Manual of Retainers in Orthodontics Prithiviraj Jeyaraman
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure
Activator appliance 32f
Andresen appliance 31, 31f
Bionator 33f
appliance 33
Bonded flexible retainer 14
Bonded lingual retainer 38
Bonded retainers 36
in vivo studies of 45
techniques for construction of 41
types 36
Canine-to-canine bonded fixed retainer 36
Closed median diastemas 38
types 36
Diastema maintenance 41
types 36
Essix retainer 14, 24
Esthetic maxillary retainer 22
types 36
Facial growth 11
Flexible wire bonded fixed retainer 36
appliance 33f
functional regulator of 33
types 36
appliance 17
retainer 14, 16, 17
types 36
Lingual retainer fixation 44f
completion of 44f, 45
Lower lingual bonded retainer 14
types 36
Maxillary retainer, application of 22
types 36
Non-acrylic removable retainer 14, 19
types 36
Organic polymer wires 22
types 36
Removable plastic Herbst retainer 34
Resin fiberglass
bonded retainer 39
retainer on lower arch 40f
Retainers 2, 14, 42f
active 14
adjustable lingual 42f
bonded lingual 38f
essix 25f
esthetic maxillary 22f
fixed 14, 36
Hawley 16f
Herbst 34f
invisible 23, 24f
modified 42f
non-acrylic removable 19f
prefabricated 41, 42f
removable 16, 16f
spring 14
types of 3, 14
wrap-around 14, 18
duration of 3
medium-term 5
permanent 5
short-term 4
types of 4, 5
Tooth positioner, application of 20f
Chapter Notes

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One of the most important aspects in orthodontic treatment is retention. Orthodontic treatment results are potentially unstable and therefore, retention is necessary for three reasons.
The three reasons are as follows:
  1. The gingival and periodontal tissues are affected by orthodontic tooth movement and require time for reorganization when the appliances are removed.
  2. Changes produced by growth may alter the orthodontic treatment results.
  3. The teeth may be in inherently unstable position after the treatment, so that soft tissue pressures constantly produce a relapse tendency.
The tendency of the teeth to move back from post-treatment to the pretreatment position is relapse. Orthodontists have long since been aware of the fact that teeth that have been moved in or through the bone by mechanical appliances have a tendency to return to their former position.
Retention in relation to orthodontics can be defined as the holding of teeth in ideal esthetic and functional positions. The type of retentive measures and the duration of their use are determined by how many teeth have been moved and how far, the occlusion and age of the patient, the cause of a particular malocclusion, the rapidity of correction, the length of cusps and health of tissues involved.
Retention Planning
Retention planning is divided into three categories depending on the type of treatment instituted:
  1. Limited retention.
  2. No retention.
  3. Prolonged or permanent retention.
Many appliance types have been used for the retention of post-treatment tooth position. The first appliances proposed were bonded or banded fixed appliances, then removable retainers were advocated. Most recently the uses of bonded fixed retainers have been introduced:
  1. The retainers can be classified into removable, fixed or a combination of both. The fixed retainer provides a greater degree of support and control than a removable retainer.
  2. A fixed retainer is commonly bonded to the lingual of the lower anterior teeth following a fixed appliance treatment, while a removable retainer remains the retainer of choice for the maxillary arch.
The purpose of this book was to obtain detailed information about retention, stability, relapse and mainly on various type of retainers used in orthodontics.