506
management, 509
Sialo-odontogenic cyst, 323
Sialorrhea, causes of, 569
Sialosis See Sialadenosis
Sicca syndrome, 559
Sickle cell
anemia, 310, 460
management, 311
disease, 310
trait, 310
Silver halide crystals, 72
Simmond’s disease, 295
Simple bone cysts, 338, 377
Simple odontogenic fibroma, 365
Sinonasal fungal disease, 493
Sinus
contusion, 500
definition, 500
inferior border of, 496f
root in
antrum body, 498
definition, 498
foreign body, 498
Sjögren’s syndrome, 551, 551f, 559
sialographic appearances in, 551
Skeletal
abnormalities, 321
comparison, 600
fluorosis, 441
acute, 441
chronic, 441
definition, 441
management, 441
Skin, 422
Skull from front and side main sites of middle third fractures, 525f
Small ameloblastoma, 350
Small cortical abscess, 381
Small dentigerous cyst, 368
Soap bubble appearance, 348f
Socket sclerosis, 281
Sodium
carbonate See also Potassium carbonate
sulphite, 85
thiosulfate, 85
Soft mixed odontoma, 368
Soft odontoma, 368
Soft palate, 165f
and uvula, 165
Soft tissue
calcification in head and neck region, classification of, 503t
calcification, 503
component of TMJ, 444
on panoramic
films, 165f
radiographs, 165
ossifications, 503
Solid
odontome, 379
tumors, 34
Solitary myositis, 513
Somatic effect, 19
Spasms of
elevator muscles, 477
lateral pterygoid, 477
muscles, 477
Specific chronic infections of jaws, 290
Sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinus, 421f
Spider fingers, 440
Spine, positioning of, 160
Spin-spin relaxation, 152
Spontaneous healing of simple bone cyst, 428
Squamous cell carcinoma, 238, 287, 492
arising in soft tissue, 397
definition, 397
management, 402
definition, 492
involving maxilla, 492f
originating in bone, 395
definition, 395
management, 396
originating in cyst, 396
definition, 396
management, 397
Squamous
epithelial cells, 32
odontogenic tumor, 353
definition, 353
Stafne
bone cyst, 270
cyst, 271f
developmental salivary gland defect, 331
Staphylococcus
aureus, 291
epidermidis, 291
Static
bone cavity, 270
electricity, 65f
Stationary grids, 78
Stem cell leukemia, 415
Stenosis, 144
Steroids See Drug induced disorders
Still’s disease, 462
Stirring
paddle See Stirring rod
rod, 87
Storage phosphor imaging, 192
Sturge-Weber syndrome, 384
Styloid
Ligament
definition, ossification of, 511
management, ossification of, 512
ossification of, 511
process, 162
Sub leukemia cell, 415
Subacute neuronopathic, 305
Subclinical fibrous dysplasia, 422
Subcoating, 72
Subcondylar fracture on transorbital radiograph, 537f
Sublingual
gland, 546
tumors, 565
Subluxated teeth, 520
Subluxation
definition, 467
management, 468
radiographic signs of, 519f
Submandibular
fossa, 212f, 592
gland, 545, 550
fossa on cone beam computed tomography, 595f
lymph node swelling, 338
region, right side in, 509f
Submasseteric infections, 127
Submaxillary fossa, 211
Submentovertex, 132, 533f
projection, 131
view, modification of, 132
Subperiosteal hematoma, ossifying 411, 434
Substratum, 72
Sun-burning, 22
Sun-tanning See also Sun-burning
Super coat, 72
Superimposed soft tissue calcifications, 216
Superior foramina of incisive canal, 202
Supernumerary roots, 250
Suppurating cysts, 316
Surgical ciliated cyst of maxilla, 489
definition, 489
management, 489
Surgical defect, residual cyst, 391
Swelling with mobility of teeth, complain of, 367
Symphysis, fracture of, 542
Syndromic craniostenosis, 268
Synovial
chondromatosis, 464
definition, 464
management, 465
chondrometaplasia, 464
osteochondromatosis, 464
System related artifacts, 147
Systematic to interpretation of true lateral skull, 527f
Systemic diseases
affecting jaws, 273, 292
on periodontal disease, effect of, 238
T
Taenia solium, 505
Talons cusp, 249, 250f
Target tissues, 142
Taurodontism, 246, 247f
Teeth
become loose, 305
impacted, 251
overlapping of, 56f
positioning of, 157
radiation caries, 33
submerged, 251
Temporomandibular
disorders
clinical criteria for, 447t
diagnostic terms for, 447t
joint, 168, 447, 448
development disorders of, 449
disorders, 443
dysfunction, 512
normal radiographic appearance of, 446
pain, 478
ligament, 444
osteoarthritis, 460f
pain dysfunction syndrome, 476
structures, vascular supply of, 445
Teratomas, 337, 344
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism, 298
Thalassemia, 311, 417
definition, 311
management, 312
Thermionic emission, 22
Thermoluminescent materials, 17
Thimble chamber, 17
Third molar
problem of horizontal, 112f
region, 58f
tooth, 355
Thirty degree fronto-occipital technique, 605
Three-dimensional displays, advantages of, 149
Thrombocytopathic purpura, 310
Thyroglossal duct cyst, 338
Thyroid, 32, 143
cancer, 31
collar, 41f
dose, 38
gland, disease of, 293
region, calcification in, 514f
stimulating hormone, 296, 297
Tissue
characterization, 147t
origin, mixed, 343
TM joint derangement of, 449
TM joint disorder, 477
by C weldon bell, 449f
fourth classification of, 451t
second classification of, 450t
third classification of, 451t
TM joint position, normal disc position in
closed, 444f
open, 444f
Tongue, 165, 165f
Tooth, 199
cementum, 199
crypt, 320
dentin, 199
distodens, 241
enamel, 199
fractured, limitations of radiographic interpretation of, 517
hyperdontia, 241
luxated into sinus, 499f
mesiodens, 326f, 241
mobility, 237, 440
para, 241
peridens, 241
pulp cavity, 200
supernumerary, 241, 326f
supplemental, 241
Torus
mandibularis, 375
definition, 375
management, 375
palatinus, 374, 374f
definition, 374
management, 375
Towne’s projection, 136f, 141
Trabecular demosteoblastoma, 429
Trajectory arc, completeness of, 170
Transcranial, 133
projection, 133f
view left TM joint, 459f
Transformer, 24
step down, 24
step up, 24
Transorbital, 135
projection, central ray, 135f
Transparent dentine, 261
Transpharyngeal, 134
projection, 134f
Trauma to
developing condyle, 468
facial structures, 516
head and neck, 146
teeth, 516
classification of, 516
Traumatic
bone cyst, 281, 299, 304, 316, 331, 336, 338, 350, 384, 391, 428
cavity, 357
cyst, 331
disorder of temporomandibular joint, 466
injuries to
mandible, 534
classification of, 535t
maxilla, 524
classification of, 526t
maxillary sinuses, 498
soft tissue, 516
teeth, 517
classification of, 519t
neuroma, 386
Treacher-Collins syndrome, 269, 269f , 484
Tree in winter appearance, 550
Triple center rotation machines, 155f
Tripod fracture, 534f
Trismus, 480
classification of different causes of, 479t
Trisomy 21 syndrome and mongolism, 440
Triticeous cartilage, calcified, 506
Trousseau’s sign, 299
True
ankylosis, 468
cementoma, 358
concrescence, 245
lateral, 138
skull, 527f
projection, 138f
micrognathia, 264
Truncation, angle of, 23
Tube
rating and duty cycle, 25
shift technique or Clark’s rule, 119
Tuberculous osteomyelitis, 290
of mandible, 286f
Tuberosity, fractured, 501
Tubular collimator, 81, 81f
Tumors, 144
definition, 474
management, 476
of odontogenic epithelium, mixed, 368
of pituitary gland in acromegaly, 138
presence of, 301
staging–assessment of site, 146
Tuned aperture computed tomography, 150, 578
Turner’s
hypoplasia, 256, 257f, 292
syndrome, 300
tooth See Turner’s hypoplasia
Two walled defects, 236
Two-dimensional imaging modalities, digital, 574
U
Ultraviolet light, 12
Underlying inflammatory changes, 273
Unerupted tooth, 355
Unilateral
pain, 477
Wharton’s duct, 338
Unilocular, 217
ameloblastoma, 350
Uniradicular teeth, 611
Uniti equinox implant fixture, 617
Upper
anterior region encroaching into maxillary sinus of left side, 496f
incisor region, 232f
lateral insicor with supernumerary, fusion of, 245f
midline oblique occlusal, 603f
third molars, pathological drifting of, 256f
V
Vanishing bone, 442
Varicose aneurysm, 385
Vascular
endothelial cells, 32
nevus, 382
nevus See Hemangioma
tissue origin, 344
Vegetative intermitotic cells, 32
Venous thrombosis, 144
Vertebrae level, coronal view, 187f
Vertical
angulation, 100
angulations for bisecting angle technique, 108t
bone loss, 598f
osseous defects, 235
root fractures, 523
definition, 523
VIBGYOR, 12
Villonodular synovitis, pigmented, 448
Visible light, 12
Visual
characteristics ideal radiograph, 47
density, 47
method, 90
Vitamin
A deficiency, 306
definition, 306
D, 307
absorption of, 307
definition, 307
resistant rickets, 308
definition, 308
management, 309
metabolism, disturbances in, 303
Voltage, 24
von Buchem disease, 441
von Recklinghausen’s disease, 387
von Willebrand’s disease, 310
Voxel, 166f, 574
size, 170
vision, 170
W
Waldron’s classification, 420t
Warthin’s tumor, 553, 564, 565f
definition, 564
Water’s projection, 500
WBC, disorders of, 310
Wedge filter, 80
Wegener’s granulomatosis, 313
Wharton’s duct, 545
WHO classification of salivary gland tumors, 562t
Wilson’s disease, 460
Wing of sphenoid, greater and lesser, 421f
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, 310
X
XCP instrument in sensitive mandibular premolar area, 111f
Xerostomia, 568
X-radiation source, 192
X-ray
Beam
aimed slightly posteriorly across pharynx, 134f
collimation of, 81f
biological properties, 18
characteristic spectrum, 15
chemical properties, 17
continuous spectra, 15
films, 5
and accessories, 71
composition of, 71
photon
of lower energy, 15f
strikes matter, 29
physical properties, 15
physiochemical properties, 19
produced, types of, 25
sensitivity of scintillator layer, 170
tube
focusing cup, 21f
head, 156
with aluminum disc, 21f
with major components labeled, 22f
Z
Zimmer projection See Transorbital
Zygoma, 163, 208
Zygomatic
arches, 132, 163
fractures, 533
bone, 208, 421f
left, 355f
complex fractures, 501, 533
definition, 501
fracture, 533
definition, 533
process of maxilla, 163, 208, 208f
Zygomycosis of paranasal sinuses, 493
×
Chapter Notes

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1Introduction2

History of Dental Radiography1

Prologue to discovery
Nothing materializes as if by magic overnight. Even Roentgen's discovery depended upon the development and application of three converging thoughts; Electricity, Vacuum and Magnetism.
 
DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS
Sir William Morgan (1785) (Fig. 1.1), unknowingly was the first man to produce X-rays while conducting one of his experiments, where he was investigating the discharge of high tension current using 100% vacuum, the glass of the tube cracked and there was an amazing display of colors, beginning with yellow-green and followed by red, violet and blue.
Wilhelm Hittorf (1870) (Fig. 1.2) improved vacuum pumps. He observed that fluorescent discharge increased in size as the tube was evacuated and identified the source of the phenomenon as cathode and termed it as ‘cathode rays’. He found that these rays traveled in straight lines, produced heat and triggered fluorescence on glass; cast shadow of the object placed in their way and were deflected by a magnet. His work was subsequently verified by Eugen Goldstein (1879).
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Figure 1.1: Sir William Morgan (1785)
In 1880s, Sir William Crookes (Fig. 1.3) described additional changes that took place in fluorescence. He considered ‘radiant matter’ to be the ‘ultra gaseous state’. He established that recently opened photographic plates were peculiarly fogged and blackened. He also mentioned a ‘molecular’ and ‘emissive’ ray which was emitted from his tube which could only be perceived when a fluorescent screen was placed in the path of the ray. He had unintentionally and accidentally generated X-rays.
Philip Lenard (Fig. 1.4) demonstrated that cathode rays on passing through a special aluminium window built into the wall of a discharge tube; reserved sufficient energy outside the tube to cause a glow on the fluorescent screen. The emitted glow spread in all directions for about five centimeters in air and he named it as ‘Lenard's Ray’. Lenard may have discovered X-rays, had he used barium platinocyanide instead of a less sensitive fluorescent material, keton (pentadecyl paratolylketon).
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Figure 1.2: Wilhelm Hittorf (1870)
4
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Figure 1.3: Sir William Crookes
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Figure 1.4: Philip Lenard
We owe honor and gratitude for discovering the most striking and outstanding property of cathode rays to Professor Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen of Wurzberg, Bavaria (1895) (Fig. 1.5). He termed these rays ‘X-rays’ after the mathematical symbol for the unknown—‘X’ which were ultimately, called ‘Roentgen Rays’.
Roentgen was the first person to radiograph the human body; by placing his wife's hand on a photographic plate and exposing it to the ‘unknown rays’ for 15 minutes (Fig. 1.6).
It is uncertain who took the first dental radiograph, but the honors are fairly shared between the Germans, Koenig and Walkhoff, (Fig. 1.7) Frank Harrison in Britain and C. Edmund Kells (Fig. 1.8) in New Jersey, all of whom were producing crude but recognizable dental ‘skiagrams’ (Fig. 1.9) in 1896.
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Figure 1.5: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
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Figure 1.6: First radiograph, which was the hand of Roentgen's wife Bertha Roentgen. Note images of soft tissue, bones and two rings
Dr C Edmund Kells (1880), (Fig. 1.8) known as the Father of Dental Radiology, was the first dentist to practice radiography in root canal therapy on May 10, 1899.
Eight weeks after, Roentgen announced his discovery, on March 23, 1896, Dr. John Daniel, a physicist from Vanderbilt University, Nashville, reported to the editor of Science stating about his observation of hair loss from the head of his colleague in the region that was exposed to radiation.
The real breakthrough in the tube design, which actually ushered in the ‘golden age of radiology’ was the development of the hot cathode tube by William David Coolidge, (1913) (Fig. 1.10).5
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Figure 1.7: Friedrich Otto Walkhoff
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Figure 1.8: C Edmund Kells
The X-ray tube stand initially had limited mobility, as it was suspended between two clamps, one on either side of the bulb or from the ceiling.
Dr William Rollins (1896) designed an exclusive X-ray apparatus for the dental surgeon, which also had a protective screen and an adaptable diaphragm to prevent excessive radiation to the patient. He was the first person to report the harmful effects of X-rays and designed a protective tube housing to shield the X-ray tube.
 
X-ray Films
The first dental radiographs were taken on small glass plates so that they would not distort during development.
Kells and Rollins initiated the use of photographic films because of their flexibility to adapt to the tissues and reduced chances of breakage. Initially the films were hand-made from glass plates or roll films, customized in size and wrapped in black paper and rubber dam to avoid moisture contamination. However they lacked emulsion sensitivity.
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Figure 1.9: Skiagram, the upper right central and lateral incisors; fitted with ‘Downie’ crowns. Ten minutes exposure
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Figure 1.10: William David Coolidge
The first machine wrapped dental X-ray film packet, called Regular film (Kodak), and became commercially available in 1919. It was a single emulsion, relatively slow but produced sharp images. The Ekta speed film (Kodak), introduced in 1980s has again reduced the exposure by 50 percent.
 
GROWTH OF DENTAL RADIOLOGY
William Herbert Rollins (1852–1929) (Fig. 1.11) ‘Dentistry's Forgotten Man’ was an introvert, he is also known as the ‘Father of Radiation Protection’. He experimented with guinea pigs (1901) and inferred that the adverse physiological effects 6related with X-ray exposure were a result of the X-ray beams themselves and he suggested three protective measures to dental and medical X-ray users:
  1. Use radiopaque (leaded) glasses to protect the eyes.
  2. Encompass the X-ray tube in a leaded housing.
  3. Expose only the area of interest of the patient and cover all neighboring areas with radiopaque materials.
He suggested the use of the collimator to reduce the beam size and proposed a long target film distance to improve image quality and patient safety. In 1903, he was the first to use selective filtration of the X-ray beam which helped to remove the dangerous low energy X-rays.
Dr Weston A Price in 1904 (Fig. 1.12), introduced two techniques for film positioning in the oral cavity—the paralleling and the bisecting angle technique. He was instrumental in proposing an X-ray projection technique based on the ‘rule of isometry’, which is today known as ‘bisection of the angle’ technique. Price also used opaque (leaded) gloves to protect his hands when he held the film in the patient's mouth.
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Figure 1.11: Dr William Herbert Rollins
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Figure 1.12: Dr Weston A Price
In 1909, Howard Riley Raper (1887–1978) (Fig. 1.13), created a new discipline and a new name for it—Radiodontia. In 1925 Dr. Raper introduced the idea of bite-wing films and approached George Eastman of the Eastman Kodak Company.
Franklin W McCormack a medical X-ray technician from San Francisco, California, was the first to use the paralleling principles in intraoral dental radiography.
In 1940, Dr Gordon Fitzgerald (1907–1981) designed a long cone for the dental X-ray machine, based on McCormack's tabletop long-distance (36-inch FFD) technique and adapted it to the dental chair.
In 1949, the American Academy of Oral Roentgenology, (now known as American Academy of Dental Radiology) was formed.
The ‘Rotational Panoramic Radiography’ method is by far the most popular method of panoramic radiography. Dr H Numata (Fig. 1.14) was the first to propose (1933) and experiment (1934) with this method of panoramic radiography. Numata placed a curved film in the mouth lingual to the teeth and used a slit or narrow X-ray beam that rotated around the patient's jaws to expose the film. Twelve years later, in 1946 Y.V. Paatero (Fig. 1.15) of the Institute of Dentistry, Finland, proposed (1946), experimented (1948) and demonstrated a slit beam method of panoramic radiography for the dental arches (1949). In 1960s, SS White and Company marketed the first Panoramic machine (Panorex).
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Figure 1.13: Howard Riley Raper
7
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Figure 1.14: Dr H Numata
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Figure 1.15: YV Paatero
In 1968, the International Association of Dento-Maxillofacial Radiology was established.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a relatively new medical imaging technology, with its roots dating back in the year 1946. Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell (Fig. 1.16) individually discovered the magnetic resonance phenomena. Till 1970s MRI was used for chemical and physical analysis. In 1971 Raymond Damadian established that nuclear magnetic relaxation times of tissues and tumors differed, inspiring scientists to practice MRI to study disease. With the dawn of Computed Tomography (using computer techniques to develop images from MRI information) in 1973 by Godfrey Hounsfield (Fig. 1.17), and echo-planar imaging (a rapid imaging technique) in 1977 by Mansfield, MRI and CT Imaging techniques evolved over the next 20 years.
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Figure 1.16: Edward Purcell
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Figure 1.17: Godfrey Hounsfield
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology was first introduced in the European market in 1998 and into the US market in 2001. This is a specific technology which has created an uprising in maxillofacial imaging enabling the advancement of dental imaging from 2D to 3D images and increasing the role of imaging from diagnosis to image guidance for operative and surgical procedures via third party application softwares.8
Highlights in the history of dental radiology
Years
Concepts
Persons associated with
1895
Discovery of X-rays
WC Roentgen
1896
First dental radiograph
O Walkhoff
1896
First dental radiograph in US (skull)
WJ Morton
1896
First dental radiograph in US (live)
CE Kells
1901
First paper on dangers of X-radiation
WH Rollins
1904
Introduction of bisecting technique
WA Price
1913
First dental text
HR Raper
1913
First prewrapped dental films
Eastman Kodak Company
1913
First X-ray tube
WD Coolidge
1920
Concept of paralleling technique
F McCormack
1920
First machine-made film packets
Eastman Kodak Company
1923
First dental X-ray machine
Victor X-ray Corporation of Chicago
1925
Introduction of bite-wing technique
HR Raper
1933
Concept of rotational panoramics proposed
Dr Hisatugu Numata
1947
Introduction of long cone paralleling technique
FG Fitzgerald
1948
Introduction of panaromic radiography
Dr Yrjo Veli Paatero
1955
Introduction of D-speed film
1957
First variable kilovoltage dental X-ray machine
General electric
1960
First panoramic X-ray machine
Marketed SS White and Co.
1969
Prototype scanner developed
Godfrey Hounsfield
1978
Introduction of dental xeroradiography
1981
Introduction of E-speed film
1987
Introduction of intraoral digital radiography
1987
Denta scan designed
1998
CBCT
European market
2000
Introduction of ‘F’ Speed Films
2001
CBCT
US market
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  1. Gibbs SJ. Nashville, Tenn. Radiology Chasing a Century, Opening a Millennium, Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Pathol, Oral Radiol. Endod. 1996;81:603–6.
  1. Goaz DW, White SC. Oral Radiology, Principles and Interpretation. 2nd, CV Mosby;  1987.pp.1–17.
  1. JW Preece. Roentgen Alchemy Part I, American Academy of Dental Radiology. 1969;28(5):680–91.
  1. JW Preece. Roentgen Alchemy Part II, American Academy of Dental Radiology. 1969;28(6):830–43.
  1. Langland OE, Langlas RP. Early Pioneers of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Pathol, Oral Radiol, Endod. 1995;80:496–511.
  1. Mc Call JO, Wald SS. Clinical Dental Roentgenology. WB Saunders Co.  Philadelphia;  1947.
  1. Mc Coy JD. Dental and Oral Radiology. The CV Mosby Co.  St.  1919.
  1. Taylor JA. History of Dentistry. Lea and Febiger;  Philadelphia:  1522.