Color Atlas of Oral Cancer KMK Masthan, N Aravindha Babu, Vidyarani Shyamsundar
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1Color Atlas of Oral Cancer2
3Color Atlas of Oral Cancer
KMK Masthan MDS Professor and Head Department of Oral Pathology and MicrobiologySree Balaji Dental College and Hospital Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Vidyarani Shyamsundar MDS Reader Department of Oral Pathology and MicrobiologySree Balaji Dental College and Hospital Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India N Aravindha Babu MDS Professor Department of Oral Pathology and MicrobiologySree Balaji Dental College and Hospital Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Foreword V Shantha
4
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Color Atlas of Oral Cancer
First Edition: 2016
9789351524410
Printed at:
5Dedicated to
Dr V Shantha, Chairman,
Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai,
Tamil Nadu: a living legend in the field of oncology6
7Foreword
Member -WHO Advisory Committee on Cancer
Convener - State Advisory Board on Cancer
Chairman - INDO-US Collaborative Group on Lymphoid Neoplasias (Indian Chapter)
Member - many ICMR Committees
Member - ICMR Task Force on Registries
Member - Syndicate of the Anna University
President - Indian Society of Oncology (88-90)
President - Asian and Pacific Federation of
Organisations for Cancer Control (97-99)
President-15th Asian Pacific Cancer Conference (1999)
Hon. Member - International Association of
Cancer Registry (IARC)
Recipient of the National Award
Padma Shri (1986)
DSc (Honoris Causa) from
Shri Venkateswara University,
Tirupati (1998)
D Sc (Honoris Causa) from
Tamil Nadu Dr MGR University (2002)
Nazli-Gad-El-Mawla Award instituted
by the International Network for Cancer
Treatment and Research, Brussels 2002
Ramon Magsaysay Award for
Public Service 2005
Padma Bhushan in 2006
Mother Teresa Memorial Award in 2013
The Color Atlas of Oral Cancer compiled by Dr Masthan, Dr Vidyarani and Dr Aravindha has attempted to provide comprehensive information to oral health experts and planners on precancer, cancer epidemiology, management and need for screening and prevention in oral cancers.
Mouth/oral cancer occupied the third rank in men and women in 1982. Today, there is a tendency for mouth cancer to go up in men, whereas it is coming down in women.
The average increase in men is 1% annually and decrease in women is 1.5%.
Our field study has documented a lower tobacco chewing habits in the higher socioeconomic and high educational population. The downward trend in chewing habit in women is directly related to education and income and is reflected in the oral cancer incidence.
The association of tobacco with oral cancer is incontrovertibly proven.
Tobacco-related oral cancer is invariably low grade squamous cell carcinoma, essentially loco regional with a fairly long evolutionary period of 8precancerous changes (10–15 years), and easily identifiable at every stage. It is propensity to disseminate is minimal.
The mouth is an accessible site for diagnosis and does not need any sophisticated technology.
Since oral carcinogenesis has in general a long latency and evolves through multiple stages of precancer, primary and secondary prevention are possible and ideal.
Our field studies showed that the relative risk of oral cancer in heavy chewers is 61 times that of nontobacco users. The finding also suggested the possible existence of host factors in oral carcinogenesis.
Prevention of Oral Cancer
As in any disease, prevention is better than cure. In oral cancer control, anti- tobacco and educational awareness programs and screening play an important role and can be very cost-effective.
The oral pathologist has a major role in primary and secondary prevention of oral cancer.
A large percentage of the population has a dental consultation at some part of their lives. It will be necessary for all those who have an opportunity to see the oral cavity to check not only about oral and dental hygiene but also the habits they indulge in.
The dental surgeon is the primary care physician for oral cancer detection and prevention. He has a major role for primary prevention of oral cancer. Every dental surgeon should not only counsel on oral and dental hygiene but about hazards and risk factors for oral cancer — use of tobacco.
Thus, the pivotal role of a dental surgeon both for primary and secondary prevention needs no reiteration. There should be minimal delay if there is a suspicion of cancer. There should be no medical component in delay.
Oral cancer is preventable and curable if detected early.
V Shantha
MD, DGO, DSc (Honoris Causa)
Chairman
Cancer Institute (Women's India Associated), Adyar
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
9
Preface
In India, Oral Cancer prevalance ranks first among men and fourth among women. Increased incidence rates of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, especially among younger generation is a major health concern. Most of the squamous cell carcinomas are preceded by the potentially malignant disorders which are treatable. Due to the ignorance of the patients and also the healthcare professionals, most of the cases are missed in the premalignant or early stage of the oral cancer. Most of the patients report to us during the late stage of the disease, resulting in the poor prognosis.
In this atlas, we have made an attempt to include all the aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as potentially malignant disorders. We have also included the photographs of etiologic agents which can serve as easy guide to convince patients for habit cessation.
Separate chapters are dedicated to the clinical presentation of these lesions and also step-by-step process of clinical examination. All the available treatment options are listed for the potentially malignant disorders with the references. In all the chapters photographic illustrations are included.
This book is brought out as an effort to create awareness among the oral healthcare professionals. We hope this book will be useful for the instant clarification of the clinical diagnosis as well as for the patient education.
With the profound sense of gratitude and respect, we express heartfelt gratitude to Padma Bhushan Dr V Shantha, Chairman, Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai, for giving FOREWORD in spite of her hectic schedule. We would also like to thank Dr Vijayalakshmi R, Associate Professor, Department of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, for her guidance in spite of her busy schedule.
KMK Masthan
Vidyarani Shyamsundar
N Aravindha Babu10