Manual of Retainers in Orthodontics Prithiviraj Jeyaraman
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure
Activator appliance 32f
Andresen appliance 31, 31f
Bionator 33f
appliance 33
Bonded flexible retainer 14
Bonded lingual retainer 38
Bonded retainers 36
in vivo studies of 45
techniques for construction of 41
types 36
Canine-to-canine bonded fixed retainer 36
Closed median diastemas 38
types 36
Diastema maintenance 41
types 36
Essix retainer 14, 24
Esthetic maxillary retainer 22
types 36
Facial growth 11
Flexible wire bonded fixed retainer 36
appliance 33f
functional regulator of 33
types 36
appliance 17
retainer 14, 16, 17
types 36
Lingual retainer fixation 44f
completion of 44f, 45
Lower lingual bonded retainer 14
types 36
Maxillary retainer, application of 22
types 36
Non-acrylic removable retainer 14, 19
types 36
Organic polymer wires 22
types 36
Removable plastic Herbst retainer 34
Resin fiberglass
bonded retainer 39
retainer on lower arch 40f
Retainers 2, 14, 42f
active 14
adjustable lingual 42f
bonded lingual 38f
essix 25f
esthetic maxillary 22f
fixed 14, 36
Hawley 16f
Herbst 34f
invisible 23, 24f
modified 42f
non-acrylic removable 19f
prefabricated 41, 42f
removable 16, 16f
spring 14
types of 3, 14
wrap-around 14, 18
duration of 3
medium-term 5
permanent 5
short-term 4
types of 4, 5
Tooth positioner, application of 20f
Chapter Notes

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Prithiviraj Jeyaraman MDS Orthodontics Fellowship in oral Implantology (Switzerland) Fellow and Master in Oral Implantology (ICOI) Professor and Head Department of Orthodontics Faculty of Dentistry Melaka Manipal Medical College Melaka, Malaysia Forewords Thierry Vuillemin Vijayalakshmi K
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Manual of Retainers in Orthodontics
First Edition: 2014
Printed at
5Dedicated to
My beloved Grandfather
Dr Chittrambalam G
Orthodontic treatment has experienced a wide acceptance within the normal population in the last few decades and mainly younger people seek for a perfect smile. The appliances turned to become more and more sophisticated, therefore, mild as well as severe dental malocclusions could be treated with a high success rate. Conversely numerous publications describe remarkable relapses in several occlusal traits, especially the alignment of the anterior teeth. The relapse in orthodontic treatment is associated to various aspects, including periodontal and occlusal factors, pressure from the oral soft tissue and growth. Therefore, orthodontic retainers have the substantial function of providing stability for the outcome achieved at the end of the treatment. Several devices are used for orthodontic retention either they are removable or fixed. This book reviews the principles for the use of retention following orthodontic treatment and describes all the different types of retainers currently used for this purpose. As healthcare professionals, we should always consider the patient‘s desire for improvement of the quality of life, but we should also keep the achieved results over a long period of time. Retainers are certainly not the attractive part of the orthodontic treatment, but they are the key for a long lasting beautiful smile.
Thierry Vuillemin dr med dr med dent
Specialist of Maxillofacial Surgery
Fribourg, Switzerland
I am delighted to write this Foreword to the Manual of Retainers in Orthodontics authored by Dr Prithiviraj, an Orthodontist.
This book is an outstanding presentation in specialty of Orthodontics by Dr Prithiviraj. This book is the original work of the author and reflects his dedicated contribution in this field.
The language used is simple and lucid. All the chapters are well referenced with case reports/figures and well-defined illustrations for much easy understanding of the subject. Advanced techniques on the clinical management in orthodontics are well projected with distinguishing features on research. The book delivers a deep rooted knowledge on the subject.
In short, it is a standard textbook useful for undergraduates, post-graduates and the practitioners as well.
I am sure that the book will be widely received and the student's fraternity will greatly benefit.
Vijayalakshmi K mds orthodontics
Professor and Head
Department of Orthodontics
Adhiparasakthi Dental College and Hospital
Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India
This Manual of Retainers in Orthodontics is an all-inclusive primer, which is essentially deemed to provide dental students and practitioners an insight into orthodontic retainers. It also provides expedient information on a wide array of retainers that have been used in the past with no intent of remarking the benefits of one over the other.
Given that there is a dearth of a comprehensive account of orthodontic retainers, the theme harbored interest, which stemmed the idea behind the conception of this manual. This manual presents various clinical scenarios with supporting literature substantiation, assisting the reader with easier preferences during their clinical practice.
With the future of orthodontics hurtling at a swift pace, there would be a need to revise this manual to expand prospects for readers of orthodontics.
Prithiviraj Jeyaraman
I am extremely happy to bring out my first book. I thank His Holiness Sri Sri Ganapathi Sachidananda Swamiji, my Lord and my Guru for leading my way through difficult times and making this book happen. I am indebted to my parents who brought me to this world; especially my father Dr Jeyaraman C who introduced me into the wonderful world of dentistry.
My sincere thanks to all my teachers especially my Principal Dr Srinivasan B, my guide Dr Vijayalakshmi K, for being patient with me all through my student years and making me what I am now. I thank Dr Vuillemin who is an inspiration and model to me and whom I follow in everyday practice.
My heartfelt thanks to Dr Dhanasekhar and Dr Aparna for their help and support in bringing out this book, and also to Dr Saptarishi for his help.
My sincere thanks to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President) and Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India and all staffs of the Bengaluru branch.