Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses PR Ashalatha, G Deepa
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, t refer to table, b refer to box and fc refer to flowchart.
1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol 434
1-A-hydroxylase enzyme 517
A
A-band 200, 200f
Abdomen 412
muscles of 215, 216f
Abdominal regions
epigastric 22, 22f
left hypochondrium 22, 22f
left iliac fossa 22
left lumbar 22, 22f
right hypochondrium 22, 22f
right iliac fossa 22
right lumbar 22, 22f
suprapubic 22
umbilical 22, 22f
Abdominal vessels 409
Abdominal wall 403, 419, 450, 521
Abduction 7, 8f
ABO system 97
Absolute bone conduction test 539
Accessory azygos vein 373
Accessory hemiazygos vein 374
Accessory muscles of respiration 215
Accessory pancreatic duct 425
Acetabulum 273, 275, 295
Acetylcholine 119, 203, 398, 424, 428
receptors 202
Acetylcholinesterase 202, 203
Achalasia 401, 429
Achondroplasia 464, 465
Acid–base balance 434, 519
Acidosis 331, 353
Acoustic neuroma 182
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 98, 120
Acromegaly 508
ACTH 505, 508, 519, 520, 521
Actin filament 200, 201f, 203
Action potential 130, 130f, 202
Acute appendicitis 410
Acute leukemia 94
Adam's apple 310
Addison's disease 521
Addisonian crisis 521
Adduction 7, 8f
Adductor tubercle 276
Adenine 458
Adenocarcinoma 61
Adenoids 393, 394, 395
Adenoma 58, 6 1
ADH 154, 155, 441, 445, 446, 508
Adiadochokinesis 160
Adrenal androgens 521
Adrenal cortex 154
Adrenaline 134, 398
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 25, 154, 506
Adrenogenital syndrome 521
Adventitious sounds 323
Ageusia 530
A-globulin 519
Agranulocytes 89
Alanine 29t
Albinism 465
Albumin 75, 85
Albuminuria 376
Aldosterone 441, 445, 519
All or none law 129
Alopecia areata 560
α-amylase 426, 427
α-cells 426, 522
Alveolar bone 387
Alveola cells 316
Alveolar epithelium 325
Alveoli 316
Alzheimer's disease 574
Amenorrhea 485, 506
Amino acids 29t
essential 29t
functions of 30
other 29t
semiessential 29t
Amniocytes 460
Ampulla of water 422
Amygdaloid nucleus 146
Anal canal 375, 412, 415, 416
Anal sphincter
external 416
internal 416
Anatomical planes
coronal 5, 6f
horizontal 5, 6f
median 5, 6f
sagittal 5, 6f
Anatomical position 4, 5f
Androgen 495
Anemia 82, 88, 98, 331, 568
aplastic 88
causes of 89, 89t
folic acid deficiency 88
hemolytic 37, 79
hypochromic 88
iron deficiency 88, 568
macrocytic 88
megaloblastic 88
microcytic 88
normochromic 88
normocytic 88
sickle cell 85
Anesthesia 173
Aneurysms 367
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 320, 357, 440
Angiotensin I 320, 357, 440
Angiotensin II 320, 357, 440, 445, 446
Angiotensin III 440, 441
Angiotensin IV 440, 441
Angiotensinogen 357
Angle of Louis See Sternal angle 259
Anisocytosis 81, 81f
Ankyloglossia 392
Anopia 550
Anorectal angle 415
Anorectal junction 415
Anorexia nervosa 570
Anosmia 179, 528
Anovulatory cycles 485
Anterior cardiac veins 340
Anterior horn 139f
Anterior sinuses 368
Anterior teeth 388
Antibodies 93, 116, 117
Anticoagulants 94, 96
Anticodon 462
Antigens 114, 115
Antihistamines 398
Antithrombin III 96
Anus 384
Aorta 64, 334, 336, 338, 349, 361, 361f, 410
abdominal 362, 363, 364f, 375, 377, 409, 415, 448, 492
Arch of 313, 362, 362f, 363f, 510
ascending 362, 362f, 363f
descending 362, 363f
thoracic 362, 363
Aortic aneurysm 364
Aortic knob 364
Aortic knuckle 364
Aortic sinuses 342
Aortic sinuses of valsalva 362
Aortocoronary bypass 345
Apex beat 338, 349
Apical ligament of dens 254
Apnea 330
Apneustic center 158
Apoferritin 81
Aponeurosis 215
Appendices epiploicae 414
Appendicitis 413
Appendix 375, 431
Apud cells 320, 410, 428
Aqueous humor 544, 546
Arachnoid mater 136, 136f, 137, 138, 142, 163
Archicerebellum 159
Area for equilibrium 150
Areola 486
Areolar tissue 138, 318
Argentaffin cells 408
Arginine 29t
Arterial pulse 349
Arterial supply
abdomen 374
adrenal glands 518
appendix 413
breast 487
caecum 413
duodenum 409
head and neck 364, 365f
ileum 410
jejunum 410
kidney 438, 439f
liver 419
lower limb 377, 378f, 379f, 378fc
middle ear 534
ovaries 480
pancreas 426
parathyroid glands 517
pituitary 504
prostate 495
rectum 415
retina 545
skin 557
stomach 403, 403f
thorax 373
thyroid gland 510
ureter 448
urinary bladder 450
uterus 477
vulva 472
Arterial vasocorona 166
Arteries/Artery
accessory meningeal 255
anterior cerebral 161, 162, 367
anterior choroidal 367
anterior ethmoidal 306
anterior inferior cerebellar 162
anterior interventricular 343
anterior spinal 166
anterior tibial 378, 379f
axillary 370, 371, 372, 371f, 487
basilar 161, 162
brachial 370f, 371, 372, 373
bronchial 318, 319
cerebellolabyrinthine 162
circumflex 343
coeliac 364
common carotid 183, 313, 364, 366, 369
common iliac 377, 448
coronary 342, 344
left 342
right 342
cremasteric 493
cystic 419
dorsal scapular 370
dorsalis pedis 379
elastic 360
external carotid 365, 367, 534
external iliac 378, 379f
facial 305, 365, 394
foregut 374
gastric 374
gastroduodenal 409
gastroepiploic 374
gonadal 448
hepatic 374, 419, 420
ileocolic 375
inferior mesenteric 364, 375, 375f, 415
inferior thyroid 362, 370, 511
intercostal 373
internal carotid 161, 162, 162f, 183, 365, 366, 366f, 369, 534
internal iliac 377, 415, 448, 450
internal pudendal 472
internal thoracic 345, 362, 370
labyrinthine 157, 162
left
common carotid 362
gastric 403
gastroepiploic 403
subclavian 362
vertebral 362
lingual 365
maxillary 365, 365, 388, 394
median sacral 415
medullary 162
middle
cerebral 161, 162, 367
colic 375
meningeal 365
rectal 415
muscular 360
ophthalmic 367, 545
ovarian 477, 480
palatine 305
pancreaticoduodenal 426
pharyngeal 394
popliteal 378, 378f, 379f
posterior
auricular 365
cerebral 161, 163
communicating 163, 367
ethmoidal 306
inferior cerebellar 162
spinal 166
tibial 378, 379f
profunda femoris 378
pulmonary 318, 319, 335, 338, 341, 400
radial 370f, 372
radicular 166
renal 434, 438, 448
right
colic 375
gastric 403
gastroepiploic 404
subclavian 362
short gastric 404
sphenopalatine 389
spinal 162, 254
splenic 108, 374, 403, 425, 426
subclavian 162, 370
subscapular 371
superior
cerebellar 162
labial 306
mesenteric 364, 375, 375f, 415, 425
rectal 415
thyroid 365
suprascapular 370
testicular 492, 493
thyroid 517
transverse cervical 370
ulnar 370f, 372
upper limb 370, 370f
uterine 377, 448, 477, 478
vaginal 377
vertebral 161, 162, 254, 366f, 370, 371
Artery celiac 108
Arterioles 334, 360
Arthritis 574
Articular cartilage 286
Artificial respiration 330
Ascending colon 375, 412, 415, 431
Ascending reticular pathway 158
Ascites 426
Astasia 160
Asthenia 160
Asthma 331, 574
Astigmatism 553
Astrocytes 132, 132f
Asynergia 160
Ataxia 160
Atherosclerosis 568, 573t
Athetosis 147
Atonia 160
Atrial fibrillation 349
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) 358, 446
Atrial septal defects 340
Atrial systole 347
Atrioventriclar orifice 340
Atrioventricular
bundle 341
node (AV node) 346, 351
valves 347
Atrium 335
left 341, 342t
right 340, 340f, 342t
Atropine 398
Auditopsychic area 150
Auditory area 530
Auditory cortex 145, 538
Auditory pathway 538
Auditory tube 393, 532, 534
Auricle 340
Auscultation 26
Autoimmune diseases 119
Autosomes 456, 457
Axillary nodes 222
Axillary vein 373
Axolemma 127
Axons 126, 127, 157
Azoospermia 497
Azygos vein 373, 374, 374f, 376
B
B lymphocytes 65, 78, 92, 76, 115, 116, 117, 117f
Babinski's sign 168, 175
Bainbridge reflex 354, 354fc
Balanced diet 570
Ball and socket joint 267
Baroreceptors 354, 446
Barr body 456
Barrett's esophagus 401
Bartholin's duct 472
Basal cell carcinoma 559
Basal ganglia 143, 147, 154, 159, 160
Basal metabolic rate 569
Basement membrane 58
Basilic vein 373
Basophilic stippling 82
Basophils 78, 90, 91f
Bell's palsy 182
Benign prostatic hyperplasia 495
Berry aneurysm 161
β cells 15, 120, 426, 522, 523
β-adrenergic agonists 513
Biceps brachii 187
Bicuspids 388
Bifid ureters 448
Bile 422, 423, 423t
acids 412
composition of 423, 423fc
ducts 22, 409, 419, 420
functions of 423
pigments 417, 424
salts 423, 424
secretion 429
Biliary system 417
Bilirubin 423, 424
conjugated 85
free 85
Biliverdin 424
Biot's breathing 331
Birth canal, axis of 280, 281f
Bitemporal hemianopia 179, 503
Bladder, catheterization of 451
Bladder rupture 450
Bleeding time 94, 96
Blindness 545
Blood 15, 69, 74, 382
Blood groups 97
Blood indices 87
Blood leukocytes 64, 65
Blood pressure 441
arterial 354, 372, 434, 440
diastolic 354
factors maintaining 355
in the lower limb 378
mean arterial 354
measurement 354
auscultatory method 355
direct method 354
palpatory method 354
systolic 354
variations in 355
Blood sugar level 523
Blood transfusion 98
circulatory overload 98
iron overload 98
Blood
brain barrier 140, 141
composition of 75, 75fc
functions of 74, 74f
physical properties of 74
B-lymphocytes 66, 104, 109, 395
Body fluid volume 446
extracellular 24
extravascular 24
intravascular 24
Body mass index (BMI) 572
Bones
calcaneum 20
cancellous 238
capitate 20
carpal 188, 271
clavicle 20, 211, 222, 265, 288, 369
coccyx 137, 280, 415, 476
compact 239
cuboid 20
cuneiform 20
ethmoid 255
femur 20
fibula 20, 278, 278f
flat 241
foot 279
forearm 269
frontal 252, 253f, 308
hamate 20
hand 271, 271f
hip 272
humerus 20, 223, 268, 269f, 372
hyoid 245, 256
ileum 375, 407, 409, 410t, 413,431
ilium 20, 272, 273, 295
incus 533
irregular 241
ischium 20, 272, 273, 295
jaw 387
lacrimal 256
lamellar 238
leg 277
long 240
lower limb 20, 272, 273f
lunate 20
mandible 211
malleus 533
metacarpal 20, 272
nasal 256
occipital 253
ossification of 240
palatine 256
parietal 246, 251
patella 276f, 277
phalangeal 272
phalanges 20
pisiform 20
pneumatic 241
pubis 20
radius 20, 269, 270f, 291
sacrum 280, 415
scaphoid 20, 222, 267, 267f
scapula 20
sesamoid 241
short 241
sphenoid 254, 254f, 255f
stape 533
stapedius 181
sternum 211, 222, 257, 259, 259f, 288, 337
talus 20
tarsal 279
temporal 248, 251, 252f, 534
thorax 257
tibia 20, 277, 278f, 297, 379
trapezium 20, 293
trapezoid 20
triquetral 20
ulna 20
upper arm 268
upper limb 20, 265, 265t
vomer 256
woven 238
zygomatic 252, 253f
Bone composition 237fc
Bone grafting 259
Bone marrow 85, 101, 119, 236, 460
navicular 20
patella 20
Bony labyrinths 256, 535, 533f
Bowman's capsule 436, 442, 452
Brachial vein 373
Brachiocephalic trunk 346f, 362, 365f, 510
Brachiocephalic veins 369, 370
Brachydactyly 464, 465
Bradycardia 353
Bradykinesia 147
Bradykinins 520
Brain 13, 101, 125, 139, 142, 398
Brainstem 124, 144, 155, 177
lesion in 177
ventral aspect of 178
Brarchiocephalic trunk 365
Breast 486
lymphatic drainage of 488
Breast cancer 488
Breath sounds 323
Bregma 247
Broad ligament 474, 475, 475f, 477
Brodmann's area 170, 171, 172
Bronchi 56, 304, 315, 323, 338, 400
division of 316fc
Bronchial asthma 323, 331
Bronchial tubes 16
Bronchial veins 318
Bronchiectasis 319
Bronchioles 304, 316
Bronchogenic carcinoma 320
Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes 318
Bronchopulmonary segments 320, 320t
Bronchoscopy 316, 320
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) 103
Brunner's glands 408
Bulbar palsy 184
Bulbs of the vestibule 472
Bundle of His 346
Burr cells 82
C
Caecum 375, 412, 412f, 413,431
Café au lait spots 464
Caisson's disease 330
Calcitonin 242, 445, 510, 513, 516
Calcium
functions of 515
metabolism of 518
Calot's triangle 422
Canal of schlemm 546
Canal of volkmann 239, 240f
Cancers 574
Canines 388
Capillaries 361
Capsular ligament 297
Carbaminohemoglobin 84, 328
Carbohydrate 28
disaccharides 28
functions of 29, 38
monosaccharides 28
polysaccharides 28
Carbon dioxide
dissociation curve 328, 328f
transport of 327
Carboxyhemoglobin 84
Carboxypeptidase 427
Cardiac arrest 345
Cardiac cycle 347, 347f, 348f
phases of 347, 348f
pressure changes 349, 349t
Cardiac index 351
Cardiac muscle fibers 337
Cardiac myocytes 207
Cardiac orifice 399
Cardiac output 351, 355
Cardiac transplantation 345
Cardiovascular center 158
Cardiovascular diseases 574
Carotid body 183, 365
Carotid canal 255
Carotid sheath 183
Carpal tunnel syndrome 188
Carpopedal spasm 517
Cartilage 68, 69f
arytenoid 310
cricoid 310
elastic 310
hyaline 68, 68f, 310
thyroid 310
Cataract 553
Catecholamines 80, 564
Cauda equina 166
Cavernous sinuses 180, 368, 369, 369f
Cavities 20, 26f
abdominal 21
boundaries 22
contents 22, 23f
regions 22
quadrants 22
abdominopelvic 21
cranial 21
pelvic 22
boundaries 22, 24f
contents 23, 24f
pericardial 336, 337
thoracic 21
Cavity pleural 321f, 322
Celiac nodes 404
Celiac trunk 374, 375f
Cell death 45fc
Cell membrane 36
carbohydrates of 37
glycoproteins 38f
composition of 36
fluid mosaic model 36f
functions of 38
lipids in 36
cholesterol 36, 36f
phospholipids 36, 36f
protein in 37f
structure of 36
transport across 45, 45fc
Cementoenamel junction 387
Cementum 387
Central artery of retina 545
Central vein of retina 369
Centrosome 42, 125, 457
Cephalic vein 106, 222, 373
Cerebellar peduncle 157
Cerebellar syndrome 160
Cerebellopontine angle 157
Cerebellum 124, 147, 154, 158, 159, 160
functions of 160
Cerebral aqueduct 139, 155, 157, 180
Cerebral arteriosclerosis 147
Cerebral cortex 126, 142, 143, 144, 148, 153, 169, 170, 175fc, 181, 543, 547
lesion in 177
Cerebral dura 136
Cerebral hemisphere 143
Cerebral ischemia 331
Cerebral lobe 142
frontal 142, 143f, 148, 308
occipital 143f
parietal 142, 143f, 149, 149t
temporal 142, 143f, 150
Cerebral peduncles 156
Cerebral veins 163
Cerebrospinal fluid 136, 139, 140, 141f, 368
Cerebrum 124, 142, 151, 528, 532
functions of 151, 151fc
Cervical enlargement 163
Cervical rib 370
Cervix 415, 473, 474, 485
Chalazia 541
Charcot's artery of cerebral hemorrhage 177
Cheeks 386
Chemoreceptors 354
Chemotaxis 90
Chenodeoxycolic acid 423
Cheyne-stokes breathing 331, 331f
Chicken pox 94, 569
Chief cells 404
Cholagogue 424
Cholecystectomy 419
Cholecystitis 424
Cholecystography 424
Cholecystokinin 424
Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) 407, 428, 429
Cholegogue 429
Choleretics 424
Cholic acid 423
Chondroblasts 68
Chondrocytes 68
Chorda tympani 529
Chorea 147
Choreoathetosis 147
Chorionic villi 460
Choroid 545
Chromatids 457, 463
Chromosomal aberrations 466, 467t
Chromosomes 456
classification of 457
significance of 457
Chronic alcoholism 421
Chronic bronchitis 315
Chvostek's sign 517
Chylopericardium 102
Chyloperitoneum 102
Chylothorax 102
Chyme 411
Chymotrypsinogen 426, 427
Cilia 44
Ciliary body 545
Ciliary proteins 44
Circle of Willis 161, 161f, 367
Circulus arteriosus See circle of willis
Circumcision 491
Circumduction 8
Circumferential lamellae 239
Cirrhosis 416
Cirrhosis liver 421, 424
Cisterna chyli 101, 106
Cisternae 40f
Cisternal puncture 137, 142
Cistron 461
Clasp knife rigidity 176
Claustrum 146
Clavipectoral fascia 222
Cleft lip 389
Cleft palate 389
Clergyman's bursa 299
Clitoris 470, 472
Clonus 168
Clot retraction 96
Clotting factors 94
Clotting time 96
Clubbing 562
Coagulation 94
mechanism of 95
role of liver in 96
role of vitamin K in 96
von willebrand's factor 96
Cobalt 34
Coccydynia 265
Coccygeal cornua 265
Cochlea 535
Codon 461
Collagen fibers 58, 62, 63t
Collecting ducts 438, 444
Collecting tubule 437
Colles’ fracture 270, 293
Color blindness 465, 552
Color vision 551
Common bile duct 374, 375, 421, 422
Common hepatic duct 421
Common iliac veins 376
Conduction deafness 539
Condylar process 251
Cones 548, 548t
Congenital dislocation of HIP 296
Congenital heart diseases 331
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 405
Congenital immune deficiency diseases 120
Congestive cardiac failure 331
Conjunctiva 540
bulbar 543
palpebral 541, 543
Conn's syndrome 521
Connective tissue 62
dense collagenous 66, 67f
functions of 62, 62fc
loose areolar 66
Constipation 430
chronic 416
Contractions
isotonic 205
isometric 205
Conus elasticus 310
Conus medullaris 163
COPD 574
Coracobrachialis 187
Coracoclavicular ligament 288
Coracohumeral ligament 289
Coracoid process 222, 268
Cordotomy 172
Cornea 543, 544, 544f
Coronary angiography 345
Coronary artery disease 573t
Coronary ligament 419
Coronary sinus 340, 343
Coronoid process 251
Corpora cavernosa 490
Corpus callosum 144, 146, 146f
Corpus luteum 481, 500
Corpus spongiosum 490
Corpus striatum 143, 146
Cortical vein 438
Corticospinal tract 148, 157
lesions of 175
Corticosteroids 520
Corticotropin releasing hormone 154, 504
Cortisol 25, 321, 507, 520, 521
Coxa vara 296
Crackles 323
Cranial fossa 179, 249
Craniosacral outflow 192f
Cranium 249
Creatine phosphate 206
Creatinine 434
Cretinism 508t, 514
Cribriform plate 255
Cricoid cartilage 399
Crista ampullaris 537
Crohn's disease 417
Crossing over 463
Cruciate ligaments 298
Crura 215
Crus cerebri 156, 157
Cryptorchidism 493, 497
Crypts of lieberkühn 408, 428
Cubital fossa 372
Cuneate tubercles 158
Cushing's syndrome 521, 572
Cuspids 388
Cyanosis 332, 573t
central 332
peripheral 332
Cysteine 29t
Cystic duct 421, 422
Cystitis 450
Cytochrome oxidase enzyme 330
Cytogenetics 456
Cytoplasm 39, 79, 125
Cytoplasmic division 463
Cytosine 458
Cytoskeleton 43f
Cytosol 39
Cytotoxic T cells 93
D
D-cells 522
Deafness 539
Decompression sickness 330
Deep lingual vein 390
Defecation 430
Deferent ducts 208
Degeneration
retrograde 131, 131f
wallerian 131
Deglutition 429
Dehydration 28
Deiter's cells 537
Delta cells 426
Dendrites 127
Dendritic cells of langerhans 557
Dense lymphoid tissue 103
Dental caries 388
Dentin 387
Dentinoenamel junction 387
Dentinogenesis imperfecta 464
Dentition
deciduous 387
mixed 388
permanent 388
primary 388
Dermatome 173
Dermis 557, 558
Descending colon 375, 412, 415, 431
Descending reticular pathway 158
Detrusor muscle 449
Deviated nasal septum 306
Diabetes insipidus 155, 508
Diabetes mellitus 119, 398, 426, 524, 568, 574
type I 524
type II 524, 573t
Dialysis 453, 453f
Diapedesis 90
Diaphragm 21, 101, 212, 213, 214, 214f, 324, 338, 363, 370, 400, 403, 419, 421
nerve supply to 214
paralysis 214
Diaphragmatic breathing 215
Diaphragmatic fascia 435
Diaphragmatic hernia 215
Diaphysis 241, 285
Diarrhea 430
Dichromats 552
Diencephalon 151, 152
Dietary fiber 28
Differential count 90
Diffuse lymphoid tissue 103
Diffusion
facilitated 46, 46f
simple 45, 46f
Digeorge's syndrome 120
Digestion 384, 407
Digestive organs
accessory 384
primary 384
Digital examination per rectum (PR) 415
Diiodotyrosine 511
Dilator pupillae 208, 545
Dinner fork deformity 270, 293
Diploid cell 456
Diplopia 180, 181, 542
Dissociated anesthesia 172
Distal convoluted tubule 437, 438, 444, 446, 452
Diverticulum 412
DNA 458
Dominant inheritance 464
Dopamine 157, 506, 513, 522
actions of 522
Dorsal horn 171
Dorsal nerve root ganglion 186
Double helix 458
Down's syndrome 467, 467t, 468f, 541
Duct of santorini 425
Duct of the cochlea 536
Duct of wirsung 425
Ductus deferens 17
Duodenalpapilla 374, 422, 426
Duodenal ulcer 405, 409
Duodenojejunal flexure 408, 409
Duodenum 374, 375, 401, 402, 406, 407, 408, 419, 422, 429, 431
organs related to 409, 409f
parts of 408
Dura mater 136, 136f, 138, 163, 367, 368
Dural venous sinuses 137, 368f, 367
Duschene muscular dystrophy 465
Dwarfism 514
Dysarthria 160
Dysgeusia 530
Dysmenorrhea 485
Dysmetria 160
Dyspnea 330, 331
Dystrophin 206
E
Ear ossicles 533, 533f
Ear
external 530, 531
internal 530, 534
middle 530, 532, 539
contents of 533
muscles of 533
ECF 446, 521
ECF volume 519
ECG 130, 350-351
Ectopia vesicae 450
Ectopic tubal pregnancy 479
Edward syndrome 467t
Ejaculatory ducts 489, 494
Ejection fraction 349
Elbow joint dislocation 291
Electroencephalogram 130
Electromyogram 130, 205
Electroretinogram 130
Elevation 8
Emissary vein 255
Emphysema 315, 324, 331
Enamel 387
Enamel-dentine junction 388
Encephalitis 147
End diastolic volume (EDV) 348
End systolic volume (ESV) 349
Endocarditis 337
Endocardium 52, 336, 337, 339
Endocrine cells 404
Endoderm 50
Endolymph 536, 537, 539
Endometrium 474
Endomysium 199
Endoneurium 127
Endoplasmic reticulum 39
rough 39
smooth 39
Endosteum 236
Endothelium 52
Enterochromaffin cells 404
Enterogastrones 410
Enterohepatic circulation 85, 423
Enterokinase 410, 412
Eosinophils 78, 90, 91f
Ependymal cells 132, 133
Ephedrine 398
Epicranial aponeurosis 209
Epidermis 556-559
Epididymis 56, 489, 493
Epidural anesthesia 137, 264
Epiglottis 64, 310, 313, 528, 529
Epimysium 199
Epinephrine 80, 522
Epineurium 127
Epiphyseal cartilage 241
Epiphysis 241
Epiploic foramen 419
Epispadias 451
Epithalamus 151, 151t
Epithelial tissue 50, 51fc, 56
Epithelium
ciliated columnar 53
columnar 51, 52, 53f
cuboidal 51, 52, 52f
development of 50
functions of 51
pseudostratified 56, 56f
pseudostratified columnar epithelium 51
simple 51
columnar 53
squamous 51, 52, 52f
distribution of 52
function of 52
stratified
columnar 51
cuboidal 51
squamous 51, 56, 56f
stratified squamous nonkeratinized 56, 56f
transitional 57, 57f
Epitympanic recess 532
ERB's paralysis 187
Ergotamine 398
Erthyrocytes 77
Erythroblastosis fetalis 98
Erythrocyte 75, 79, 79f, 440
Erythrocyte sedimentation 86
Erythropoiesis 77, 79, 80fc
Erythropoietin 80, 434
Esophageal obstruction 223
Esophageal sphincter 401, 429
lower 401
upper 401
Esophageal varices 374, 377, 400
Esophagogastric angle 401
Esophagus 16, 57, 184, 193, 314, 338, 374, 384, 399, 400f, 401, 419, 431, 509
Estrogen 25, 481, 485, 486, 495, 505, 518
Euploidy 467t
Eustachian tube 393, 394
Excitation–contraction coupling 203
Excretion 384, 385
Expiration 322
Extension 7, 8f
Extensor retinaculum 301, 301f, 302, 302f
External acoustic meatus 248, 531, 531f, 561
External ear 365
External genital organs 407f, 470, 480
External jugular vein 212, 367, 367f
External occipital protuberance 247
External OS 473, 474
External pudendal vessels 491
Extradural hematoma 248, 255
Extradural hemorrhage 365
Extradural space 137
Extrahepatic biliary apparatus 421, 421f, 431
Extrapyramidal tracts, lesions of 176
Eye 542
Eyeball 540
muscles of 541
wall of 543, 543f, 543t, 544fc
F
Facial colliculus 181
Facial vein 367
Facilitatory fibers 158
Falciform ligament 418, 419
Fallopian tubes 474, 477, 478, 480
Falx cerebri 136, 142
Fat 30
Fatty acids 30
essential 31
linoleic acid 31
linolenic acid 31
omega 3 31
omega 6 31
saturated 30
unsaturated 30
monounsaturated 30
polyunsaturated 30
Female reproductive tract, development of 488
Femoral triangle 378
Femur 275, 275f, 297
Fenestra cochlea 533
Fenestra vestibuli 533
Ferritin 81, 85
Fertility 513
Fever 564
Fibers 62, 157
commissural 144
corticobulbar 145, 174
corticonuclear 174
corticopontine 174
elastic 64
frontopontine 145
projection 144
purkinje 346
reticular 63
thalamocortical 145
Fibrillation 205
Fibrinogen 75, 76, 420
Fibroblasts 64
Fibrocartilage 69
Fibromuscular ligaments 475, 476, 477f
Fibrosis 421
Fibular collateral ligament 297, 298
Filariasis 102
Filum terminale 163
Fissure
anterior median 157
callosomarginal 142
longitudinal 142
median longitudinal 142
rolandic 142
sylvian 142
Fissured tongue 392
Flaccid paralysis 176
Flagella 44
Flail-chest 315
Flexion 7, 8f
Flexor carpi ulnaris 188
Flexor retinaculum 301, 301f
Fluid
extracellular 36
interstitial 125
intracellular 36
Folic acid 417
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 25, 496, 505
Fontanelle 250
anterior 250
lateral 250
mastoid 250
median 250
posterior 250
sphenoidal 250
Foot drop 191, 279
Foot 300
eversion of 9, 9f, 300
inversion of 9, 9f, 300
Foramen
caecum 390
magnum 162, 163, 179, 248, 255
of magendie 139
ovale 255
primum 340
rotundum 255
secundum 340
transversarium 262
Foramina of luschka 139
Forebrain 142, 155
Foregut 431
Fossa of rosenmuller 393
Fovea centralis 545
Foville's syndrome 157
Froehlich's syndrome 573
Frontal lobe syndrome 149
Funnel chest 260
G
Galactosemia 465
Gallbladder 16, 22, 53, 374, 377, 384, 421, 422, 422f, 424
Gallstones 424
Ganglia 170
Gangrene 370
Gastrectomy 405
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) 407
Gastric juice 405, 405fc
Gastric secretion
phases of 406
cephalic phase 406
gastric phase 407
intestinal phase 407
Gastrin 406, 428, 429, 513
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 401
Gastrointestinal hormones 428
Gastrointestinal peptide 410, 428, 429
Gastrointestinal tract 377
Gaucher's disease 465
Gene expression, regulation of 460, 460fc
Genes 457
operator 460
regulator 460
structure of 460, 460f, 461
Genetic code 459
Geniculate body 145, 179
Genu valgum 299
Genu varum 299
Gigantism 508
Gland 58, 59f
acinar 58
adrenal 14, 22, 419, 518, 518f
alveolar 58
apocrine 60
bartholin's 471
brunner's 428
buccal 395
cardiac 406
ceruminous 561
ciliary 540, 561
compound 58
endocrine 58, 420, 500, 500f
functions of 500, 500t
endometrial 485
exocrine 58
gastric 402, 404, 406
holocrine 60
intestinal 408, 411
labial 395
lacrimal 193
lingual 395
mammary 17, 486, 506, 561
meibomian 540
merocrine 60
mixed 396
mucous 60, 60f, 386, 396
multicellular 58
nasal 193
of zeis 540
palatine 395
paracrine 58
parathyroid 14, 445, 500, 516, 516f
parotid 183, 193, 395, 396, 397
pineal 14
pituitary 14, 25, 358, 502
prostate 17, 494, 494f
pyloric 406
salivary 16, 57, 365, 384, 387, 395, 396, 396f, 397, 431
sebaceous 416, 558, 559, 560
serous 60, 60f, 396
simple 58
sublingual 193, 395, 397
submandibular 193, 396, 396f
submaxillary 395, 397
suprarenal 435, 500
sweat 57, 558, 559, 561
tetraiodothyronine 511
thyroid 14, 184, 313, 398, 500, 509, 509f
tubular 58
unicellular 58
Glans penis 491
Glanzmann thrombasthenia 94
Glaucoma 546
Glenohumeral ligaments 289
Glenoid angle 268
Glenoid cavity 289
Glisson's capsule 419, 420
Globulin 75, 76, 82
Globus pallidus 143, 146
Glomerular blood flow 441
Glomerular capillaries 439
Glomerular capsule 436, 4382
Glomerular filtration rate 441, 442
Glomerular nephritis 438
Glomerulus 436
Glucagon 412, 434, 524
Glucocorticoid 321, 516, 519, 520, 521
Gluconeogenesis 420, 519, 525
Glutamic acid 29t
Glutamine 29t, 134
Gluteal tuberosity 276
Glycemic index 29
Glycine 29t, 134
Glycogenesis 519
Glycogenolysis 508, 524, 525
Glycolysis 525
Glycoproteins 37, 442
Glycosphingolipids 128
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 84
Goblet cells 53, 53f, 314
Goiter 511, 514
Golgi apparatus 40
Gomphosis 284
Gonadotropin releasing hormone 154, 486
Graffian follicle 483
Granulocytes 78, 89
Graves'disease 34, 119, 514
Graveyard of RBCs 80
Gray matter 164
Great cerebral vein 369
Great saphenous vein 379
Greater pelvis 494
Growth hormone 80, 242, 497, 505, 506, 507, 516, 518
Guanine 458
Gums 387
Gut wall 399, 399f
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue 103
Gynecomastia 508
Gyri 142, 143
postcentral 150
temporal 150
H
H bands 206
Haemorrhoids, internal 416, 417f
Hair 12, 559
Hair follicles 558
Hairy tongue 392
Haldane effect 328
Hand, intrinsic muscles of 226
Haploid cell 456
Hard palate 248
Harris-benedict formula 569
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 119, 514
Hassall's corpuscles 111
Haversian canal 239, 240f
Hearing loss 539
Hearing, physiology of 538, 538f
Heart 15, 335, 336f
Heart block 346, 353
Heart sounds 349
Heartburn 401
Heat stroke 564
Helicobacter pylori bacteria 405
Helicotrema 536
Helper T cells 93, 118
Hematemesis 400
Hematin 84
Hematopoiesis 77, 78, 78t
Hemianopia 550
bitemporal 550
homonymous 550
Hemiazygos vein 373, 374
Hemiplegia 157, 176, 177, 181
Hemoglobin 74, 82, 424, 557
Hemoglobinopathies 85, 465
Hemophilia 98, 465
Hemopoiesis 77, 420
Hemopoietic growth factors 80
Hemorrhage 372
intracerebral 367
subarachnoid 367
Hemorrhoids 416
Hemostasis 94
primary 93, 94, 95fc
secondary 94, 95fc
Hemothorax 322
Heparin 92, 96
Hepatic
bile 423t
ducts 419, 420, 421, 422
flexure of the colon 419
veins 376, 377
Hepatitis 421, 424
Hepatocytes 420, 422
Hepatomegaly 421
Hepatopancreatic ampulla 422
Herpes zoster 186
Hilar lymph nodes 320
Hilton's law 189, 288
Hindbrain 142
Hindgut 431
Hip girdle 273
Hip joint dislocations 296
Hirsutism 506, 573t
Histamine 92, 398, 406
Histidine 29t
Histiocytes See macrophages
Homeostasis 24, 434
Homeostatic mechanisms 26, 446
Homogenous hyaloid membrane 547
Hordeolum 560
Hormones 80, 445, 500, 501, 517
Horner's syndrome 187, 195, 542
House-maid's bursa 299
Howell jolly bodies 82
Human leukocyte antigen 118
Hyaline membrane disease 321
Hydrocephalus 142, 157, 250
Hydrochloric acid 116, 405, 408
Hymen 479
Hyperacusis 534
Hyperalgesia 173
Hypercapnia 353, 573t
Hyperesthesia 173
Hypergammaglobulinemia 77
Hyperglycemia 155, 508, 521, 525
Hyperinsulinism 524
Hyperkalemia 519
Hyperlipidemia 521, 571, 573t
Hypermetropia 552, 552f
Hyperosmia 528
Hyperparathyroidism 398, 517
Hyperprolactinemia 506
Hyperproteinemia 77
Hypertension 332, 358, 367, 522, 545, 573t, 574
portal 377
primary 358
secondary 358
Hyperthyroidism 331, 514, 569
Hyperuricemia 573t
Hypervitaminosis
A 571
D 571
Hypoalgesia 173
Hypocalcemia 517
Hypochondrium 108
Hypoesthesia 173
Hypoglycemia 524, 525
Hyponatremia 28, 508
Hypoparathyroidism 517
Hypophyseal fossa 255
Hypophysis cerebri 141, 179, 500, 502
Hypoproteinemia 77
Hypospadias 451, 491
Hypotension 358
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels 504
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis 520
Hypothalamus 14, 141, 143, 151, 151t, 154, 194, 353, 441, 503f, 504, 505, 507, 520
Hypothermia 564
Hypothyroidism 514, 569, 573
Hypotonia 160
Hypoventilation syndrome 573t
Hypoxia 331, 573t
Hysterectomy 448, 478
Hysterosalpingography 479
I
Idioventricular rhythm 346
Ileal diverticulum 410
Ileocecal junction 409, 413
Ileocolic vein 413
Iliac
crest 223
fossa 412
Iliofemoral ligament 295, 296f
Immunity 93, 114
acquired 93, 114
active 115
cell-mediated 118
humoral 116, 116f, 118
innate 93, 114
natural 114
passive 115
specific 114
Immunoglobulins 93, 117, 308
Impotence 506
Infant respiratory distress syndrome 321
Inferior alveolar nerve block 181
Inferior cerebellar peduncles 157
Inferior colliculi 156, 538
Inferior mesenteric vein 415
Inferior nasal conchae 256
Inferior thyroid veins 510
Inferior vena cava 340, 334, 335, 338, 343, 345, 374, 376, 376f, 410, 419, 481, 518
Infertility 478, 497, 573t
Inflammation 115, 116
Infraorbital foramen 255
Infraspinous fossae 221
Infratemporal fossa 181
Infundibulum 307
Ingestion 384
Inguinal
canal 217, 493, 494
ligament 215, 218, 378
lymph nodes 107, 107f
Inhibin B 506
Inlet of thorax 257
Inspection 26
Inspiration 322
primary muscles 322
secondary muscles 322
Insulin 426, 428, 434, 518, 523, 524
resistance 573t
secretion 523
Insulinoma 573
Intercalated discs 207
Intercostal spaces 257
Intercostal veins 373
Interferons 116
Interlobar vein 438
Internal acoustic meatus 255
Internal capsule 144, 145, 145f, 173
lesion in 177
Internal genital organs 472, 472f
Internal iliac veins 415
Internal jugular vein 369
Internal Os 473
Interphalangeal joints 272
Interstitial lamellae 239, 240f
Interstitial lung diseases 323
Interventricular septum 335, 341
Intervertebral discs 257, 265, 365
Intervertebral foramen 186, 262
Intestinal lipase 412
Intestinal ulcer 411
Intestinal villi 407
Intestine 208, 376
Intrauterine contraceptive devices 478
Intravesical pressure 451
Introns 460
Inversion 300
Iodine 34
Iodopsin 545, 548
Iris 208, 543, 545
Ischemia 173
Ischemic heart disease 345
Ischial spines 415
Ischial tuberosities 476
Ischiofemoral ligament 296
Ischiopubic rami 476
Ischiorectal fossae 415
Islets of
langerhans 110, 426, 500, 522, 524
Isoleucine 29t
Isotopes 33
J
Jaundice 86, 424
obstructive 424, 426
pathological
hemolytic 86
hepatic 86
physiological 86
Jejunum 375, 407, 409, 410, 410t, 429, 431
Joint 12, 284
acromioclavicular 287, 288
ankle 299, 299f
atlantoaxial 287
ball and socket 286, 287f
carpometacarpal 287, 293, 294t
cartilaginous 284, 284t
elbow 286, 290, 290f
ellipsoid 287, 287f
fibrous 284, 284t
hinge 286, 287f
hip 294, 295f
inferior radioulnar 292
knee 297, 297f, 380
bursae 298, 299f
manubriosternal 285
metacarpophalangeal 272, 294, 294t
middle radioulnar 291, 292f
of hands 293
of lower limb 294
pivot 287, 287f
plane 287
radioulnar 287, 291, 292f
sacroiliac 378
saddle 287, 287f
shoulder 286, 289
dislocation of 290
girdle 288, 288f
sternoclavicular 288
subtalar 300
synovial 284, 285, 286, 294
temporomandibular 251
upper limb 288, 295f
wrist 287, 292, 293f
Jugular
foramen 182, 255
vein 183
venous pulse 349
Juxtaglomerular apparatus 439, 440f, 441
K
K-cells 429
Kehr's sign 110
Keratin 56
Keratinocytes 556, 557
Ketonuria 525
Ketosis 331, 525
Kidney 14, 22, 398, 419, 425, 434, 448, 519
anomalies of 452
development of 452, 453f
functions of 441, 441fc
organs associated with 435, 435f
Killer T cells 118
Kinocilium 537
Klinefelter syndrome 467t, 468, 468f
Klumpke's paralysis 187
Kluver-bucy syndrome 150
Knee-cap 277
Koilonychia 562
Korotkoff sounds 355
Kupffer cells 119, 420
L
Labia majora 470, 471, 472
Lacrimal
apparatus 540, 541, 541f
canaliculi 541
Lactose intolerance 428
Lamellated corpuscles of Pacini 562
Lamina propria 70
Landsteiner's law 97
Large intestine 16, 22, 384, 412, 412t, 415-417
Laryngeal stridor 517
Laryngectomy 315
Laryngopharynx 57, 392, 394, 394f
Larynx 16, 149, 184, 304, 309, 314, 392, 397, 509
cancer 313
cartilages of 309
muscles of 311, 312f
Lateral canthus 540
Lateral epicondylitis 291
Lateral geniculate body 151, 151t
Lateral horn cells 165
Lateral rotation 7, 8f
Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome 573
Lecithin 427
Left gastroepiploic veins 404
Left triangular ligament 419
Lens 547
Leptomeninges 136
Lesser omentum 419
Lesser pelvis 494
Leucine 29t
Leukemia 90, 98
Leukocytes 75, 77, 89, 115
Leukocytosis 90
Leukopenia 90
Leukopoiesis 89
Leukotrienes 520
Lienorenal ligament 425
Lifestyle diseases 574
Ligaments
extrinsic 310
intrinsic 310
Ligamentum
arteriosum 184
denticulatum 172
flavum 138
patellae 297
teres 418
venosum 377, 418, 419
Linea alba 215, 217
Linea semilunaris 216
Lingual lipase 397
Lingual tonsils 103, 390, 395
Lips 386
Lithotomy position 4, 5f
Liver 16, 85, 374, 384, 398, 417-419, 424, 431, 519
biopsy 421
failure 424
functions of 420, 420fc
lobe 418, 418f
transplantation 421
Loop of Henle 437, 438, 452
Lower motor neuron lesion 168
Lumbar
cistern 138
puncture 138, 142, 179
sympathectomy 195
triangle 223
Lumbarization 264
Lumbosacral enlargement 163
Lung capacities 323
functional residual capacity (FRC) 324
inspiratory capacity (IC) 324
timed vital capacity (TVC) 324
total lung capacity (TLC) 324
vital capacity (VC) 324, 324f
Lung volumes 323, 324, 324f
Lungs 16, 193, 316, 317f, 341, 398, 434, 440
collapse 323
fetal 319
gaseous exchange 325
lobes of 318
nonrespiratory functions of 320
transport of gases 326
Luteinizing hormone 25, 481, 486, 496, 497, 505, 506
Lymph 69, 100
Lymph capillaries 100, 101
Lymph node 15, 22, 103, 119
anterior superficial cervical 105
axillary 106, 106f
buccal 105
celiac 106
cervical 212
external iliac 106
inferior mesentric 106
inguinal 106
internal iliac 106
lateral superficial cervical 105
mandibular 105
occipital 104
para-aortic 106
paratracheal 105
pelvic 106
postauricular 104, 105
preaortic 106
preauricular 104, 105
prelaryngeal 105
pretracheal 105
retropharyngeal 105
superior mesentric 106
supraclavicular 105
Lymphadenitis 104
Lymphangitis 102
Lymphatic vessels 15
Lymphedema 102
Lymphoblasts 104
Lymphocytes 91f, 92, 102, 103, 109
Lymphoid tissue 102, 103
Lymphopenia 120
Lymphopoiesis 77
Lysine 29t
Lysosomes 41, 116
M
Mackenrodt's ligaments 473, 476
Macrocytosis 81, 81f
Macroglossia 392
Macronutrients 569
Macrophages 64, 64f, 102, 109, 114, 115, 119
Macula densa 439, 440, 441
Macula lutea 545
Macular vision 550
Major calyx 435, 437
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 118
class I 118, 120
class II 118, 120
Malignant melanoma 559
Malnutrition 568, 571
Malpighian corpuscles 109, 436, 437f
Mandibular foramen 255
Mandibular nerve block 181
Manubrium sterni 211, 313
Marasmus 570
Marfan's syndrome 464
Margination 90
Mast cells 64, 65, 66f
Mastication 389, 429
Mastoid antrum 534
Mastoiditis 534
Matrix 237
Maturation factors 80
Maxilla 251
Maxillary air sinus 251, 387
Mcburney's point 413, 413f
Measles 569
Meckel's diverticulum 410, 426
Medial canthus 540
Medial geniculate body 151, 151t, 538
Medial lemniscus 170
Medial meniscus 297f, 298
Medial rotation 7, 8f
Median cubital vein 373
Mediastinum 21, 260, 316, 370
Medulla oblongata 124, 155, 155f, 156f, 157, 158, 194
Medullary centers 158
Megakaryoblast 93
Megakaryocyte 78, 93
Meiosis 463
Melanin 557
Melanocytes 557
Membrane potentials 130
Membranous labyrinth 536, 538
Memory B cells 117
Memory T cells 93, 118
Menarche 481
Ménière's syndrome 539
Meninges 254
Meningitis 138, 250, 331, 534
Menopause 486
Menorrhagia 485
Menstrual cycle 484, 484f
Mesenchymal cells 64, 65f
Mesoderm 50
Mesonephric duct 452
Mesothelium 52
Methemoglobin 84
Metanephric blastoma 452
Metanephros 452
Metaphysis 241, 242
Metatarsals 279
Metathalamus 151, 151t
Methionine 29t
Metrorrhagia 485
Microcephaly 465
Microcytosis 81, 81f
Microfilaments 43
Microglia 132, 132f
Microglossia 392
Micronutrients 569
Microtubules 43
Microvilli 44, 407, 411
Micturition 451, 451f
Micturition reflex 451
Midbrain 124, 142, 155, 155f, 156f, 158
Middle cerebellar peduncle 157
Middle ear 365
Midgut 431
Milk ejection reflex 509f
Millard-Gubler syndrome 157, 177
Mineralocorticoids 519, 521
Minerals 31
Minor calyx 437
Mitochondria 42, 43
Mitosis 462
Mitral valve 341
Molars 388
Monocytes 78, 91f, 92
Monoiodotyrosine 511
Mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) 119
Monoplegia 176, 177
Mons pubis 470
Motilin 410, 429
Motor endplate 202
Motor speech area 149
Motor unit 201, 202f
Mouth 16, 384, 392, 431
Mucin 397
Mucosa 70
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) 103, 395
Mucosal folds 401
Mucous cells 404
Mullerian agenesis 488
Mullerian duct 488
Multiple myeloma 77
Multiple sclerosis 131
Mumps 396, 397, 398
Muscle bundle 198f
Muscle contraction 205
Muscle fatigue 205
Muscle fibers 198-200
Muscle tone 205
in cardiac muscle 205
in skeletal muscle 205
in smooth muscle 205
Muscle
abdominal 215
actions 216
abductor pollicis longus 373
accessory, respiration of 215, 323
adductor group 229, 231f
adductor pollicis 226
anterior abdominal wall 215, 322
biceps 268
brachii 223f, 224
femoris 231
brachialis 223f, 224, 319
brachioradialis 226
cardiac 13, 198, 206, 207, 207f, 208t
ciliary 542, 545
coccygeus 218
constrictor pupillae 542
coracobrachialis 222f, 224, 268
craniofacial 209
deltoid 219, 221, 221f, 268, 290
dilator pupillae 542
extensor
digitorum brevis 233
pollicis longus 373
external oblique 215, 223
extraocular 180, 541, 542
actions of 542, 542f
facial 209, 209f, 210, 210t
flexor digitorum
profundus 225
superficialis 225, 225f
gastrocnemius 230f, 232
gluteus maximus 190
hamstrings 229, 230f
hypothenar 226
iliacus 217
iliococcygeus 218
inferior oblique 542
inferior rectus 180, 542
infraspinatus 219
intercostal 212, 213, 213f
internal intercostal 323
internal oblique 215
interosseous 227
intraocular 541, 542
involuntary 198
lateral pterygoid 210
lateral rectus 542
latissimus dorsi 219, 223
levator ani 218, 475, 476f
levator palati 389
levator palpebrae superioris 180, 542
lumbrical 227
masseter 210
masticatory 209, 210, 211f
medial pterygoid 210
medial rectus 542
Müller's 208
musculus uvulae 389
non-striated 198
obturator internus 218
occipitofrontalis 209
ocular 209
of eye 540
of facial expression 181
of mastication 365
of pinna 181
of arm 219, 223, 223f
of foot 232
of forearm 219, 224, 225f
of gluteal region 227, 228f
of hand and fingers 219
of head 209
of leg 231
of neck 210, 212t
of pelvis 218, 218f
of shoulder girdle 219
of sole 233t
of thigh 212, 228
of tongue 390
orbicularis oris 386
palatoglossus 389
palatopharyngeus 389
papillary 341
pectoralis
major 219, 222, 222f, 268
minor 222, 222f, 371
peroneus
brevis 300
longus 300
piriformis 190, 218, 219
popliteus 232
posterior abdominal wall 217
pronator teres 225
psoas major 217, 217f, 410
pubococcygeus 218
puborectalis 218
quadratus lumborum 217
quadriceps femoris 229, 230f
rectus abdominis 215, 216
rhomboideus major 219, 219
sartorius 229
scalene 215
serratus anterior 219, 220, 221f
skeletal 13, 184, 198, 198f, 201, 206, 207, 208t, 513
specialized functions 198
smooth 13, 198, 207, 208t
soleus 232
stapedius 533, 533f
sternocleidomastoid 211, 212f, 215, 396
sternohyoid 313
stylopharyngeus 183
subscapularis 219
superior oblique 180, 542
superior rectus 180, 542
supinator 226
supraspinatus 219
temporalis 210
tensor
fasciae latae 228, 229f
palati 389
tympani 533, 533f
thenar 226
tibialis
anterior 300
posterior 300
transversus abdominis 215, 216
trapezius 219, 268
triceps brachii 224
upper limb 219
Muscles lumbar 218
Muscular dystrophies 206
Becker's 206
Duchenne's 206
Muscular tissue 70
Mutation 459
Myasthenia gravis 112, 119, 203, 325
Myelin sheath 128, 129, 133f
Myocardial infarction 34, 345, 358
Myocardial perfusion imaging 34
Myocarditis 337
Myocardium 336, 339
Myocytes 198, 207
Myoepithelial cells 440
Myofibrils 200, 206, 207
Myoglobin 85, 330
Myometrium 474
Myopia 552, 522f
Myosin 200
filaments 200, 203
Myxedema 353, 514
N
Nails 12, 561
Narcolepsy 155
Nasal cavity 305
Nasal meatuses
inferior meatus 307
middle meatus 307
superior meatus 307
Nasal reflexes 308, 309
Nasal septum 305, 305f
Nasolacrimal duct 541
Nasopharygeal carcinoma 393
Nasopharyngeal isthmus 394
Nasopharyngeal obstruction 394
Nasopharyngeal tonsil 393, 395
Nasopharynx 392,394, 534
Natriuresis 358
Natural killer (NK) cells 116
Neocerebellum 159
Nephritis 398
Nephrogenic cord 452
Nephron 436, 436f, 442
Nephrotic syndrome 77
Nerve cells 163, 165
Nerve fiber 127
myelinated 127, 128
nonmyelinated 127, 128
Nerve tracts 127
Nerves
abducent 157, 178, 181, 542
accessory 178, 184, 211
anterior ethmoidal 306
axillary 187, 189, 221, 222, 268, 371
cochlear 530
cranial 124, 217, 144, 156, 178, 184, 185f, 193, 503, 537
craniospinal 124
dorsal scapular 219
facial 157, 178, 181, 193, 533
femoral 189
genitofemoral 189, 472
glossopharyngeal 157, 178, 182, 183, 193, 365, 391
great auricular 396
greater palatine 389
hypoglossal 157, 178, 184, 390, 392
iliohypogastric 189
ilioinguinal 189, 472
intercostal 214, 373
internal laryngeal 391
laborer's 187, 188
laryngeal 511
lateral root of median 187
lesser petrosal 255
lingual 390, 529
mandibular 180, 255, 392, 534
maxillary 180
medial root of median 187
median 187, 372
motor 127
musculocutaneous 187
musician's 188
nasopalatine 306
obturator 189, 190, 296
oculomotor 155, 156, 178, 180, 180f, 542, 545
olfactory 178, 179, 306, 528
ophthalmic 180
optic 178, 179, 540, 545
perineal 472
peripheral 127
peroneal 190
phrenic 186, 214, 319
pudendal 191, 430, 451, 479
radial 187, 188, 224, 268
saphenous 189
sciatic 190
sensory 127
spinal 124, 127, 166, 184
exit of 186
splanchnic 214, 400
supraclavicular 186, 421
thoracic 191
trigeminal 157, 170, 172, 180, 308, 391
divisions 181f
trochlear 155, 156, 178, 180, 542
ulnar 187, 188, 224, 301
vagus 178, 183, 184, 193, 365, 529, 400
vestibulocochlear 157, 178,182
Nervous system
autonomic 353
enteric 385
extrinsic 385f, 386
parasympathetic 191, 193, 194f
sympathetic 191, 192f
Nervous tissue 70
Neurilemma 128, 132
Neurites 126
Neurofibromatosis 464
Neurofibrosarcoma 465
Neuroglia 132, 163
Neurohypophysis 503
Neuromelanin 157
Neuromuscular junction 202, 202f
disorders of 203
Neuromuscular transmission 203, 204fc
Neurons 125, 126, 126f
bipolar 125, 125f
first order 170
golgi
type I 126
type II 126
lower motor 181
motor 165
multipolar 125, 125f
postganglionic 191
postsynaptic 133, 135
preganglionic 191
presynaptic 133, 135
second order 170
sensory 165
sympathetic postganglionic 194
third order 170
unipolar 125, 125f
upper motor 176, 181
Neurotensin 429
Neurotransmitters 127, 134, 193, 195
excitatory 135, 135t
inhibitory 135t
Neutrophils 90, 91f, 114, 115
Newborn skull 250, 250f
Night blindness 548
Nissl bodies 126
Nodes of Ranvier 128, 129
Norepinephrine 80, 522
Norma verticalis 246, 246f
Nose 304, 304f, 365, 392
Nuclear division 463
Nuclear membrane 43
Nucleoli 44
Nucleoplasm 43, 44
Nucleotides 458
Nucleus 43
ambiguus 328
amygdaloid 528
anterior 152
caudate 143, 145, 146, 157
cuneatus 158, 170
dentate 159
Edinger-Westphal 545
emboliform 159
fastigial 159
globose 159
gracilis 158, 170
lateral posterior 152
lentiform 143, 145, 146
motor 181
of lateral lemniscus 538
of tractus solitarius 529
paraventricular 154
posterolateral 153
pulvinar 152
pyknotic 79
specific sensory relay 170
supraoptic 154
thalamic 144
ventral
anterior 152
lateral 152
posterior 152, 153
posterolateral 152
posteromedial 152
Numerical abnormalities
aneuploidy 466
euploidy 466
Nutritional disorders 570
Nystagmus 160
O
Obesity 155, 571, 574
android 572
central type of 572
dangers of 573, 573t
etiology 572
generalized 572
types of 572
Oblique popliteal ligament 297, 297f, 298
Obstructive respiratory diseases 325
Obturator canal 189
Obturator foramen 275
Occipital lobe 150
Oculocardiac reflex 168
Oculomotor nerve palsy 180
Oculomotor paralysis 157
Olecranon process 270
Olfaction 309, 528
Olfactory
bulb 179, 528
pathway 528, 529f
receptor cells 528
sensory neurons 528
Oligodendrocytes 128, 132, 133, 133f
Oligodendroglia 128
Oligodendromas 133
Oligospermia 506
Oocytes 483, 481, 482
Oogenesis 482, 482fc
Oogonium 482
Opsin 548
Optic canal 255
Optic chiasma 179, 550
Optic disc 179, 545
Optic neuritis 179, 308
Oral cavity 386, 387f, 398
Orbital cellulitis 308
Orbital fissure 180
Organ of Corti 182, 537, 537f, 539
Organ systems 12
Oropharyngo junction 392
Oropharynx 313, 320, 389, 392, 397, 394, 528
Orthograde degeneration See Wallerian degeneration
Osmosis 46
Osteoarthritis 191
Osteoblasts 237, 237f
Osteocytes 237, 237f
Osteogenesis imperfecta 464
Osteomyelitis 308
Osteoporosis 521, 574
Osteoprogenitor cells 237
Otitis media 111, 534
Ova 456
Ovarian
cycle 483, 484
cysts 482
follicle 482
hormones 525
ligament 474
vein 376
Ovaries 14, 17, 415, 470, 477, 480
Ovulation 25
Oxygen debt 206
Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve 327, 327f
Oxyhemoglobin 557
Oxyntic cells 404, 516
Oxytocin 154, 505, 508
P
Pacemaker 337
ectopic 346
Pachymeninx 136, 136f
Packed cell volume 87, 87f
Palate 184, 365, 388, 389f, 397, 528, 529
hard 389, 397
soft 389
Palatine
aponeurosis 389
canal 389
foramen 389
tonsils 103, 183, 394, 395
Palatopharyngeal arches 389
Paleocerebellum 159
Palpation 26
Pancreas 14, 16, 22, 57, 377, 384, 398, 408, 410, 417, 424, 431, 522
ducts of 425
endocrine 522
parts 425, 425f
Pancreatic
juice 410, 426, 427fc, 428, 429
lipase 426, 427
polypeptide 524
proteases 428
Pancreatitis 424
Paneth cells 408, 411
Papillae
circumvallate 183, 391, 391f, 392, 528
filiform 391, 391f, 392
foliate 391f, 392
fungiform 391, 391f, 392
sublingual 396
Papillary ducts of Bellini 437
Papilledema 179
Paracentesis thoracis 322
Paralysis 176, 177
bilateral 157
ipsilateral 157
lower motor neuron 176
of diaphragm 325
of stapedius 534
respiratory 315
spastic 176
upper motor neuron 176
Paranasal air sinuses 304, 307, 365
development of 308
ethmoidal 307
functions of 308fc
maxillary 307
sphenoidal 307
Paraplegia 167, 176, 177
Parathormone 242, 434, 445, 515-517
Paratonsillar vein 110
Paraumbilical veins 377
Parenchyma 58
Paresthesia 173
Parietal cells 404
Parietal lobe syndrome 150
Parkinson's disease 147, 157
Parosmia 528
Parotidectomy 396
Patau syndrome 467t
Peau d'orange 488
Pecten pubis 216
Pectinate line 416, 416t
Pedicles 261
Pelvic diaphragm 218, 475
Pelvic girdle 279, 280f
Pelvic viscera 377
Pelvimetry 280, 281
Pelvis
ape like 281
bowl 281
false 280
female 280f, 281, 281t
flat 281
male 281, 281f, 281t
true 280
Pelviureteric junction 448
Penile urethra 495
Penis 17, 489, 490
Pepsin 426, 428
Pepsinogen 406
Peptic ulcer 405, 517
Percussion 26
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty 345
Pericardial effusion 337
Pericardiocentesis 337
Pericarditis 337
Pericardium 336
Perichondrium 68
Pericytes 100
Perikaryon 126
Perilymph 535, 536, 537
Perimetrium 474
Perimysium 199
Perineal body 476
Perineurium 127
Periodic breathing 331
Periodontium 387
Periosteum 236
Peripheral resistance 353, 355
Peristalsis 563
Peritoneal ligaments 475, 477
Peritoneal recesses 413
Peritoneum 217, 410, 415, 422, 474, 479
Peritonsillar abscess 111
Peritubular capillaries 438
Peroxisomes 42
Perthes’ disease 296
Phagocytosis 114, 115
Phagosomes 41
Phalanges 279
Pharynx 16, 103, 183, 184, 304, 309, 384, 389, 392, 393f, 431, 509, 529
Phenylalanine 29t
Phenylketonuria 465
Pheochromocytoma 522
Phimosis 491
Phonation 313
Phospholipases 426, 427
Phospholipids 128
Phosphorous 34
Photoreceptor cells 548
Physostigmine 398
Pia mater 136, 137, 142, 163
Pigeon chest 260
Pigment cells 64, 65, 65f
Pineal body 141, 502
Pinna 64, 531
Pinocytosis 100
Pinpoint pupils 157
Pituitary dwarfism 508
Pituitary hormones 504, 505t
Placenta 500, 525
Plantar arch 379
Plantar response 177
Plasma 75
Plasma cells 66, 66f, 102
Plasma osmolality 446
Plasma proteins 75
functions of 76
synthesis of 76
Plasmin 320
Plasminogen activator 320
Platelet adhesion 94
Platelet aggregation 94
Platelets 75, 78, 93
Platysma 181
Pleura 316, 318, 321, 321f
parietal 321
visceral 321
Pleural effusion 324, 331
Pleural rub 323
Pleuritis 322, 323
Plexus myenteric (Auerbach's) 385, 385f, 399
Plexus submucosal 416
Plexus/Plexuses
brachial 163, 186, 187f, 212, 222, 259
branches of 187
capillary 360
cervical 186, 212
choroid 139, 141, 163
esophageal 184
hepatic 419
lumbar 186
meissner's 385, 385f, 386, 399
nerve 186
pterygoid venous 388
sacral 189
Pluripotent stem cell 93
Pneumonia 320, 331
Pneumotaxic center 158, 329
Pneumothorax 322, 331
Poliomyelitis 315, 325
Polycythemia 82, 330, 573t
Polyhedral cells 420
Pons 124, 142, 155, 155f, 156f, 157, 158, 181
Pontine hemorrhage 157, 331
Popliteal fossa 190
Porphyria 465
Porpyrosin 548
Portacaval anastomosis 416
Portal circulation 376, 376f, 438
Portal vein 376, 377, 409, 419, 420, 422, 425
Portosystemic anastomoses 374, 377
Posterior horn 139f
Postprandial alkaline tide 406
Postsynaptic potential 204
Pott's fracture 300
Pouch of douglas 474
Premolars 388
Premotor area 148
Premotor cortex 174
Presbyopia 553
Prevertebral ganglia 193
Primary auditory area 150
Primary bile acids 423
Primary hyperaldosteronism 521
Primary motor area 148
Primary motor cortex 174
Primary visual area 151
Pringle's maneuver 419
Procarboxypeptidases 426, 427
Proctoscopy 415
Proelastase 426, 427
Profunda brachii 224
Progesterone 481, 486, 505
Prokaryotes 43
Prolactin 505, 506
inhibiting hormone 154, 504
releasing hormone 504
Proline 29t
Promegakaryoblast 93
Pronation 9, 9f, 292, 292f, 292t
Pronator syndrome 225
Prone position 4, 5f
Prostaglandins 434, 520
Prostate 415, 489
Prostatectomy 495
Prostatic urethra 494
Prostatic utricle 494
Prostatic venous plexus 495
Proteases 426
Protein energy malnutrition 568, 570
Proteins 29
conjugated
glycoproteins 29fc
lipoproteins 29fc
derived
amino acids 29fc
peptides 29fc
peptones 29fc
functions 30
simple
albumin 29fc
globulin 29fc
synthesis of 461
Proteoglycan 442
Proteolytic enzymes 411
Prothrombin 420
Protoporphyrins 82
Protrusion 8
Proximal convoluted tubule 437, 438, 452, 517
Pterion 248, 255
Pterygoid canal 366
Pterygoid processes 255
Ptosis 180, 195, 542
Ptyalin 397
Puberty 514
in females 481
in males 497
Pubic crest 216
Pubic symphysis 280, 476
Pubis 272, 273, 295
Pubocervical ligament 475
Pubofemoral ligament 296
Pulmonary
capillary endothelium 325
circulation 334f, 335
edema 331
embolus 380
fibrosis 323, 324
function tests 323
plexus of nerves 318
thromboembolism 320
trunk 335, 338, 341
veins 318, 319, 335, 336, 338, 345
ventilation 34
Pulp 387
Pulpitis 388
Pupil 543
Purpura 98
Putamen 143, 146, 157
Pyloric sphincter 208, 402, 404
Pylorus 422
Pyramid 157
Q
Quadriplegia 176, 177
Quiescent period 347
R
Radial pulse 372
Radial collateral ligaments 293
Radiotherapy 34
Ramus of ischium 275
Raymond's syndrome 177
Rebound phenomenon 160
Recessive inheritance 465
Rectal examination 495
Rectal prolapse 415
Rectum 375, 412, 415, 431, 474
Rectus sheath 217
Red blood cells 78
Reflex arc 167, 167f
Reflex cough 313
Reflex
accommodation 551
acquired 167
baroreceptor 353
carotid sinus 168
cerebellar 167
conjunctival 168, 168t
corneal 168, 168t
cortical 167
deep tendon 177
hering breuer 329
inborn 167
medullary 167
midbrain 167
monosynaptic 167
pathological 168
peripheral neural 353
plantar 168, 168t
polysynaptic 167
pupillary 168, 180, 551
spinal 167
stretch 167
suckling 509
superficial 167, 177
visceral 168
Reflux esophagitis 429
Refractory period 129
absolute 129
relative 129
Regeneration 131,132
Regurgitation 413
Renal
columns 435
fascia 435
pelvis 435, 437
pyramids 435
sinus 435
threshold 444
tubule 437
vein 376, 434
Renin 434, 440, 446
Renin-angiotensin system 357, 440, 440fc, 519
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism 358, 519
Repolarization 130
Respiration 308
chemical control of 329
external 304, 322
internal 304, 322
physiology of 322
regulation of 328
vagal influences on 329
Respiratory center 158
Resting membrane potential 202
Restrictive respiratory disease 325
Reticular activating system 158
Reticular cells 111
Reticular formation 158
Reticulospinal tract 158
Retina 179, 543, 545, 549, 552
Retinal detachment 545
Retraction 9
Retrocecal recess 413
Retromandibular vein 367
Retrosternal pain 337
RH incompatibility 98
RH system 97
Rheumatic fever 94
Rheumatoid arthritis 119
Rhinorrhea 179
Rhizotomy 172
Rhodopsin 545, 548
Rhonchi 323
Riboflavin 417
Ribonucleic acid 461
messenger RNA (mRNA) 461
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 461
transfer RNA (tRNA) 461
Ribs 257-259, 419
Rickets 259, 278, 570
Rigor mortis 205
Rima glottis 311, 311f, 313
Rinne's test 539, 539f
Rods 548, 548t
Romberg's sign 171
Root canal 387
Rouleaux formation 76, 80
Russell's bodies 66
S
SA node 337, 346, 351
Saccule 536, 537
functions 540
Sacral canal 264
Sacralization 264
Sacrotuberous ligaments 476
Saddle nose 306
Saliva 116, 397
composition of 397
functions of 397
Salivary amylase 397
Salivary calculi 397
Salivary secretion
conditioned reflex 398
regulation of 398
unconditioned reflex 398
Salpingitis 479
Saltatory conduction 129
Saphenous vein 380
Sarcolemma 200
Sarcomere 200
Sarcoplasm 200, 203, 207
Sarcoplasmic reticulum 201, 201f
Satellite cells 133
Satiety center 155
Saturday night palsy 188
Scala tympani 535
Scala vestibuli 535
Schistocytes 82
Schwann cells 128, 133
Sciatic foramen 219
Sclera 543, 544, 544f
Scotopsin 548
Scrotum 489, 491, 497
Scurvy 570
Sebaceous cyst 561
Sebum 560
Secretin 407, 410, 412, 428, 429, 513
Selective reabsorption 443
Sella turcica 254
Semicircular ducts 536, 537
Seminal fluid 497
Seminal vesicles 17, 415, 489, 494
Seminiferous tubules 493, 495
Semon's law 313
Sense of
hearing 530
smell 528
taste 528
vision 540
Sensorineural deafness 182
Septum
intermedium 340
primum 340
secundum 340
Serine 29t
Serosa 70
Serotonin 92, 134
Serous acini 426
Sertoli cells 495
Serum amylase 427
Sex chromatin 457
Sex chromosomes 456, 457
Sex determination 456
Sex hormones 242
Sex steroids 519
Sex-linked inheritance 465
Shoulder girdle 20
Sialoproteins 442
Sialorrhea 398
Sickle cells 82
Sigmoid colon 375, 412, 415, 431, 474
Sigmoid mesocolon 415
Sinuses/Sinus 397
carotid 365
dural venous 136, 163
ethmoid 250, 308
frontal 308
inferior petrosal 368
inferior sagittal 136, 368, 369
maxillary 308
occipital 368
sphenoidal 254, 255
sphenoparietal 369
straight 368, 369
subcapsular 104
superior petrosal 368
superior sagittal 136, 368, 369
transverse 368, 369
venosus 340
Sinusitis 308
Sinusoids 334
Sjögren's syndrome 398
Skeletal muscle fibers 206, 337
Skeleton 18, 243, 244f
appendicular 18, 20, 243, 244f, 245
functions 20
axial 18, 243, 245, 288
endoskeleton 18, 243
Skin 12, 556
functions of 559
grafting 559
receptors of 562
structure of 556, 556f
Skull 18, 18f, 243, 245
fissures 255
foramina 255
functions of 19
Sliding filament theory 203, 204fc
Small intestinal secretion
hormonal regulation 412
neural regulation 412
Small intestine 16, 22, 193, 384, 398, 407
functions of 410, 411fc
juice 411, 411fc
mucosa 408
types of cells of 408, 408t
Small saphenous vein 379f, 380
Smallpox 94
Sneezing 309
Sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 47
Somatosensory area 174
Somatosensory cortex 529
Somatostatin 154, 406, 407, 426, 524
Speech area of Wernicke 149
Sperm 456
Spermatic cord 489, 493
Spermatocytes 496
Spermatogenesis 492, 496, 496fc, 505
Spermatozoa 44, 493, 494-497
Sphenoethmoidal recess 307
Spherocytes 82
Spherocytosis, hereditary 37, 79
Sphincter of Boyden 422
Sphincter of Oddi 208, 422
Sphincter pupillae 545
Spinal cord 13, 101, 125, 139, 144, 163
injuries 167
lesion in 177
Spinal dura 137
Spinal ganglion 186
Spinal lemniscus 171, 172
Spinal meninges 137t, 164f
Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve 158
Spinal segment 166, 166f
Spinothalamic tract 157
lesion of 172
Spiral valve of heister 422
Spirogram 323
Splanchnomegaly 508
Spleen 15, 22, 85, 108, 119, 376, 377, 403
Splenectomy 94, 110
Splenic corpuscles 109
Splenic veins 108, 404, 425
Splenomegaly 94, 110
Squamous cell carcinoma 559
Squint 180
Starling's law 348
Stem cells 77, 408
Stenosis 345
Stenson's duct 396
Stercobilin 85
Stereocilia 45, 537
Sterility 506
Sternal angle 259, 260
Sternal fracture 260
Sternal puncture 260
Stomach 16, 22, 193, 208, 374, 376, 384, 398, 401, 402f, 431
body of the 402
carcinoma of 405
cardiac part 402
curvature of 401
functions of 402, 402fc
fundus of 402
greater curvature 401, 403, 403f
lesser curvature 403, 403f
pyloric region 402
Stroke 367, 574
Strontium 34
Stye 541
Styloid process 181, 248, 251
Stylomastoid foramen 255
Subarachnoid space 136
Subcapital fracture 296
Subclavian vein 367, 373
Subdural space 136
Submandibular nodes 388
Substantia gelatinosa rolandis 165
Substantia nigra 156
Succus entericus 411
Sulcus 142, 143
anterolateral 157
central 142
coronary 339
lateral 142
parieto-occipital 142
posterior median 157
posterolateral 157, 186
Superficial fascia 138
Superficial inguinal ring 215
Superficial middle cerebral vein 369
Superficial temporal vein 367
Superficial veins 372
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome 409
Superior mesenteric vein 404, 415
Superior ophthalmic vien 369
Superior orbital fissure 255
Superior pulmonary vein 318
Superior rectal vein 416
Superior vena cava 334, 338, 340, 346, 367, 370, 370f, 374
Supination 9, 9f, 292, 292f, 292t
Supine position 4, 5f
Supplementary motor area 149, 174
Suppressor area 148
Suppressor T cells 93, 118
Supracondylar fracture 268, 291, 372
Supraorbital vein 367
Suprarenal vein 376, 518
Supratrochlear vein 367
Supraumbilical incision 217
Surfactant 321, 321f
Surgical neck of humerus 189
Suture 246
coronal 246
lambdoid 246
sagittal 246
Sympathetic fibers 193
Sympathetic ganglia 191
Symphysis menti 251, 285
Symphysis pubis 285
Synapse 133, 134
axoaxonic 133, 134f
axodendritic 133, 134f
axosomatic 133, 134f
chemical 133, 135, 135t, 136fc
electrical 133
Synaptic cleft 202
Synaptic delay 135
Synaptic fatigue 135
Syndesmosis 284, 285f
Synovial fluid 286
Synovial membrane 286
Syphilis 171
Syringomyelia 172
System
digestive
development of 430, 430f
parts of 386, 386f
female reproductive 470
male reproductive 489
nervous 124
autonomic 124, 191
central 124
parasympathetic 124
parasympathetic 193, 194
peripheral 124
sympathetic 124
respiratory 431
reticuloendothelial 119
urinary 434, 441
functions of 434
urogenital 431
Systemic circulation 334, 334f, 335fc, 361
Systolic ejection 349
T
T lymphocytes 15, 65, 78, 92, 93, 104, 109, 115, 116, 120, 395, 460
T3 510, 511, 514
T4 510, 511, 513, 514
Tabes dorsalis 171
Tachycardia 353
Tactile corpuscles of meissner 562
Tactile menisci 562
Taenia coli 414
Target cells 82
Tarsal plate 540
Taste buds 392, 392f, 397, 528
Taste pathway 529, 530f
Tay-sach's disease 42
Tectorial membrane 537
Teeth 384, 387
Tegmental wall 534
Tegmentum 156
Telomere 457
Tennis elbow 291
Tensor tympani 532
Tentorium cerebelli 136, 137
Terminal cisternae 201
Terminal ileum 474
Testes 17, 489, 492, 495
descend of 493
Testicular dysgenesis 467
Testosterone 80, 495, 497, 521
Tetanus 206
Thalamic syndrome 154
Thalamus 143, 147, 151, 151t, 152, 153, 160, 170
functions of 153, 153fc, 153t
Thalassemia 85
A 85
B 85
Thallium 34
Thiamine 417
Thoracic cage 19, 19f, 243, 256, 257f, 322, 323f
Thoracic duct 101
Thoracic vertebrae 257, 338
Thoracolumbar fascia 215
Thoracolumbar outflow 191, 192f
Thorax 214
Threonine 29t
Thrombocytes 75, 77, 93
Thrombocytopenia 94
Thrombosis 177, 367
deep vein 380
superficial vein 380
Thymine 458
Thymocytes 111
Thymopoietin 112
Thymosin 112
Thymulin 112
Thymus 15, 111, 516
Thyrocervical trunk 370
Thyroglobulin 511
Thyroid cartilage 509
Thyroid function tests 515t
Thyroid hormone 80, 321, 511, 518
actions of 511, 512fc
regulation of secretion of 513, 513f
secretion of 511, 512fc
Thyroid stimulating hormone 505, 506, 513, 514
Thyroidectomy 511
Thyrotropicn releasing hormone 154, 504, 513
Thyroxine 511
Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) 511
Thyroxine-binding pre albumin (TBA) 511
Tibial collateral ligament 299
Tinnitus 150, 182, 539
Tissue
adipose 67
elastic 67
mucoid 67
reticular 67
Tongue 183, 365, 384, 389
Tongue tie 392
Tonsil 15, 110, 395
Tonsillar fossa 110
Tonsillectomy 110, 111
Tonsillitis 111
Torus tubarius 393
Tracer technique 34
Trachea 16, 304, 313, 314f, 323, 338, 397, 400, 509
Tracheobronchial tree 315, 315f
Tracheostomy 315
Tract 169
anterior spinothalamic 170
ascending 170, 170f
corticobulbar 175
corticonuclear 175
corticopontine 175
corticospinal 165, 169, 174, 174f, 175
dorsal 170
extrapyramidal 165, 176
lateral spinothalamic 170, 171, 172, 172f
olivospinal 165, 175
posterior column 171
pyramidal 176
reticulospinal 165, 175
rubrospinal 165, 175
spinothalamic 169, 170, 172, 172f, 173
tectospinal 165, 175
vestibulospinal 165, 175
Transcription 461
Transferrin 85
Translation 462
Transport
active 46
passive 45
Transverse cervical ligament 475
Transverse colon 375, 412, 415,431
Transverse humeral ligament 290, 295
Transverse mesocolon 403, 415
Trapezoid body 538
Triangle of auscultation 223
Tricuspid valve 335, 341
Trigeminal lemniscus 170, 173
Trigeminal neuralgia 180
Trigone 449, 450
Troisier's sign 105
Tropical sprue 428
Tropomyosin 201
Troponin 201
Trousseau's sign 517
Trypsin 426, 427, 428
Trypsinogen 410, 412, 426
Tryptophan 29t
Tubal insufflation test 479
Tuber omentale 425
Tuberculosis 358
Tuberculum cinereum 158
Tubular reabsorption 441, 443
Tubular secretion 441, 443
Tubules 446
Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism 441
Tunica albuginea 481, 492
Tunica vaginalis 492
Tunica vasculosa 492
Turner's syndrome 467t, 468, 468f
Tympanic membrane 531, 531f, 532, 533, 536, 539
Typhoid 94
Tyrosine 29t
U
Ulcerative colitis 417
Ulna 269, 270, 270f, 291
Upper motor neuron lesion 168
Urea 398, 434
Ureters 14, 208, 409, 410, 437, 434, 447, 477
Ureteric calculi 448
Ureteric colic 448
Urethra 14, 56, 434, 450, 451, 489, 490
female 450
male 450, 450f
Urethral orifice 449
Urethral sphincters 451
external 451
internal 451
Urethritis 451, 472
Uric acid 434
Urinary bladder 14, 149, 208, 434, 437, 448
Urinary stress incontinence 219
Urine 445
formation of 441, 443
composition of 445, 445fc
Urobilinogen 85
Urothelium 51
Uterine prolapse 477, 477f
Uterine tubes 17, 53, 208
ligation of 479
Uterosacral ligaments 473, 475, 477
Uterus 17, 53, 208, 448, 470, 472, 473, 473f, 474f, 477, 480, 509
anomalies of 489
round ligaments of 474, 475, 477
supports of 475
wall 473f, 474
Utricle 536, 540
Uvula 389
V
Vagal tone 344
Vagina 17, 57, 415, 448, 470, 474f, 477, 479, 480
Vaginal examination 480
Vagotomy 405
Valine 29t
Valve of hasner 307, 541
Valves of kerckring 407
Varicocele 493
Vas deferens 415, 489, 492, 494, 495
Vasa recta 438
Vasectomy 494
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) 407, 410, 428, 429
Vasoconstriction 94
Vasoinhibitory peptide 406
Vasopressin 358, 505
Vein of retzius 377
Veins 15, 334, 361
Vena cava 409
Venae comitantes 361
Venae cordis minimi 340
Venous drainage
abdomen 376
adrenal glands 518
brain 163
breast 487
caecum 413
external genitalia 472
head and neck 367
large intestine 415
lower limb 379
prostate 495
stomach 404
testes 491, 492
thorax 373
thyroid gland 510
upper limb 372, 372f
Ventilation 325
Ventral horn cells 165
Ventricle 335
3rd 139, 143, 151, 152, 155, 156, 163
4th 139, 139f, 155, 156, 157, 181
lateral 139, 139f, 163
Ventricular diastole 347
Ventricular systole 347, 349
Venules 334, 361
Vermiform appendix 103, 195, 412, 413, 414, 414f
Vertebra 19, 258-264
atlas 262, 263f
axis 263, 263f
cervical
typical 262, 262f
atypical 262, 263f
coccyx 264
lumbar 263, 263f
sacrum 264
thoracic 263, 263f
Vertebral arch 261
Vertebral column 19, 19f, 243, 260, 261f, 400, 518
Vestibular fold 311t
Vestibular ligament 310
Virchow's triad 380
Vision
accessory organs of 540
binocular 548
chemical basis of 548
essential organs of 540
monocular 549
neural basis of 547
Visual centers, brain 540
Visual pathway 543, 549, 549fc
effects of lesions in 550, 566f
Visual receptors 549
Vitamin 31
A 242, 548
deficiency 568
B12 404, 411, 417
C 242
D 242, 516, 559
deficiency 32t
D-resistant rickets 465
fat-soluble 31
functions of 32t
K 417
water-soluble 31
Vitello-intestinal duct 431
Vitreous humor 546, 547
Vocal cord 309, 311
cancer of 313
Vocal folds 311, 311t, 311f
Vocal ligament 310, 311
Vocal resonance 308, 309
Volkmann's ischemic contracture 268, 291, 372
Volvulus 410
Vomiting 430, 430fc
Von recklinghausen's disease 464
Vulva 470
W
Waist circumference 572
Waist-hip ratio 572
Waldeyer's ring 110, 395, 395f
Wallenberg syndrome 184
Warfarin 96
Water balance 446
Water excretion 446
Weber's syndrome 157, 177
Weber's test 539, 539f
Wernicke's area 150
Westergren method 86, 86f
Wharton's duct 396
White column 171
White fibrocartilage 69
White matter 165
Wilson's disease 147, 465
Wintrobe's method 86, 86f, 87
Wrist drop 188
Wry neck 184, 212
X
X chromosome 456, 552
Xenon 34
Xerostomia 398
Xiphisternum 259
Xiphoid process 215, 216, 259, 260
X-linked inheritance 465
Z
Zollinger-ellison syndrome 405
Zona glomerulosa 440
Zymogen granules 406
Zymogenic cells 404
×
Chapter Notes

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_fm1Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses_fm2
_fm3Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses
Fourth Edition
PR ASHALATHA BSc MBBS MS (Anatomy) Associate Professor Department of Anatomy Government Medical College Calicut, Kerala, India Co-author G DEEPA MBBS MD (Physiology) Assistant Professor Department of Physiology Government Medical College Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
_fm4
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Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses
First Edition: 2006
Reprint: 2007
Second Edition: 2010
Third Edition: 2011
Fourth Edition: 2015
9789351524007
Printed at
_fm5Preface to the Fourth Edition
Anatomy and Physiology are core components of nursing curriculum and every nursing student is expected to have a basic understanding of the structural and functional components of the body. With an applied, interactive, and highly visual approach, it is my great pleasure to present the fourth edition of Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses. The book is strictly in accordance with the Nursing syllabus and caters to the needs of BSc Nursing and GNM alike.
To make the learning easy and engaging, the anatomy and physiology have been integrated in this edition for a better understanding of both the subjects. Great care has been taken to select important concepts and to describe the anatomy and physiology in a student-friendly manner. A comprehensive rearrangement of chapters has been done for developing an easy understanding and all the chapters have been thoroughly revised and updated to keep the students abreast with the recent advancements in the subjects. Two new chapters, “Introduction to Chemistry of Life” and “Introduction to Nutrition” have been added to acquaint the students with basics of both the topics.
The must-know concepts and definitions are summarized in separate boxes for a quick review. The embryological and histological facts of various structures have been added in different boxes to provide a new dimension for an integrated learning. Histological photomicrographs of various structures have been introduced wherever necessary, for a relative learning by the students. Special care has been taken that the book is designed in a way that it caters to the needs of students of both GNM and BSc Nursing. However, the information specifically important to the BSc Nursing students has been given as Added Information.
A picture always speaks more than the words. Therefore, all the figures have been redrawn and many new illustrations have been added to assist in fast comprehension and retention of complicated information. Many new relevant flowcharts and tables have been added for a quick grasp of the important concepts in both the subjects.
Applied concepts in Anatomy and Physiology and Clinical Correlations have been added at relevant places for creating an interest of the students in the understanding of various pathologies associated with various organs and organ systems.
This edition is accompanied with an interactive workbook that will facilitate structured learning and revision of all the important concepts in every chapter.
I am grateful to Late Prof. Inderbir Singh, a legendary anatomist, for allowing me to use some of the histological photomicrographs from his collection. I thank Dr S Arivuselvan, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Calicut Medical College for permitting me to take photographs of bones. I also thank Dr VK Girijamony, Professor and Head, Dr Lincy Davis, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Thrissur Medical College for providing me with photographs of Histology slides. I am thankful to Mrs Arjita Sengar, Dean, Bora Institute of Allied Health Sciences, for her valuable suggestions and inputs throughout the development of this edition of the book.
I extend my heartfelt thanks to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman) and Mr Ankit Vij (Group President) for their persistent support in the publication of this book. I am extremely thankful to Dr Sakshi Arora (Chief Development Editor) and her complete development team comprising Dr Mrinalini Bakshi, Dr Himanshu Arora, Ms Nitasha Arora and Mr DC Gupta (Editors), Mr Prashant Soni (Proof-reader), and Mr Prabhat Ranjan, Mr Phool Kumar, Mr Puneet Kumar Das, Mr Neeraj Choudhary, Mr Ankush Sharma, Mr Nitin Bhardwaj, and Mr Pankaj Mandal (Operators and Designers) for providing insights and creative ideas that helped in polishing this book to best meet the needs of the students._fm6
Last but not the least, I am thankful to the entire student fraternity and faculty for appreciating and recommending this book. They have been a great inspiration to carry out the revision. I sincerely hope that they will find this edition more interesting and useful. I would highly appreciate comments and suggestions from students and teachers for further improvement of this book.
PR Ashalatha
_fm7Foreword (to the Third Edition)
It is indeed with a great sense of pleasure and privilege that I give this Foreword to the Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses by Dr PR Ashalatha. The Author is a dedicated teacher in the subject of Anatomy for Medical, Nursing and Paramedical students of Calicut Medical College for several years. The BSc nursing students have always appreciated the efforts of this great teacher and her ability to make Anatomy and Physiology easily comprehensible and interesting. There was a long-felt need for a comprehensive textbook which is tailored to the needs of nursing students. The book has been largely directed to the broad and specific learning needs of the Nursing students. Simplicity and clarity have been emphasized. The students can easily assimilate the logical sequence in which the subjects have been presented not only for them to understand the same but also to perform well in the examinations.
The presentation style and the diagrammatic presentations with neatly labeled diagrams which is short and sweet that makes the subject comprehensive and revision easy. The approach utilized in dealing with the subject of Anatomy and Physiology would be appreciated by other teachers as well. I have no doubt that it is a boon to the nursing students to possess this book. It can also be used for advanced learners and teachers for quick reference in Anatomy and Physiology.
My professional colleagues and I congratulate Dr PR Ashalatha on her great effort.
Prof (Mrs) Mary Sham Bhat
MSc (N) MPhil (N)
HOD and Professor in Medical–Surgical Nursing
Mangalore, Karnataka, India_fm8
_fm9Preface to the Third Edition
I feel proud to bring out the third edition of Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses, with several changes.
I have included new photographs of bones and Histology slides. I thank Dr S Arivuselvan, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Calicut Medical College for permitting me to take photographs of bones. I also thank Dr VK Girijamony, Professor and Head, Dr Lincy Davis, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Thrissur Medical College for providing me with photographs of Histology slides.
I have added a note on development and congenital anomalies of various organs for the benefit of BSc MLT students, who also follow this textbook.
Dr Deepa has done a wonderful job in thoroughly revising several chapters in Physiology. Five new chapters namely The Cell, Transport Across the Cell Membrane and the Resting Membrane Potential, The Nerve Physiology, The Muscle Physiology and Immunity have been added.
Nearly 600 diagrams and 122 new photographs will make the study of Anatomy and Physiology easy and interesting.
I thank all my students and colleagues who have helped me by giving valuable suggestions for the improvement of this book.
Valuable comments and healthy criticisms are most welcome.
PR Ashalatha